11,364 results match your criteria Cryptococcosis


Outcomes of flucytosine-containing combination treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in a South African national access programme: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK; MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Although flucytosine is a key component of WHO-recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, this antifungal agent is not widely available in low-income and middle-income countries due to limited production and cost. In 2018, a national flucytosine access programme was initiated in South Africa. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of flucytosine-containing induction regimens in routine care to motivate for the urgent registration of flucytosine and its inclusion in treatment guidelines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cryptococcal Meningitis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Two-Decade Cohort Study in France.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, CRSA, Inserm, AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Sorbonne Université, 75012 Paris, France.

Cryptococcosis is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) its main clinical presentation. CM outcomes, as well as its clinical features and radiological characteristics, have not yet been considered on a large scale in the context of kidney transplantation (KT). We performed a nationwide retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis after KT between 2002 and 2020 across 30 clinical centers in France. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Antidepressant Sertraline Induces the Formation of Supersized Lipid Droplets in the Human Pathogen .

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;8(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The prevalence and increasing incidence of fungal infections globally is a significant worldwide health problem. Cryptococcosis, primarily caused by the pathogenic yeast , is responsible for approximately 181,000 estimated deaths annually. The scarcity of treatments and the increasing resistance to current therapeutics highlight the need for the development of antifungal agents which have novel mechanisms of action and are suitable for clinical use. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16 regulates lifespan and immune responses to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii infections.

BMC Microbiol 2022 Jun 22;22(1):162. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening infection is primarily caused by two sibling species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Several virulence-related factors of these cryptococci have been widely investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans, representing a facile in vivo model of host-pathogen interaction. While recent studies elucidated cryptococcal virulence factors, intrinsic host factors that affect susceptibility to infections by cryptococci remain unclear and poorly investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disseminated cryptococcosis in Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare entity grouped in non-HIV-related syndromes. ICL is characterized by a marked low CD4 T cell count of <300 cells/mm3 with ambiguous natural history and prognosis. In addition, Cryptococcal and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are reported as known opportunistic infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Infection Induces IL-17 Production by Promoting STAT3 Phosphorylation in CD4 T Cells.

Front Immunol 2022 27;13:872286. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

infection in the central nervous system is a severe infectious disease with poor outcomes and high mortality. It has been estimated that there are 220,000 new cases each year. Over 90% of meningitis cases were diagnosed in AIDS patients with CD4 T cell count <100 cells/μl; however, the mechanism of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with normal immune functions remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Csn1201 Is Associated With Pulmonary Immune Responses and Disseminated Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 2;13:890258. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Laser and Aesthetic Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

is a major etiological agent of fungal meningoencephalitis. The outcome of cryptococcosis depends on the complex interactions between the pathogenic fungus and host immunity. The understanding of how manipulates the host immune response through its pathogenic factors remains incomplete. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Experimental models for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of antifungals used in cryptococcosis treatment.

Future Microbiol 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Antifungal Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-000, Brazil.

Studies on cryptococcosis in the mammal animal model have demonstrated the occurrence of central nervous system infection and similarities in fungal pathogenicity with clinical and immunological features of the human infection. Although there is still a lack of studies involving pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in animal models of cryptococcosis in the literature, these experimental models are useful for understanding this mycosis and antifungal effectiveness in improving the therapeutic schemes. The scope of this review is to describe and discuss the main mammal animal models for PK and PD studies of antifungals used in cryptococcosis treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunological Predictors of Post Infectious Inflammatory Response Syndrome in HIV-Negative Immunocompetent Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Front Immunol 2022 24;13:895456. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: This research aims to study the correlation between serum immune factors and post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (PIIRS) in immunocompetent cryptococcal meningitis (CM), and explore whether serum immune factors could be used to predict the development of PIIRS.

Methods: A cohort of 30 patients with PIIRS and 87 patients without PIIRS was selected from 347 CM patients. We analyzed the general clinical information and immunological indexes (cytokines, complement, immunoglobulin, inflammation, related cytological and biochemical indexes). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Computed tomography-based radiomics for identifying pulmonary cryptococcosis mimicking lung cancer.

Med Phys 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 610041, China.

