489 results match your criteria Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis[Journal]


Surveillance of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Circulating and Salivary DNA Biomarkers.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):235-245

School of Dentistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) manifests in the mucosal epithelial lining of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx or larynx and has a tremendous disease burden worldwide. Smoking and alcohol consumption were once major risk factors, but HPV-associated infection has emerged as the major contributor to HNSCC occurrence in developed countries. Circulating biomarker evaluations in biofluids, also known as liquid biopsy, are an attractive alternative for cancer screening as they are minimally invasive, potentially low cost, and easily repeatable on a serial basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027689DOI Listing
January 2018
25 Reads

Immunotherapy for EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):219-234

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Province, China), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China; ZJU-UCLA Joint Center for Medical Education and Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang Province, China; Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, 70% of NPC patients have locally advanced disease at the first diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone and concurrent chemoradiotherapy are important treatment approaches for NPC, but they have a limited effect on patients with locally advanced or distantly metastatic disease. Read More

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http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/439f422d0783386a,5149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027528DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Regulation of Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Plasticity by Grainyhead-Like 2 During Oral Carcinogenesis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):201-217

The Shapiro Family Laboratory of Viral Oncology and Aging Research; Division of Constitutive and Regenerative Sciences, UCLA School of Dentistry; David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Grainyhead-Like 2 (GRHL2) was originally described as one of the three mammalian isoforms with sequence homology to Grainyhead (GRH) in Drosophila, which determines the cuticle formation in fruit flies. Earlier studies characterized GRHL2 as an epithelial-specific transcription factor that regulates epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, we discovered GRHL2 as a novel trans-regulator of the hTERT gene, which codes for the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027608DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

An Updated Review of Oral Cancer Stem Cells and Their Stemness Regulation.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):189-200

The Shapiro Family Laboratory of Viral Oncology and Aging Research, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs; also known as tumor-initiating cells) are a small population of cancer cells that retain characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells. CSCs are known to be responsible for metastasis, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. Thus, controlling CSCs may provide an effective therapeutic intervention that inhibits tumor growth and aggressiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436811PMC
January 2018
2 Reads

p53 and Cell Fate: Sensitizing Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cells to Chemotherapy.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):173-187

Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences, Endodontics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan College of Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI; Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI; Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Head and neck cancers are deadly diseases that are diagnosed annually in approximately half a million individuals worldwide. Growing evidence supporting a role for cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the pathobiology of head and neck cancers has led to increasing interest in identifying therapeutics to target these cells. Apart from the canonical tumor-suppressor functions of p53, emerging research supports a significant role for this protein in physiological stem cell and CSC maintenance and reprogramming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396309PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):161-171

UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ronald Reagan Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an immunosuppressive disease with multiple mechanisms to impair immune-mediated recognition and control of tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Based on successes experienced with cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of other solid tumors, considerable efforts are underway to develop immunotherapeutics that can enhance the host antitumor response to HNSCC. Promising results in preclinical studies and early clinical trials have been reported, prompting the FDA to approve the use of the immune checkpoint PD-1 receptor antagonist pembrolizumab for the treatment of platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic HNSCC in 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027641DOI Listing
January 2018
16 Reads

The Microbiome of Oral Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):153-160

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse NY 13210.

The pathogenesis of oral cancer is complex, and not all relevant factors involved in it have been determined. In particular, the role of the microbiota is not well understood because of difficulties in isolating and culturing its organisms. However, the recent development of metagenomic sequencing allows the discovery of all the DNA sequences in a specimen, and thus, the microbiome is now under intensive investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027422DOI Listing
January 2018
20 Reads

Current State of Knowledge on Salivary Gland Cancers.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(3-4):139-151

Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010.

Salivary gland cancers (SGCs), categorized as head and neck cancers (HNCs), constitute about 6% of head and neck cancer diagnoses based on estimate by American Head and Neck Society. Salivary gland tumors originate from different glandular cell types and are thus morphologically diverse. These tumors arise from any of the three major and various minor salivary glands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415949PMC
January 2018
1 Read

Molecular Responses of Cancers by Natural Products: Modifications of Autophagy Revealed by Literature Analysis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):347-370

Trend Research Centre, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung County 41354, Taiwan.

