986 results match your criteria Critical Reviews in Toxicology [Journal]


Overview on legislation and scientific approaches for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals: the potential EuroMix contribution.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Oct 10;48(9):796-814. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

a Department of Pesticides Safety , German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment - BfR , Berlin , Germany.

This article reviews the current legislative requirements for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals via multiple exposure routes, focusing on human health and particularly on food-related chemicals. The aim is to identify regulatory needs and current approaches for this type of risk assessment as well as challenges of the implementation of appropriate and harmonized guidance at international level. It provides an overview of the current legal requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States and Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1541964DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

A bounding quantitative cancer risk assessment for occupational exposures to asphalt emissions during road paving operations.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Oct 27;48(9):713-737. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

a Gradient , Cambridge , MA , USA.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified straight-run bitumens and associated emissions during road paving as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), owing to potential exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We examine existing chemistry, exposure, epidemiology, and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative cancer risk implications for paving workers exposed to asphalt emissions from the data used in identifying this qualitative hazard. Epidemiology studies show no consistent cancer risk elevation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1528208DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Impact of changes in human reproduction on the incidence of endocrine-related diseases.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Oct 27;48(9):789-795. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

a CAPHRI Research Institute and Department of Complex Genetics , Maastricht University , Maastricht , The Netherlands.

The incidence rates of a wide range of diseases and conditions have increased over the last decades. There is controversy over the origin of these increases, whether they are caused by exposure to compounds thought to have an effect on the endocrine system, the "endocrine disruption theory", or whether some other factor is responsible. In this analysis, the authors take a closer look at the role that changes in reproductive factors have played in this respect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1541073DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Telomere dynamics and cellular senescence: an emerging field in environmental and occupational toxicology.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Oct 20;48(9):761-788. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

a Department of Public Health , Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

There has been a steady output of epidemiological studies linking environmental and occupational exposures to altered telomere length, showing mainly positive associations with persistent organic pollutants, inverse association with cadmium and inconsistent results with arsenic and lead. A bell-shaped dose-response relationship has been observed for ionizing radiation with telomere shortening at a low dose. Long-term air pollution is associated with telomere shortening, whereas the short-term exposure studies have shown mixed results. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1538201DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Correction.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Nov 30:1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522175DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Corrigendum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522784DOI Listing
November 2018
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Expression of Concern.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 11 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1539570DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Computational approaches for skin sensitization prediction.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Oct 29;48(9):738-760. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Center for Bioinformatics, Universität Hamburg , Hamburg , Germany.

Drugs, cosmetics, preservatives, fragrances, pesticides, metals, and other chemicals can cause skin sensitization. The ability to predict the skin sensitization potential and potency of substances is therefore of enormous importance to a host of different industries, to customers' and workers' safety. Animal experiments have been the preferred testing method for most risk assessment and regulatory purposes but considerable efforts to replace them with non-animal models and in silico models are ongoing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1528207DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

The development of environmentally acceptable fluorocarbons.

Authors:
George M Rusch

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 26;48(8):615-665. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

a Veritox Toxicology and Industrial Hygiene , Sarasota , FL , USA.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were introduced in the 1930s as the safe replacements for the toxic and flammable refrigerants being used at that time. Subsequently, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) were also developed. In addition to refrigerant applications, they were used as foam blowing agents, as solvents and as propellants for many aerosols. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1504276DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Modernizing the Bradford Hill criteria for assessing causal relationships in observational data.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Nov 15:1-31. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

a Cox Associates , Denver , CO , USA.

Perhaps no other topic in risk analysis is more difficult, more controversial, or more important to risk management policy analysts and decision-makers than how to draw valid, correctly qualified causal conclusions from observational data. Statistical methods can readily quantify associations between observed variables using measures such as relative risk (RR) ratios, odds ratios (OR), slope coefficients for exposure or treatment variables in regression models, and quantities derived from these measures. Textbooks of epidemiology explain how to calculate population attributable fractions, attributable risks, burden-of-disease estimates, and probabilities of causation from relative risk (RR) ratios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1518404DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

Critical review of renal tubule karyomegaly in non-clinical safety evaluation studies and its significance for human risk assessment.

Authors:
Gordon C Hard

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Aug 2;48(7):575-595. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

a Private Consulting , Tairua , New Zealand.

Scientific databases were searched for terms applicable to karyomegaly in renal tubules of laboratory animals used in preclinical safety evaluation studies, and in humans. Renal tubule karyomegaly was more frequently reported in the rat in response to chemical exposure compared to other laboratory animal species. Renal tubule karyomegaly also occurred in the mouse in response to chemical insult, but much less commonly than in the rat. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1503641DOI Listing
August 2018
26 Reads

Corrigendum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522133DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Corrigendum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522142DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Corrigendum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522751DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Use of proteomics to detect sex-related differences in effects of toxicants: implications for using proteomics in toxicology.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 26:1-16. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

a Division of Toxicology , Wageningen University , Wageningen , The Netherlands.

This review provides an overview of results obtained when using proteome analysis for detecting sex-based differences in response to toxicants. It reveals implications to be taken into account when considering the use of proteomics in toxicological studies. It appears that results may differ when studying the same chemical in the same species in different target tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1509941DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Expression of Concern.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 09 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1522786DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Acute chemical skin injuries in the United States: a review.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 18:1-15. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

d Department of Dermatology , University of California School of Medicine-San Francisco , San Francisco , CA , USA.

The objective was to perform a thorough review of published and other available data to elucidate the extent of chemical skin injuries in the US. Chemical skin injuries differ significantly from skin lesions produced by other injury mechanisms, so this review was restricted to the former. Retrieval of relevant published data was performed in PubMed and Google. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1493085DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

The tryptophan derivative 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, FICZ, a dynamic mediator of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, balances cell growth and differentiation.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Aug 18;48(7):555-574. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

b Department of Molecular Biosciences , The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University , Stockholm , Sweden.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is not essential to survival, but does act as a key regulator of many normal physiological events. The role of this receptor in toxicological processes has been studied extensively, primarily employing the high-affinity ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, regulation of physiological responses by endogenous AHR ligands remains to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1493086DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Cobalt and its compounds: update on genotoxic and carcinogenic activities.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Sep 11:1-18. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

a Louvain Centre for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (LTAP), Catholic University of Louvain , Brussels , Belgium.

This article summarizes recent experimental and epidemiological data on the genotoxic and carcinogenic activities of cobalt compounds. Emphasis is on the respiratory system, but endogenous exposure from Co-containing alloys used in endoprostheses, and limited data on nanomaterials and oral exposures are also considered. Two groups of cobalt compounds are differentiated on the basis of their mechanisms of toxicity: (1) those essentially involving the solubilization of Co(II) ions, and (2) metallic materials for which both surface corrosion and release of Co(II) ions act in concert. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1491023DOI Listing
September 2018
30 Reads

Use of uncertainty factors by the European Commission Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits: a follow-up.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 10:1-9. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

a Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.

Decision on the safety margin, for instance by using uncertainty factors (UFs), is a key aspect in setting Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). We analyzed the UFs in 128 OEL recommendations from the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL). We investigated factors expected to potentially influence the UFs, as well as a selection of factors that might influence how expert groups perceive quality or reliability of key studies. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1483891DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Benzene risk assessment: does new evidence on myelodysplastic syndrome justify a new approach?

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 10;48(6):417-432. Epub 2018 May 10.

a Occupational and Public Health Division , ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , Annandale , NJ , USA.

Epidemiologic findings play an important role in benzene risk assessment, which is utilized to guide the selection of recommended benzene exposure levels to prevent adverse health effects. For decades, excess leukemia risk, especially that in the Pliofilm cohort, has been the focus of benzene risk assessment. While more stringent benzene standards, often ≤1 ppm, have been promulgated to protect workers from developing leukemia, recent epidemiologic studies have reported elevated risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1437389DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Is current risk assessment of non-genotoxic carcinogens protective?

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 10;48(6):500-511. Epub 2018 May 10.

a Centre for Health Protection , National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) , Bilthoven , The Netherlands.

Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs) do not cause direct DNA damage but induce cancer via other mechanisms. In risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, carcinogenic risks are determined using carcinogenicity studies in rodents. With the aim to reduce animal testing, REACH legislation states that carcinogenicity studies are only allowed when specific concerns are present; risk assessment of compounds that are potentially carcinogenic by a non-genotoxic mode of action is usually based on subchronic toxicity studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1458818DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

Exposure to permethrin and cancer risk: a systematic review.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 24;48(6):433-442. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

a Tisch Cancer institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , NY , USA.

No systematic reviews are available on data from humans on cancer risk from exposure to permethrin, a widely used insecticide for which some animal studies have reported positive findings based on mechanisms that may not be relevant to humans. We identified potentially relevant articles through a search of electronic databases which included all studies of pesticide exposure and human cancer. A total of 18 articles were selected, including six identified from the list of references of other articles. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1439449DOI Listing
July 2018
40 Reads

Oligomers of styrene are not endocrine disruptors.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 12;48(6):471-499. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

h PS Japan Corporation , Tokyo , Japan.

Oligomers of styrene have been identified in polystyrene (PS) polymer samples intended for food packaging. Such oligomers contribute to nonintentionally added substances (NIAS) that may migrate into food or food simulants and therefore have to be assessed for the potential risk to health. No oligomers larger than dimers and trimers of styrene have been found to be present in PS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1447547DOI Listing
July 2018
22 Reads

A systematic review of epidemiologic studies of styrene and cancer.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Jul 28;48(6):443-470. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

b Exponent, Epidemiology , Alexandria , VA , USA.

Previous epidemiology reviews of exposure to styrene and the risk of cancer considered studies published through 13 November 2013. Since then, additional relevant research has been published. No review has included meta-analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1445700DOI Listing
July 2018
23 Reads

Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling: current practice, issues, and challenges.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 8;48(5):387-415. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

d Imperial College London , London , UK.

Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is now the state of the science for determining the point of departure for risk assessment. Key advantages include the fact that the modeling takes account of all of the data for a particular effect from a particular experiment, increased consistency, and better accounting for statistical uncertainties. Despite these strong advantages, disagreements remain as to several specific aspects of the modeling, including differences in the recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1430121DOI Listing
May 2018
25 Reads
1 Citation
5.100 Impact Factor

Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (I): the Cosmetics Europe database.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 23;48(5):344-358. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

n Henkel AG and Co. KG , Düsseldorf , Germany.

Cosmetics Europe, the European Trade Association for the cosmetics and personal care industry, is conducting a multi-phase program to develop regulatory accepted, animal-free testing strategies enabling the cosmetics industry to conduct safety assessments. Based on a systematic evaluation of test methods for skin sensitization, five non-animal test methods (DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay), KeratinoSens, h-CLAT (human cell line activation test), U-SENS, SENS-IS) were selected for inclusion in a comprehensive database of 128 substances. Existing data were compiled and completed with newly generated data, the latter amounting to one-third of all data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1429385DOI Listing
May 2018
28 Reads

Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (II): an assessment of defined approaches .

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 23;48(5):359-374. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

m Henkel AG & Co. KGaA , Düsseldorf , Germany.

Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force (STTF) collected and generated data on 128 substances in multiple in vitro and in chemico skin sensitization assays selected based on a systematic assessment by the STTF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1429386DOI Listing
May 2018
13 Reads

Mundt et al. paper: "Does occupational exposure to formaldehyde cause hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells?"

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 22;48(5):339-340. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

a Department of Environmental and Occupational Health , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , PA , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1431764DOI Listing
May 2018
6 Reads

Response to Dr. Bernard D. Goldstein's Letter to the Editor.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 20;48(5):341-343. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

d Environment and Health Consultancy, Ramboll US Corporation , Monroe , LA , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1431765DOI Listing
May 2018
9 Reads

Development of an adverse outcome pathway for chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma: case study of AFB1, a human carcinogen with a mutagenic mode of action.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Apr 12;48(4):312-337. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

d Olin Corporation , Midland , MI , USA.

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are frameworks starting with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by key events (KEs) linked by KE relationships (KERs), ultimately resulting in a specific adverse outcome. Relevant data for the pathway and each KE/KER are evaluated to assess biological plausibility, weight-of-evidence, and confidence. We aimed to describe an AOP relevant to chemicals directly inducing mutation in cancer critical gene(s), via the formation of chemical-specific pro-mutagenic DNA adduct(s), as an early critical step in tumor etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1423462DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Lead-interacting proteins and their implication in lead poisoning.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 May 12;48(5):375-386. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

a Bioinformatics Multidisciplinary Environment - IMD , Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte , Natal , Brazil.

Lead is an important heavy metal used worldwide in several applications, especially in industry. People exposed to lead can develop a wide range of symptoms associated with lead poisoning. Many effects of lead poisoning are reported in the literature, showing a compromising of whole body health, with symptoms related to cardiovascular, immune, bone, reproductive, hematological, renal, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2018.1429387DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

Pyrethroid epidemiology: a quality-based review.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Apr 1;48(4):297-311. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

b Pastoor Science Communications, LLC , Hillsborough , NC , USA.

Pyrethroids are commonly used around the home and in agricultural production to control insects. Human contact to one or more pyrethroid insecticides is likely. Numerous epidemiology studies have evaluated the association between health outcomes in humans and pyrethroid exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1423463DOI Listing
April 2018
44 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 08;47(7)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419667DOI Listing
August 2017
4 Reads

Toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of gas-to-liquid (GTL) products. 2. Ecotoxicology.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Apr 8;48(4):273-296. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

c Shell Health , Shell International BV , The Hague , The Netherlands.

Gas-to-liquid (GTL) products are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from natural gas using a catalytic process known as the Fischer-Tropsch process. This process yields a synthetic crude oil that consists of saturated hydrocarbons which can subsequently be refined to a range of products analogous to those obtained from petroleum refining. However, in contrast to their petroleum-derived analogs, GTL products are essentially free of unsaturated or aromatic compounds and do not contain any sulfur-, oxygen-, or nitrogen-containing compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1408567DOI Listing
April 2018
8 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 09;47(8)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419720DOI Listing
September 2017
5 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 05;47(5)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419029DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 07;47(6)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419608DOI Listing
July 2017
5 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 11;47(10)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419740DOI Listing
November 2017
5 Reads

Erratum.

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Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 10;47(9)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1419735DOI Listing
October 2017
5 Reads

Shanghai Health Study (2001-2009): What was learned about benzene health effects?

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 03 15;48(3):217-251. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

a Cardno ChemRisk , Jackson , WY , USA.

The Shanghai Health Study (SHS) was a large epidemiology study conducted as a joint effort between the University of Colorado and Fudan University in Shanghai, China. The study was funded by members of the American Petroleum Institute between 2001 and 2009 and was designed to evaluate the human health effects associated with benzene exposure. Two arms of the SHS included: an occupational-based molecular epidemiology study and several hospital-based case control studies. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1401581DOI Listing
March 2018
16 Reads

Adoption of in vitro systems and zebrafish embryos as alternative models for reducing rodent use in assessments of immunological and oxidative stress responses to nanomaterials.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 03 14;48(3):252-271. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

a Nano Safety Research Group , Heriot-Watt University , Edinburgh , UK.

Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is paramount to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology, which provides huge societal benefits. Currently, there is no evidence that engineered NMs cause detrimental health effects in humans. However, investigation of NM toxicity using in vivo, in vitro, in chemico, and in silico models has demonstrated that some NMs stimulate oxidative stress and inflammation, which may lead to adverse health effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1404965DOI Listing
March 2018
25 Reads

A review of the evidence for endocrine disrupting effects of current-use chemicals on wildlife populations.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 03 24;48(3):195-216. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

c BASF SE, Crop Protection - Ecotoxicology , Limburgerhof , Germany.

This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chemicals, with the exception of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens found in sewage effluents, which are causing widespread effects on fish populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1397099DOI Listing
March 2018
18 Reads

Biological effects of metal degradation in hip arthroplasties.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 02 13;48(2):170-193. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

a Orthopedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine Unit , Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute , Bologna , Italy.

Metals and metal alloys are the most used materials in orthopedic implants. The focus is on total hip arthroplasty (THA) that, though well tolerated, may be associated with local and remote adverse effects in the medium-long term. This review aims to summarize data on the biological consequences of the metal implant degradation that have been attributed predominantly to metal-on-metal (MoM) THA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1392927DOI Listing
February 2018
7 Reads

Evaluating the evidence on genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of carbon black: a critical review.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 02 2;48(2):143-169. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

d School of Water, Energy and Environment , Cranfield University , Cranfield , UK.

Carbon black is produced industrially by the partial combustion or thermal decomposition of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons under controlled conditions. It is considered a poorly soluble, low toxicity (PSLT) particle. Recently, results from a number of published studies have suggested that carbon black may be directly genotoxic, and that it may also cause reproductive toxicity. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1391746DOI Listing
February 2018
12 Reads

Assessing cancer hazards of bitumen emissions - a case study for complex petroleum substances.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 02 2;48(2):121-142. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

c Independent Consulting , Guilldford , Surrey , UK.

When assessing cancer hazard and risk associated with a complex petroleum substance, like bitumen emissions, there are often conflicting results related to human, animal and mechanistic studies. Validation of the complex composition to assure that it matches real-world exposures and control of confounders are pivotal factors in study design to allow the necessary read-across during assessments. Several key studies on bitumen emissions in two-year dermal cancer assays reported variable outcomes ranging from high cancer incidence to no cancer incidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1391170DOI Listing
February 2018
6 Reads

Re: Byber et al. in Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2016;46:191-240.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 11 16;47(10):900-901. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

b Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine , Umea Universitet , Umea , Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1377151DOI Listing
November 2017
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Weight of evidence analysis for assessing the genotoxic potential of carbon nanotubes.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 Nov 22;47(10):867-884. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

b The National Research Centre for the Working Environment , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a nanomaterial that has received interest because of its high-tensile strength and low weight. Although CNTs differ substantially in physico-chemical properties, they share high aspect ratio which resembles that of asbestos and other fibers causing lung cancer and mesothelioma. One type of multi-walled CNTs (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2017.1367755DOI Listing
November 2017
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