Background: Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is an invasive pulmonary fungal disease, and nodule/mass-type PC may mimic lung cancer (LC) in imaging appearance. Thus, an accurate diagnosis of nodule/mass-type PC is beneficial for appropriate management. However, the differentiation of nodule/mass-type PC from LC through computed tomography (CT) is still challenging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antifungal and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Paeonol Treatment Against Biofilms Comprising and/or .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 20;12:884793. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Dermatology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Union Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Fungal populations are commonly found in natural environments and present enormous health care challenges, due to increased resistance to antifungal agents. Paeonol exhibits antifungal activities; nevertheless, the antifungal and antibiofilm activities of paeonol against and remain largely unexplored. Here, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal and antibiofilm activities of paeonol against and/or (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary cryptococcosis mimicking lung cancer: 3 case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 1;94:106973. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an opportunistic pathogen. However, it is difficult to differentiate it from other diseases by imaging. Therefore, the clinical presentation and imaging features of patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis are analyzed and summarized to improve clinicians' early recognition of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cryptococcosis among hospitalised patients with COVID-19: A multicentre research network study.

Mycoses 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

It is unclear if there is an association between COVID-19 and cryptococcosis. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes associated with cryptococcosis in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of and examine factors associated with cryptococcosis after a diagnosis of COVID-19. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cryptococcal antigen testing of lung tissue homogenate improves pulmonary cryptococcosis diagnosis: Two case reports.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Apr;10(12):3893-3898

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is an opportunistic infectious disease of the respiratory system. Lung tissue biopsies, culture of respiratory samples (., sputum, lung tissue, pleural fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing are helpful for a definitive diagnosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of the Heme Activator Protein Complex in the Sexual Development of Cryptococcus neoformans.

mSphere 2022 May 31:e0017022. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The CCAAT-binding heme activator protein (HAP) complex, comprising the DNA-binding heterotrimeric complex Hap2/3/5 and transcriptional activation subunit HapX, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, mitochondrial functions, and pathogenicity in Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes fatal meningoencephalitis. However, its role in the development of human fungal pathogens remains unclear. To elucidate the role of the HAP complex in C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in an Immunocompetent Patient.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2022 Apr;32(4):S49-S51

Department of Internal Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is an uncommon opportunistic infection in immunocompetent hosts; and causes significant mortality and long-term morbidity. Cryptococci primarily cause disease in immunocompromised hosts, but rarely can lead to severe disease in immunocompetent individuals. A 64-year man, with no known immunosuppressive illnesses, presented in the Emergency Department with gait disturbances and lethargy for one year, which got worsened recently. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lack of Association between Fluconazole Susceptibility and Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Clinical Isolates from Uganda.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 May 15;8(5). Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Fluconazole is the drug of choice for cryptococcal meningitis (CM) monoprophylaxis in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. Emerging fluconazole resistance linked to mutations in the gene (CYP51) has been observed in clinical isolates. Currently, the single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] in the spp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay to Identify and Distinguish between and Species Complexes.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;8(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

and are the principle causative agents of cryptococcosis. Differences in epidemiological and clinical features, and also treatment, mean it is important for diagnostic laboratories to distinguish between the two species. Molecular methods are potentially more rapid than culture and cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) detection; however, commercial PCR-based assays that target do not distinguish between species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Multifaceted Role of Mating Type of the Fungus and Sex of the Host in Studies of Fungal Infections in Humans.

Authors:
Nada Kraševec

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;8(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Molecular Biology and Nanobiotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

This review discusses the inclusion of sex and gender variables in studies of fungal infections in humans at the pathogen, host, and antifungal trial levels. The mating type of some fungi, or perhaps more likely the absence of the other, appears to be associated with some infections. Sexual and parasexual reproduction of some fungi is an important mechanism for the development of antifungal drug resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Manifestations of Fungal Infections Misdiagnosed as Tuberculosis: The Need for Prompt Diagnosis and Management.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;8(5). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Manchester Fungal Infection Group, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Fungal infections commonly present with myriad symptoms that mimic other clinical entities, notable amongst which is tuberculosis. Besides histoplasmosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which can mimic TB, this review has identified several other fungal infections which also do. A total of 80 individual cases misdiagnosed as TB are highlighted: aspergillosis ( = 18, 22. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative miRNA transcriptomics of macaques and mice reveals is an inhibitor for invasion into the brain.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1572-1585

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology, National Clinical Research Center for Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is emerging as an infection in HIV/AIDS patients shifted from primarily ART-naive to ART-experienced individuals, as well as patients with COVID-19 and immunocompetent hosts. This fungal infection is mainly caused by the opportunistic human pathogen . Brain or central nervous system (CNS) dissemination is the deadliest process for this disease; however, mechanisms underlying this process have yet to be elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2022

Three Models of Vaccination Strategies Against Cryptococcosis in Immunocompromised Hosts Using Heat-Killed Δ.

Front Immunol 2022 9;13:868523. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

Vaccines are one of the greatest medical accomplishments to date, yet no fungal vaccines are currently available in humans mainly because opportunistic mycoses generally occur during immunodeficiencies necessary for vaccine protection. In previous studies, a live, attenuated Δ mutant accumulating sterylglucosides was found to be avirulent and protected mice from a subsequent lethal infection even in absence of CD4 T cells, a condition most associated with cryptococcosis (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phosphoproteomic Sample Preparation for Global Phosphorylation Profiling of a Fungal Pathogen.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2456:141-151

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Phosphorylation is a key post-translational modification central to the biological behavior of proteins. This reversible modification specifically regulates cell signaling mechanisms to control survival and growth. Moreover, microbial pathogens, including both fungi and bacteria, rely on this modification to coordinate protein production and functioning during infection and dissemination within a host. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multiple cerebral infarctions as a complication of cryptococcal meningitis in a patient undergoing single lung transplantation.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 06 21;37(5):411-412. Epub 2022 May 21.

Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Cryptococcal Meningitis with Inadequate Response to Antifungal Therapy or Drug-Induced Side Effects That Make It Difficult to Continue Treatment: Management to Avoid Treatment Difficulties and Intracerebroventricular Antifungal Administration for Refractory Cases].

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):600-607

Department of Medicine (Neurology & Rheumatology), Shinshu University School of Medicine.

The treatment of cryptococcal encephalomyelitis is often complicated by an inadequate response to antifungal therapy and the reduction or withdrawal of antifungal agents due to adverse effects. To achieve a favorable prognosis, patients should be treated with appropriate drugs according to the latest guidelines. In addition to systemic antifungal drug administration in refractory cases, intracerebroventricular administration of amphotericin B may be considered. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Cryptococcal Meningitis with Inadequate Response to Antifungal Therapy or Drug-Induced Side Effects That Make It Difficult to Continue Treatment: Eleven Clinical Issues in Medical Practice].

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):588-599

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine.

Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and accounts for 90% of fungal meningitis cases in Japan. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rare disease, and similar to tuberculosis meningitis. It often exhibits subacute or chronic progression symptoms such as headache, fever, coma, personality changes, and memory disturbance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical epidemiology and high genetic diversity amongst Cryptococcus spp. isolates infecting people living with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

PLoS One 2022 19;17(5):e0267842. Epub 2022 May 19.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC) is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in advanced HIV disease patients (AHDP). It is caused by Cryptococcus spp. complexes and mainly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Immunogenic and Slow-Growing Cryptococcal Strain Induces a Chronic Granulomatous Infection in Murine Lungs.

Infect Immun 2022 Jun 19;90(6):e0058021. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Many successful pathogens cause latent infections, remaining dormant within the host for years but retaining the ability to reactivate to cause symptomatic disease. The human opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans establishes latent pulmonary infections in immunocompetent individuals upon inhalation from the environment. These latent infections are frequently characterized by granulomas, or foci of chronic inflammation, that contain dormant and persistent cryptococcal cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Grocott Methenamine Silver Staining Is the Optimal Approach to Histological Diagnosis of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis.

Front Microbiol 2022 29;13:885511. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Histological staining methods for identification vary in accuracy. This study aimed to investigate the clinical value of Grocott methenamine silver (GMS), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Alcian blue (AB) staining in the diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC).

Methods: From April 2004 to June 2021, the clinical and pathological data of 152 patients with PC were collected from the Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF