6,248 results match your criteria Cryptosporidiosis


Cryptosporidiosis should be designated as a tropical disease by the US Food and Drug Administration.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 2;14(7):e0008252. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008252DOI Listing

Effect of nitazoxanide on diarrhea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 26:105603. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Evidence Based Medicine Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, 70000, Vietnam; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, 70000, Vietnam. Electronic address:

We aimed to systematically review evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of nitazoxanide in treating infectious diarrhea. On September 21, 2017, we identified relevant studies using 12 databases. The estimates of the included studies were pooled as a risk ratio (RR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105603DOI Listing

Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in children attending day-care centers in Medellin, Colombia.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Centro Nacional de Secuenciación Genómica-CNSG, Sede de Investigación Universitaria-SIU, Universidad de Antioquia, Cra 53#61-30 Torre 1 Lab S2-15, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia.

Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan protozoa associated with chronic diarrhea in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, and one of the commonest causes of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition, particularly in low-income settings. In Colombia, there are few molecular epidemiological studies on Cryptosporidium spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06782-5DOI Listing

Associations of five food- and water-borne diseases with ecological zone, land use and aquifer type in a changing climate.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 20;728:138808. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive Blusson Hall 11518, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Food- and water-borne pathogens exhibit spatial heterogeneity, but attribution to specific environmental processes is lacking while anthropogenic climate change alters these processes. The goal of this study was to investigate ecology, land-use and health associations of these pathogens and to make future disease projections.

Methods: The rates of five acute gastrointestinal illnesses (AGIs) (campylobacteriosis, Verotoxin- producing Escherichia coli, salmonellosis, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis) from 2000 to 2013 in British Columbia, Canada, were calculated across three environmental variables: ecological zone, land use, and aquifer type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138808DOI Listing

Novel drug targets for treatment of cryptosporidiosis.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Infectious Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Medical Branch , Galveston, TX 77555-0435.

Introduction: species are protozoan parasites that are important causes of diarrheal disease including waterborne outbreaks, childhood diarrhea in resource-poor countries, and diarrhea in compromised hosts worldwide. Recent studies highlight importance of cryptosporidiosis in childhood diarrhea, malnutrition, and death in resource-poor countries. Despite this, only a single drug, nitazoxanide, has demonstrated efficacy in human cryptosporidiosis and its efficacy is limited in malnourished children and patients with HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2020.1785432DOI Listing

Cryptosporidium species and cryptosporidiosis in Japan: a literature review and insights into the role played by animals in its transmission.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine.

Cryptosporidium species infect domestic animals, livestock, and humans. These protozoan parasites are frequently reported as major environmental contaminants in many countries despite their differing climatic, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. This review focuses on the research findings that relate to Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and associated risk factors relating to animals, contaminated water sources, and humans in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0151DOI Listing

Plasma histidine concentrations as a specific biomarker for intestinal mucosal damage in calves with cryptosporidiosis.

Res Vet Sci 2020 Jun 2;132:78-80. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Midorimachi, Bunnkyoudai, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Specific alterations in plasma histidine concentrations and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity were recently reported as a potential biomarker for intestinal mucosal damage in diarrheic calves. However, there are no data on the comparison of precision between histidine concentration and DAO activity in bovine plasma. The aim of the present study was to compare precision of histidine concentrations and DAO activities in plasma as a biomarker for the Cryptosporidium parvum (C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.06.001DOI Listing

Supply and demand-heme synthesis, salvage and utilization by Apicomplexa.

FEBS J 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, CMU, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

The Apicomplexa phylum groups important human and animal pathogens that cause severe diseases, encompassing malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. In common with most organisms, apicomplexans rely on heme as cofactor for several enzymes, including cytochromes of the electron transport chain. This heme derives from de novo synthesis and/or the development of uptake mechanisms to scavenge heme from their host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15445DOI Listing

Crossing the Vacuolar Rubicon: Structural Insights into Effector Protein Trafficking in Apicomplexan Parasites.

Authors:
Pascal F Egea

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 8;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Apicomplexans form a large phylum of parasitic protozoa, including the genera , and , the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. They cause diseases not only in humans but also in animals, with dramatic consequences in agriculture. Most apicomplexans are vacuole-dwelling and obligate intracellular parasites; as they invade the host cell, they become encased in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) derived from the host cellular membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060865DOI Listing

Enteric parasitic infections in children and dogs in resource-poor communities in northeastern Brazil: Identifying priority prevention and control areas.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 9;14(6):e0008378. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-UESC, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the main enteric parasitic infections that affect children and dogs in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; and to identify the geopolitical areas that should receive priority interventions to combat them. Between March and November 2016, fecal samples of 143 dogs and 193 children aged 1 month to 5 years were collected in 40 rural and semirural communities using a systematic sampling approach, stratified by district. Samples were collected by legal guardians of the children and / or dog owners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282628PMC

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection in the Global Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Fudan University School of Public Health, Xuhui District, Building 8, 130 Dong An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can infect both humans and animals and cause cryptosporidiosis. We aimed to estimate the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection.

Methods: In this study, Web of Science, Medline and PubMed were searched for relative articles, published between January 1, 1960 and January 1, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00230-1DOI Listing

Species and genotypes causing human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jul 3;119(7):2317-2326. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea around the world. Successful management and prevention of this infectious disease requires knowledge of the diversity of species and subtypes causing human disease. We use sequence data from 2598 human faecal samples collected during an 11-year period (2009-2019) to better understand the impact of different species and subtypes on public health and to gain insights into the variation of human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06729-wDOI Listing

and infections in dairy calves in southern Ethiopia.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 Aug 11;10:e00155. Epub 2020 May 11.

Italian National Reference Centre for Toxoplasmosis at Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia A. Mirri, Italy.

and are the most common enteric protozoan parasites causing diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. This study was conducted with the objectives of estimating prevalence and identifying risk factors for and infections in dairy calves in selected districts of southern Ethiopia. Fecal samples ( = 330) were collected from calves in 92 farms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256661PMC

Frequency and Molecular Identification of Species among Immunocompromised Patients Referred to Hospitals, Central Iran, 2015-16.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):31-39

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of spp. in different groups of immunocompromised patients admitted to the referral hospitals in center of Iran during 2015-2016.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 346 immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS, Lymphoma, Leukemia and organ transplants) in referred hospitals from central parts of Iran including Isfahan, Markazi, Yazd and Chaharmahale Bakhtiari provinces. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244833PMC

Investigation of spp. Antigen By ELISA in Stool Specimens Sent to Our Laboratory between 2010 and 2018.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2020 Jun;44(2):68-71

Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, Van, Türkiye.

Objective: is an enteric protozoan parasite that affects human and many animal species in worldwide. Staining methods or stool antigen detecting methods are using for detection of in faeces. It is known that the ELISA method has high sensitivity and specificity in practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6318DOI Listing

Preventing and controlling Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic facilities: environmental health practitioners' experiences in Victoria, Australia.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 Jun 27;44(3):233-239. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria.

Objective: To identify barriers and enablers to preventing and controlling Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic facilities as perceived by environmental health practitioners (EHPs).

Methods: A qualitative, constructivist study with a purposive sample of seven EHPs from Victoria, Australia, was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12984DOI Listing

Characterization of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases 3, a Protein Involved in Growth of .

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:907. Epub 2020 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are considered promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention of cryptosporidiosis. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed the presence of several CDPKs (CDPKs) in . In this study, we expressed recombinant CDPK3 encoded by the gene in . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225609PMC

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in Jiangsu, China.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 18;29(2):e017919. Epub 2020 May 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, PR China.

Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite that causes diarrhea in a broad range of animals, including deer. Little is known about the prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David's deer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612020013DOI Listing

spp surveillance and epidemiology in Ireland: a longitudinal cohort study employing duplex real-time PCR based speciation of clinical cases.

J Clin Pathol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland.

is a leading cause of gastroenteritis (cryptosporidiosis), with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Irish cryptosporidiosis incidence rates are consistently the highest reported in Europe. A retrospective, longitudinal study of clinical isolates was conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Cork, southern Ireland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2020-206479DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from dogs and coyotes in an urban landscape suggests infrequent occurrence of zoonotic genotypes.

Vet Parasitol 2020 May 21;281:109115. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Ethology Unit, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Province of Pisa, Italy; UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besancon, France.

Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal parasites with the potential for zoonotic transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109115DOI Listing

Drinking water treatment by multistage filtration on a household scale: Efficiency and challenges.

Water Res 2020 Jul 19;178:115816. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Nanotechnology and Integrated Bioengineering Centre, School of Engineering, Ulster University, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Universalising actions aimed at water supply in rural communities and indigenous populations must focus on simple and low-cost technologies adapted to the local context. In this setting, this research studied the dynamic gravel filter (DGF) as a pre-treatment to household slow-sand filters (HSSFs), which is the first description of a household multistage filtration scale to treat drinking water. DGFs (with and without a non-woven blanket on top of the gravel layer) followed by HSSFs were tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115816DOI Listing

Cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and related risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasite 2020 30;27:27. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166-15731 Tabriz, Iran.

Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of diarrhea in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study is to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in these patients. PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane and Ovid databases were searched for relevant studies dating from the period of 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191976PMC
April 2020
0.822 Impact Factor

Cryptosporidium parvum cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG): An essential mediator of merozoite egress.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2020 May 26;237:111277. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, Texas 77555-0435, USA. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidiosis is an obligate intracellular pathogen causing diarrhea. Merozoite egress is essential for infection to spread between host cells. However, the mechanisms of egress have yet to be defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2020.111277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262579PMC

Cellular Identification and In Silico Characterization of Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C) of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Facultad de Medicina, División de Investigación, Unidad de Investigación UNAM-INC (Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez), Juan Badiano No. 1, Col. Sección XVI, 14080, Mexico City, México.

Purpose: Cryptosporidium parvum is an Apicomplexa parasite that causes watery diarrhea (cryptosporidiosis), especially in children and immunocompromised adults (the latter in a very severe form). No effective treatment exists against infection by this parasite. Phosphatases participate in the regulation of various cellular functions and are thus considered potential therapeutic targets in many diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00209-yDOI Listing

Assessment of health risks from recreational exposure to Giardia and Cryptosporidium in coastal bathing waters.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 24;27(18):23129-23140. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

FSP/USP - School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Environmental Health Department, Av. Dr Arnaldo 715, 1° andar, 01246-904, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Some Brazilian beaches are impacted by raw or poorly treated sewage. Thus, users (beachgoers, sports people, and children) are exposed to pathogens, which pose health concerns. This study aimed to estimate the probability of infection and disease by Giardia and Cryptosporidium, using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for three groups of bathers: children, adults, and open water swimmers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08650-2DOI Listing

Emerging Infectious Diseases of Chelonians: An Update.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):263-283

Avian and Exotic Veterinary Care, 7826 Northeast Sandy Boulevard, Portland, OR 97213, USA.

Chelonians are increasingly challenged by anthropogenic threats and disease. This article summarizes recent literature and clinical experiences regarding 4 emerging infectious diseases in turtles and tortoises: ranaviruses, cryptosporidiosis, intranuclear coccodiosis of Testudines, and Emydomyces testavorans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2020.01.014DOI Listing

Improving state-level emergency well disinfection strategies in the United States.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 20;720:137451. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States of America.

After flooding events, well users are encouraged to disinfect their private wells. However, well disinfection strategies are not consistently applied or proven effective. This study examines the science-based evidence that disinfection procedures reduce microbial loading in well water; reviews inclusion of disinfection principles in state-level emergency protocols; and explores research gaps potentially hindering disinfection efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137451DOI Listing

Viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens and fecal markers in wells supplying groundwater to public water systems in Minnesota, USA.

Water Res 2020 Jul 12;178:115814. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Environmentally Integrated Dairy Management Research Unit, 2615 Yellowstone Drive, Marshfield, WI, 54449, United States. Electronic address:

Drinking water supply wells can be contaminated by a broad range of waterborne pathogens. However, groundwater assessments frequently measure microbial indicators or a single pathogen type, which provides a limited characterization of potential health risk. This study assessed contamination of wells by testing for viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens and fecal markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115814DOI Listing

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential natural reservoir of human cryptosporidiosis by Cryptosporidium hominis in Northwest Spain.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are ubiquitous intestinal protozoa that parasitize domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings. Due to their zoonotic potential, the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of these pathogens in the fox population (Vulpes vulpes) located in Northwest Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13569DOI Listing

A review of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis due to unpasteurized milk.

Infection 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: This review analysed outbreaks of human cryptosporidiosis due to raw milk. The objective of our study was to highlight and identify underestimated and underreported aspects of transmission of the parasite as well as the added value of genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive literature review using the digital archives Pubmed and Embase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01426-3DOI Listing

The determination of treatment effect of chitosan oligosaccharide in lambs with experimentally cryptosporidiosis.

Small Rumin Res 2019 Nov 27;180:27-34. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 58140, Sivas, Turkey.

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the efficacy of chitosan oligosaccharide administrations in different doses of experimental infected lambs with . 32 male lambs were used in the study and the lambs were divided into 4 groups with 8 lambs in each group. Groups 1, 2 and 3, twice a day, were administered chitosan oligosaccharide at a dose of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg for 7 days, respectively, with milk replacer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2019.09.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7135297PMC
November 2019

The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vet Parasitol 2020 May 2;281:109093. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., is an important zoonotic disease and is considered a global public health concern. Dogs are suggested as one of potential reservoirs for transmitting the Cryptosporidium infection to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109093DOI Listing
May 2020
2.460 Impact Factor

Long-term production effects of clinical cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves.

Int J Parasitol 2020 May 8;50(5):371-376. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh EH26 0PZ, UK. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidiosis can have a devastating effect in neonatal calves, resulting in diarrhoea, dehydration and, in severe cases, death of the animal. The disease is caused by Cryptosporidium spp. and is one of the most common causes of calf enteritis in the UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194893PMC

Clofazimine for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-infected adults (CRYPTOFAZ): an experimental medicine, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Apr 11. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: We evaluated efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of clofazimine (CFZ) in HIV-infected patients with cryptosporidiosis.

Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Primary outcomes in Part A were reduction in Cryptosporidium shedding, safety, and PK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa421DOI Listing

Bayesian risk assessment model of human cryptosporidiosis cases following consumption of raw Eastern oysters () contaminated with oocysts in the Hillsborough River system in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Food Waterborne Parasitol 2020 Jun 19;19:e00079. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, PEI, Canada.

spp. has been associated with foodborne infectious disease outbreaks; however, it is unclear to what extent raw oyster consumption poses a risk to public health. Control of in shellfish harvest seawater in Canada is not mandatory and, despite relay/depuration processes, the parasite can remain viable in oysters for at least a month (depending on initial loads and seawater characteristics). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109418PMC

Cryptosporidium spp. in groundwater supplies intended for human consumption - A descriptive review of global prevalence, risk factors and knowledge gaps.

Water Res 2020 Jun 18;176:115726. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science (BEES), University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geosciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal illness and mortality induced by protozoan pathogens worldwide. As a largely waterborne disease, emphasis has been given to the study of Cryptosporidium spp. in surface waters, readily susceptible to pathogenic contamination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115726DOI Listing

Prevalence and Genotyping of in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients.

J Cancer 2020 5;11(11):3334-3339. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research by Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.

Gastrointestinal cancers are the most commonly occurring malignancies which contributing to over 1/5 of cancer incidences worldwide. Increasing evidences have shown that spp., an apicomplexan protozoan, is highly associated with gastrointestinal cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.42393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097938PMC

Cryptosporidiosis after treatment with fingolimod: a case report and pharmacovigilance review.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Mar 30;20(1):257. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Service de Neurologie. Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar, 39 avenue de la liberté, 68024, Colmar, France.

Background: Cryptosporidium sp. are common intracellular parasites responsible of severe diarrhea in T-cell-immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of a woman who contracted cryptosporidiosis after treatment with fingolimod, a drug labeled for multiple sclerosis and responsible for marked lymphopenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-04988-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106570PMC

A retrospective epidemiological analysis of human Cryptosporidium infection in China during the past three decades (1987-2018).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 30;14(3):e0008146. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research; WHO Collaborating Center`for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, MOH; Shanghai, China.

Background: Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging infectious disease of public health significance worldwide. The burden of disease caused by Cryptosporidium varies between and within countries/areas. To have a comprehensive understanding of epidemiological status and characteristics of human Cryptosporidium infection in China since the first report in 1987, a retrospective epidemiological analysis was conducted by presenting differences in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium by province, year, population, living environment and season and possible transmission routes and risk factors as well as genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145189PMC

Co-infection risk assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium with HIV considering synergistic effects and age sensitivity using disability-adjusted life years.

Water Res 2020 May 12;175:115698. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Co-infection with multiple pathogens, especially the spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source water among those with immunodeficiency, is common worldwide, which will result in an increase in overall risk. In this study, the quantitative microbial risk assessment model was used to estimate the cumulative risk of co-infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium promoted by HIV, considering age sensitivity. The sensitivity of population segments with different ages was estimated by the optimization method, based on clinical data of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis with age structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115698DOI Listing

Genotyping and Subtyping Cryptosporidium To Identify Risk Factors and Transmission Patterns - Nebraska, 2015-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Mar 27;69(12):335-338. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Cryptosporidium is an enteric pathogen that is transmitted through animal-to-person or person-to-person contact or through ingestion of contaminated water or food. In the United States, Cryptosporidium affects an estimated 750,000 persons each year; however, only approximately 11,000 cases are reported nationally (1,2). Persons infected with Cryptosporidium typically develop symptoms within 2 to 10 days after exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912a4DOI Listing

Pathogen infection risk to recreational water users, associated with surface waters impacted by de facto and indirect potable reuse activities.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 8;722:137799. Epub 2020 Mar 8.

Environment and Public Health Research and Enterprise Group, Centre for Aquatic Environments, School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Cockcroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom.

Water deficit, exacerbated by global population increases and climate change, necessitates the investigation of alternative non-traditional water sources to augment existing supplies. Indirect potable reuse (IPR) represents a promising alternative water source in water-stressed regions. Of high concern is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, such as enteric viruses, protozoa and bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137799DOI Listing

Update on Cryptosporidium spp.: highlights from the Seventh International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference.

Parasite 2020 13;27:14. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

French National Cryptosporidiosis Reference Center, Rouen University Hospital, 1 Rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France - EA 7510, UFR Santé, University of Rouen Normandy, Normandy University, 22 Bd. Gambetta, 76183 Rouen Cedex, France.

While cryptosporidiosis is recognized as being among the most common causes of human parasitic diarrhea in the world, there is currently limited knowledge on Cryptosporidium infection mechanisms, incomplete codification of diagnostic methods, and a need for additional therapeutic options. In response, the Seventh International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference (IGCC 2019) was hosted from 23 to 26 June 2019, at the Rouen Normandy University, France. This trusted event brought together an international delegation of researchers to synthesize recent advances and identify key research questions and knowledge gaps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2020011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069357PMC

Effect of Ginsenoside-Rh2 and Curcurbitacin-B on Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro.

Exp Parasitol 2020 May 9;212:107873. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA, 01536, USA.

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107873DOI Listing

Zoonotic implications of camel diseases in Iran.

Vet Med Sci 2020 Mar 11. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Approximately 60% of all human pathogens and 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (of animal origin). Camel zoonotic diseases can be encountered in all camel-rearing countries. In this article, all studies carried out on camel zoonotic diseases in Iran are reviewed to show the importance of camels for public health in this country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.239DOI Listing

The Silent Reservoir of Cryptosporidiosis.

Authors:
Poonum S Korpe

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Mar 9. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa228DOI Listing

Transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. among human and animal local contact networks in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country study.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Mar 9. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Dept. Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis has been identified as one of the major causes of diarrhoea and diarrhoea-associated deaths in young children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study traces back Cryptosporidium positive children to their human and animal contacts to identify transmission networks.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from children below five years with diarrhoea in Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar and Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa223DOI Listing

Seeking the reuse of effluents and sludge from conventional wastewater treatment plants: Analysis of the presence of intestinal protozoa and nematode eggs.

J Environ Manage 2020 May 2;261:110268. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Area of Parasitology, Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain; Water and Environmental Health Research Group, Environmental Sciences Institute (IUCA), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address:

Some of the microorganisms present in urban wastewater, which include intestinal protozoa and nematodes, can be pathogenic. Their (oo)cyst and egg transmissible stages are very resistant to environmental stresses and disinfectants and they are therefore difficult to remove. Thus, they can constitute a health risk if water or sludge obtained in the purification of wastewater is reused for agricultural purposes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110268DOI Listing

gp40/15 Is Associated with the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane and Is a Potential Vaccine Target.

Microorganisms 2020 Mar 4;8(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan responsible for the diarrheal illness cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Although a number of zoite surface proteins are known to be expressed during, and believed to be involved in, attachment and invasion of host cells, the molecular mechanisms by which invades the host epithelial cells are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression patterns, protein localization in developmental stages in culture, and in vitro neutralization characteristics of Cpgp40/15 and Cpgp40. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143253PMC

Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in a Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a Noted Invasive Alien Species, Captured in a Rural Aquatic Ecosystem in Eastern Poland.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Mar 5. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Epicrates Foundation, ul. Orlika Ruckemana 12/30, 20-244, Lublin, Poland.

Purpose: Little is known about cryptosporidiosis in turtles of invasive alien species (IAS) inhabiting European bodies of fresh water. In this article, we report an occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum in a red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) captured in a rural aquatic ecosystem in eastern Poland.

Methods: A pair of samples consisting of feces and scrapings of intestinal mucosa (taken during necropsy) were collected from 104 animals representing the four IAS turtle species red-eared slider, yellow-bellied slider, false map and Cumberland slider. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00180-8DOI Listing