Although numerous bibliometric studies have examined various aspects of cancer research, the landscape of scientific studies focusing on natural products in cancer research has not been characterized. Using the Web of Science Core Collection online database, we identify and analyze scientific articles on natural products in cancer-related research. English is the language of publication for 99% of articles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027566DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Herbal Medicine in the Mitigation of Reactive Oxygen Species, Autophagy, and Cancer: A Review.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):333-346

Division of Growth and Development, Section of Orthodontics, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA.

Since the discovery of autophagy in the mid-2000s, the interest in autophagy-related processes within the scientific community has been burgeoning. Countless authors have investigated its function in cellular homeostasis, but arguably of higher importance is its role during pathology. Although primarily a catabolic process, in cancer cells autophagy has numerous downstream effects, being observed to be both pro- and anti-apoptotic. Read More

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http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/439f422d0783386a,476e
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027408DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

Driving Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells into Melanoma: If CCL5 Plays the Music, Autophagy Calls the Shots.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):321-332

Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, Luxembourg Institute of Health, L-1526 Luxembourg City, Luxembourg.

Autophagy is a quality control process executed at the basal level in almost all cell types. However, in cancer cells, autophagy is activated by several stimuli, including hypoxia. Depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context, autophagy is a double-edged sword. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027526DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Linking Autophagy and the Dysregulated NFκB/ SNAIL/YY1/RKIP/PTEN Loop in Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):307-320

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1747.

The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of various cancers has been well documented in many reports. Autophagy in cancer cells regulates cell proliferation, viability, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and responses to chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. These manifestations are the result of various regulatory gene products that govern autophagic, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370039PMC
January 2018
2 Reads

A New Linkage between the Tumor Suppressor RKIP and Autophagy: Targeted Therapeutics.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):281-305

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1747.

The complexities of molecular signaling in cancer cells have been hypothesized to mediate cross-network alterations of oncogenic processes such as uncontrolled cell growth, proliferation, acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and resistance to cytotoxic therapies. The two biochemically exclusive processes/proteins examined in the present review are the metastasis suppressor Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) and the cell-intrinsic system of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). RKIP is poorly expressed in human cancer tissues, and low expression levels are correlated with high incidence of tumor growth, metastasis, poor treatment efficacy, and poor prognoses in cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370048PMC
January 2018
18 Reads

Mechanism and Regulation of Autophagy in Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):269-280

DBT-IPLS Programme, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India.

Autophagy, or self-eating, is a catabolic process that plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis by carrying out bulk degradation of defective or superfluous proteins as well as worn-out organelles through a specialized structure, the autophagosome, which in turn fuses with the lysosome. Autophagy also alleviates cellular stress induced by nutrient deprivation, metabolic disturbance, hypoxia, and the like, by recycling intracellular constituents. This role of autophagy, to provide metabolic precursors especially upon starvation, might also contribute to the survival of cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018028394DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Autophagy and Hallmarks of Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(5-6):247-267

Ken & Ruth Davee Department of Neurology, Lou & Jean Malnati Brain Tumor Institute, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Autophagy is a catabolic program that is responsible for the degradation of dysfunctional or unnecessary proteins and organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. Mechanistically, it involves the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that sequester cytoplasmic material and deliver it to lysosomes for degradation. Eventually, the material is recycled back to the cytoplasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018027913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447410PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

Radiation and Brain Tumors: An Overview.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):119-138

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

The use of radiation is an essential part of both modern cancer diagnostic assessment and treatment. Next-generation imaging devices create 3D visualizations, allowing for better diagnoses and improved planning of precision treatment. This is particularly important for primary brain cancers such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or the most common primary brain tumor, glioblastoma, because radiotherapy is often the only treatment modality that offers a significant improvement in survival and quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025927DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

Radiation-Induced Gliomas.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):113-118

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics; Centre for Systems Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Radiation therapy has been a cornerstone of cancer management for many decades and is an integral part of the multi-modality care of patients with brain tumors. The known serious side effects of radiation therapy on the head or central nervous system are uncommon and include radiation necrosis, microangiopathy, and progressive leukencephalopathy. In addition, there have been descriptions of radiation-induced tumors including sarcomas, gliomas, lymphomas, and carcinomas of the thyroid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025740DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Secondary Malignancies in the Era of High-Precision Radiation Therapy.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):93-112

Maryland Proton Treatment Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Translational Radiation Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Although modern radiation therapy delivers a localized distribution of ionizing energy that can be used to cure primary cancers for many patients, the inevitable radiation exposure to non-targeted normal tissue leads to a risk of a radiation-related new cancer. Modern therapies often produce a complex spectrum of secondary particles, both charged and uncharged, that must be considered both in their physical radiation transport throughout the patient and their potential to induce biological damage, which depends on the microscopic energy deposition from the cascade of primary, secondary, and downstream particles. This work summarizes the experimental data for relative biological effectiveness for particles associated with modern radiotherapy in light of their capacity to induce secondary malignancies in patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025830DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Individual Response to Ionizing Radiation and Personalized Radiotherapy.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):69-92

OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology-OncoRay, Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Radiation therapy remains one of the most effective cancer treatments. Nevertheless, biology-driven personalized radiation therapy that enables treatment according to the biological characteristics of the individual tumors and normal tissues still needs to be implemented in the clinic. Understanding the mechanisms of radiation response in both tumors and normal tissues is necessary to develop reliable predictive biomarkers for tumor radioresistance and normal tissue toxicity as well as to exploit new therapeutic opportunities for tumor radiosensitization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018026308DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Profiles of Radioresistance Mechanisms in Prostate Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):39-67

Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Department of Urology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, cancer cells often develop resistance to radiation through unknown mechanisms and pose an intractable challenge. Radiation resistance is highly unpredictable, rendering the treatment less effective in many patients and frequently causing metastasis and cancer recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231577PMC
January 2018
4 Reads

Radiation-Induced Cell Death: Signaling and Pharmacological Modulation.

Authors:
Alex Philchenkov

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):13-37

Department of Oncohematology, R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Currently, more than half of newly diagnosed cancer patients receive radiation treatment. However, the radioresistance of tumor cells as well as the early and late side effects limit the beneficial outcome of radiotherapy. Accordingly, the innovative approaches to maximize tumor killing and/or minimize radiation toxicity remain a major focus of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018026148DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

DNA Methylation in Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Perspectives.

Crit Rev Oncog 2018 ;23(1-2):1-11

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Ionizing radiation is a valuable tool in many spheres of human life. At the same time, it is a genotoxic agent with a well-established carcinogenic potential. Progress achieved in the last two decades has demonstrated convincingly that ionizing radiation can also target the cellular epigenome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369919PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

Two Opposing Effects (Yin and Yang) Determine Cancer Progression.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):143-155

College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Research Institute of Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba and University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020882DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

YY1 in Cell Differentiation and Tissue Development.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):131-141

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumotologya, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Yin Yang1 (YY1) is a ubiquitous expressed transcription factor that modulates a variety of biologic processes with prominent roles in cellular differentiation and tissue development. Recent advances in molecular biology, mouse genetics, and particularly high-throughput sequencing have greatly enhanced our understanding of YY1 functions and underlying mechanisms in regulating transcription and epigenetics. In this review, we summarize findings on the roles of YY1 in cell differentiation and tissue development, in particular in muscle, nerve, and immune cells/tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017021311DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

The Multilayered Regulation of the Oncogenic Protein YY1.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):109-129

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

The multifunctional protein Yin Yang 1 (YY1) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. YY1 has been shown to be involved in the development, progression, resistance, and invasiveness of many types of cancers. Today, the value of YY1 as a prognostic marker and as a potential target in cancer therapy is being explored by multiple research groups around the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020959DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Yin Yang I as an Epimodulator of miRNAs in the Metastatic Cascade.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):99-107

Department of Biochemistry Biophysics and General Pathology University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy; Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Centre for Biotechnology College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Yin Yang 1 (YY1) belongs to the polycomb group (PcG) of proteins that modify chromatin epigenetically during dynamic regulation of their target genes. The predominant feature of YY1 is the zinc finger, an ancient structural motif that mediates protein-protein interactions and is capable of interacting with both DNA and RNA. Evidence reveals that YY1 acts predominantly as an epigenetic modulator, influencing the activity and/or localization of epigenetic modifiers molecules such as DNA methylation transferases, histone deacetylases, or non-coding RNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020855DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Physical Interaction of Human Yin Yang 1 Protein with DNA.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):75-97

Department of Physical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, Kraków 30-387, Poland.

Yin Yang 1 (YY1)'s interaction with DNA can result in various, even contradicting, effects on transcription in the form of initiation, activation, or repression. This surprising activity can be explained in the context of the YY1-DNA's complex structure. YY1's DNA-binding domain is formed by four zinc finger motifs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020976DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

The Forgotten YY2 in Reported YY1 Expression Levels in Human Cancers.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):63-73

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to be overexpressed in the majority of human cancers and that overexpression has prognostic significance. YY1 regulates several properties associated with cancer cells, including cell survival, cell proliferation, endothelial-mesenchymal transition, metastases, and resistance to both chemotherapeutics and immunotherapeutics. Although the majority of published reports focus on YY1 levels, little has been reported on the expression and activity of YY1 family member Yin Yang 2 (YY2). Read More

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http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/439f422d0783386a,4186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020475DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Targeting the Overexpressed YY1 in Cancer Inhibits EMT and Metastasis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):49-61

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

There have been recent developments in the treatment of various cancers, in particular non-metastatic cancers. However, many of the responding patients often relapse initially through the development of spread micro and macro-metastases. Unfortunately, there are very few therapeutic modalities for the treatment of metastatic cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955615PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Therapeutic YY1 Inhibitors in Cancer: ALL in ONE.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):37-47

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Various targeted therapies for cancer have resulted in a significant prolongation of survival and a better quality of life. However, unfortunately, a small subset of cancer patients responds to such therapies initially and then develops resistance after the initial therapies. Based on resistant mechanisms, it should be possible to develop new and specific targeted therapies effective against unresponsive patients. Read More

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http://www.dl.begellhouse.com/journals/439f422d0783386a,4186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020472DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Yin Yang 1 (YY1): Regulation of Survivin and Its Role In Invasion and Metastasis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):23-36

Department of Basic Science and Division of Biochemistry, Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California 92350.

Despite significant clinical and basic science advancements, cancer remains a devastating disease that affects people of all ages, races, and backgrounds. The pathogenesis of cancer has recently been described to result from eight biological capabilities or hallmarks and two enabling characteristics. These eight hallmarks are: deregulation of cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, and activating invasion and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108429PMC
April 2019
6 Reads

The Role of Transcription Factor YY1 in the Biology of Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):13-21

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado; Department of Surgery (Urology), University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado; University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Denver, Colorado.

The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in several biological functions, including embryogenesis, differentiation, replication, and cellular proliferation. YY1 can both activate and repress transcription depending on its interactions with other transcription factors and co-factors. It affects the transcription of a large number of mammalian and viral genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017021071DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

YY1 Is an Inducer of Cancer Metastasis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(1-2):1-11

College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; Department of Cancer Biology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a member of the GLI-Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins that plays vital roles in many biological processes, especially tumorigenesis. To date, ample evidence suggests a critical regulatory role of YY1 in tumor cell metastasis. The potential of YY1 as a valuable biomarker for cancer metastasis has been increasingly known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017021314DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Next-Generation Sequencing for Minimal Residual Disease Surveillance in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Update.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):559-567

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642.

Monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) is an important predictor of outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is used in risk stratification, prognosis determination, and therapy guidance. Several laboratory techniques have proven utility for characterizing leukemic cells and following MRD through diagnosis, remission and possible recurrence. Methods for determining MRD are based on the detection of leukemia-specific aberrant immunophenotypes by mulitparameter flow cytometry or the evaluation of leukemia-specific rearranged immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor sequences by quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020588DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Oncogenic Signaling Pathways and Pathway-Based Therapeutic Biomarkers in Lymphoid Malignancies.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):527-557

Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Lymphoma is characterized by heterogeneous biology, pathologic features, and clinical outcome. This has been proven by accumulating pathologic and molecular evidence attributed to underlying aberrant alterations at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, protein, microenvironmental levels, and dysregulated oncogenic signaling pathways. In the era of precision medicine, targeting oncogenic pathways to design drugs and to optimize treatment regimens for the lymphoma patients is feasible and clinically significant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5961736PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

Genomic Pathology and Cancer Biomarkers: Prostate Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):515-525

Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226.

Our understanding of genomic pathology and biomarkers for prostate cancer is continually growing. Some promising and useful tissue markers are GSTP1, HOXD3, cell cycle proteins, chromatin remodeling proteins, androgen receptor, Stat5a/b, ERG, and PTEN. Serum and urine markers are mostly either prostate-specific antigen or newer tests using one or more other kallikreins or sarcosine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020539DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Precise Diagnosis and Treatment of Thymic Epithelial Tumors Based on Molecular Biomarkers.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):507-514

Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Pathology, Jinling Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), including thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare malignant tumors. The mainstay of treatment patients with TET is surgical resection, and chemotherapy is necessary for patients with tumor invasion or metastasis who are unable to undergo complete radical excision. However, for those patients who are resistant to chemotherapy, targeted therapy has become the most popular tumor treatment program, as well as for thymic tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020577DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Eph Receptors: Actors in Tumor Microenvironment.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):499-505

Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210002, China.

Eph/ephrin signaling plays important roles both in embryonic development and human disease. The Eph receptors are involved in tumor development, progression, metastasis, and prognosis. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020557DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma and the Mesenchymal Counterparts: An Evolving Concept with Novel Insights on Clinicopathologic Features, Prognosis, Treatment, and Classification.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):481-497

Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Pathology, Jinling Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

The TFE3 gene is one of four members of the micropathalima-associated transcription factor family, along with TFEB, TFEC, and MiTF, located on chromosome Xp11.2. The site is notable for its involvement in translocation in Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the mesenchymal counterparts, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)/ melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer/melanotic Xp11 neoplasm, and alveolar soft-part sarcoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020558DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

The Roles of Chromatin Remodeling Genes in Pancreatic-Biliary Malignancies.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):471-479

Department of Surgery, San Bortolo Hospital, 36100 Vicenza, Italy.

Recent studies have definitively established that chromatin remodeling is a crucial epigenetic mechanism not only in physiological conditions but also in influencing cancer biology. It is a dynamic process in which the chromatin, the functional entity of DNA, can undergo specific modifications by obtaining transcriptional activation or transcriptional silencing. One of the most important recent discoveries in cancer genetics and genomics is that the genes involved in the establishment of chromatin structure, the so called chromatin remodelers, are frequently mutated in different types of human cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020587DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Precision in Diagnostic Molecular Pathology based on Immunohistochemistry.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):451-469

Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Pathology, Jinling Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an indispensable tool for molecular pathological diagnosis. It has been applied in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, the determination of tumor origin, cell differentiation, and the detection of microorganisms. By enabling the detection of proteins, IHC offers a platform for the assessment of genetic information from tumor genes and molecular pathological changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020548DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Epigenetic Modifications and Modulators in Prostate Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):439-450

Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona) and United Hospitals Ancona, Italy.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men. Its clinical behavior ranges from indolent to aggressive. The clinical and morphological methods and features currently adopted show a low predictive value concerning the definition of its level of aggressiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020964DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Biomarkers of DNA Repair and Related Pathways: Significance of Treatment in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):427-437

Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 121 Jiangjiayuan Rd, Nanjing 210011, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a complex heterogeneous disease that lacks the expressions of hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Although TNBC make up less than 20% of breast cancer, it accounts for a large number of metastatic cases and deaths. Currently, extensive efforts have been made to look for potentially biomolecular targets for TNBC treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020575DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Genomic Pathology and Biomarkers in Breast Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):411-426

Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 South First Ave, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. There are significant differences in morphology, immunophenotype, clinical behavior, and treatment response in breast cancer, which pose the greatest challenge for managing breast cancer patients. Great advances in breast cancer have been made at the molecular and genomic levels, which not only help us greatly in better understanding the heterogeneity and the carcinogenesis for breast cancer, but also help us in identifying new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.v22.i5-6.60DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Gene Fusions in Human Cancers: A Review Focused on Diagnostic Biomarkers, Method Selections, and Treatments.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):403-410

Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Department of Pathology, Jinling Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Recurrent gene fusions in cancers have been successfully applied in clinical diagnoses and treatments. Specific gene rearrangements or other specific cytogenetic translocations may be helpful in separating cancers from benign lesions. Also, the detection of gene fusions has brought great benefits to distinguish molecular subclassifications of cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020550DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Liquid Biopsies in the Management of Bladder Cancer: Next-Generation Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Treatment-Response Prediction.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):389-401

Departments of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA; Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

In this review, we discuss the types of liquid biopsies currently available, and their recent and potential clinical applications, especially as they relate to the detection of molecular biomarkers of bladder cancer. The advances in research using high-throughput next-generation genomic techniques have identified a number of promising molecular biomarkers of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Liquid biopsy has recently received enormous attention as a potential tool for real-time monitoring of disease status in cancer patients, and genomic profiles are reported to closely match those of corresponding tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020803DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Emerging Concepts and Methodologies in Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):371-388

Department of Pathology, University Medical Center of Princeton, Plainsboro, NJ, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Cancer biomarker discovery is a critical part of cancer prevention and treatment. Despite the decades of effort, only a small number of cancer biomarkers have been identified for and validated in clinical settings. Conceptual and methodological breakthroughs may help accelerate the discovery of additional cancer biomarkers, particularly their use for diagnostics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020626DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: Current Status.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(5-6):253-269

Departments of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA; Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. Given the biological heterogeneity in localized PCa and its variable clinical course, a personalized approach to patient risk stratification and management is needed. A variety of high-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, transcriptomic, epigenetic, and metabolomic modalities have led to an improved understanding of the genomic basis of PCa and the identification of PCa biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020500DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

The Long Evolutionary Journey of Cancer from Ancestor to Modern Humans.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(3-4):323-352

Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.

In this article, we review various key issues in cancer development and progression that have important implications for both cancer prevention and treatment: (1) evolutionary aspects of cancer appearance; (2) evidence of organ-specific adult stem cells as cancer-initiating cells; (3) the immortality of cancer-initiating cells; (4) cancer cell loss of growth control, contact inhibition, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis; (5) stem-cell versus de-differentiation theory of carcinogenesis; (6) mutations in cancer; (7) oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; (8) epigenetics as the rate-limiting step in carcinogenesis; (9) the potential role of cultural, lifestyle, and nutritional behaviors in oncology; and (10) changes of commensal microbial community and its metagenome in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Relevant, combined evidence is discussed from a standpoint whereby cancer is considered a multifaceted disease requiring integrated biomolecular and clinico-pathological information to design and implement strategies for either primary prevention or therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2018025227DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Complex Interplay Between Aging and Cancer: Role of TGF-β Signaling.

Crit Rev Oncog 2017 ;22(3-4):313-321

Department of Life Sciences, European University Cyprus, 6 Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Although cancer is known to be predominantly a disease of the elderly, it is also thought that aging and cancer may occur either via similar or opposing cellular mechanisms. Studies during the past decades were focused on understanding the molecular events underlying both processes, aiming to ultimately improve the quality of life and lifespan. However, these efforts were traditionally performed or viewed independently without considering the interplay between aging and cancer-promoting mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017025134DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads