769,343 results match your criteria Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [Journal]


Clipping of Basilar Perforator Pure Arterial Malformation Aneurysm: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Miami, Department of Neurosurgery, Miami, Florida.

Pure arterial malformations are rarely-encountered intracranial lesions, often mistaken for arteriovenous malformations. A minority of these lesions may harbor associated aneurysms. In a recent series of 12 patients with pure arterial malformations, 3 patients had associated aneurysms. Read More

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December 2018

New Directions in the Historiography of Psychiatry.

J Hist Med Allied Sci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of History, University of Rochester.

Gerald Grob's work in the history of psychiatry over the course of almost fifty years created a model for how historians might successfully situate mental health in its social and political context, and how inseparable it was from this context. Over the last twenty years, the field has grown tremendously. Historians have incorporated categories of analysis like gender and race, methodologies like cultural history and intellectual history, and sought to continue Grob's quest to understand American mental health history as a critical component of American history writ large. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of early enteral bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability in critically ill patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 12;60:106-111. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: In this study we sought to investigate the effect of early enteral bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability in intensive care unit (ICU)-hospitalized patients.

Methods: A total of 70 ICU-hospitalized adult patients were randomly assigned to receive a bovine colostrum supplement or placebo according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and admission category. Plasma endotoxin and zonulin concentrations were measured on days 5 and 10 of intervention. Read More

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October 2018

The growth impairment of salinized fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) plants is associated to changes in the hormonal balance.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 20;232:311-319. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Biology and Physiology of Organisms, BP 32, 16111, El Alia, Algeria.

Fenugreek is a legume cultivated for its medicinal value, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, where soil salinity is an increasing problem. In fact, salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting plant growth and productivity. Plant hormones are known to play vital roles in the ability of the plants to acclimatize to varying environments by mediating growth, development, and nutrient allocation. Read More

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November 2018

Stakeholder perspectives on implementing fentanyl drug checking: Results from a multi-site study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 13;194:527-532. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Hampton House 163, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The opioid epidemic is one of the greatest public health crises of our times, driven increasingly by synthetic opioids such as fentanyl in the heroin supply. The implementation of drug checking in community settings has the potential to reduce the burden of fatal overdose, provide harm reduction education around safer drug consumption, and increase health access among people who use drugs (PWUD). To inform program development, we explored stakeholder opinions on drug checking technologies and implementation considerations. Read More

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November 2018

Mobilising evidence to improve nursing practice: A qualitative study of leadership roles and processes in four countries.

Int J Nurs Stud 2018 Nov 27;90:21-30. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Education, Health, and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.

Background: The approach and style of leaders is known to be an important factor influencing the translation of research evidence into nursing practice. However, questions remain as to what types of roles are most effective and the specific mechanisms through which influence is achieved.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which key nursing roles lead the implementation of evidence-based practice across different care settings and countries and the contextual factors that influence them. Read More

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November 2018

Influence of drivers' psychological risk profiles on the effectiveness of traffic calming measures.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Dec 11;123:243-255. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56126, Pisa, Italy.

Road traffic injuries represent a serious public health problem and are one of leading cause of death, injury and disability around the world. Road accidents are often caused by an accumulation of factors; however, drivers appear to be by far the most decisive one. The driver's behaviour is complex and depends on reflex (or involuntary) and voluntary driving actions. Read More

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December 2018

Promoting opioid overdose prevention and recovery: An exploratory study of an innovative intervention model to address opioid abuse.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:21-29. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

NJ Division of Mental Health and Addiction Services, Office of Planning, Research, Evaluation and Prevention, 222 South Warren Street, Trenton, NJ 08625-0700, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Fatal opioid overdose is a national public health concern in the United States and a critical problem confronting New Jersey's addiction treatment system. New Jersey developed an innovative program, the Opioid Overdose Recovery Program (OORP), to address the epidemic and the issue of low treatment admissions following a non-fatal overdose. The OORP utilizes an intervention model with peer recovery specialists (RSs) and patient navigators (PNs) to engage individuals within emergency departments (EDs) immediately following an opioid overdose reversal. Read More

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December 2018

The effects of unintentional and intentional process disturbances on tablet quality during long continuous manufacturing runs.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Pharmacy, Promis Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

Several kinds of process disturbances can occur during (continuous) tablet manufacturing, i.e. unintentional or intentional disturbances. Read More

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December 2018

When is a "cryptic" species not a cryptic species: A consideration from the Holarctic micro-landsnail genus Euconulus (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137, Brno, Czechia. Electronic address:

Naive use of molecular data may lead to ambiguous conclusions, especially within the context of "cryptic" species. Here, we integrated molecular and morphometric data to evaluate phylogenetic relationships in the widespread terrestrial micro-snail genus, Euconulus. We analyzed mitochondrial (16S + COII) and nuclear (ITS1 + ITS2) sequence across 94 populations from Europe, Asia and North America within the nominate species E. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison and implementation of different control strategies for improving production of rHSA using Pichia pastoris.

J Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Recombinant protein production by various host organisms is strictly regulated, which is determined mainly by host cell genetics and maintenance of process variables within desirable limits in a reactor. Since the process dynamics typically exhibit nonlinear interactions amongst the critical process variables, the commonly employed controllers are suboptimal for control of most bioprocesses. In this article, we present the implementation of an augmented controller for improving the production of recombinant human serum albumin using Pichia pastoris. Read More

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December 2018

Self-Assembled GFFYK Peptide Hydrogel Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia Model.

Acta Biomater 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin 300071, China; The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, The College of Life Science, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has emerged as a very promising strategy for the treatments of peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, MSC-based therapies are limited by low cell retention and survival rate in the ischemic zone. Small molecular (SM) hydrogels have shown attractive abilities to enhance the therapeutic effects of human MSCs via promoting their proliferation or maintaining their differentiation potential. Read More

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December 2018
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Sex-Specific Association between Prenatal Life Stress Exposure and Infant Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels during Acute Respiratory Infection.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232-2650, USA.

Background: Prenatal life stress exposure is linked to dysregulated immune function and chronic inflammatory disease in offspring, but we know little about its effects on infant immune response during viral infection.

Method: To address this issue, we examined associations between prenatal life stress exposure and infant upper-airway inflammatory markers during acute respiratory infection (ARI) using data from a prospective, population-based birth-cohort study (N=180). Infant inflammation was measured as a continuous latent factor within a structural equation modeling framework using nasal wash concentrations of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Read More

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December 2018

Magnitude and correlates of postnatal care utilization among reproductive aged women in a rural district in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

Midwifery 2018 Dec 4;70:22-30. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Postnatal care is critical to detect and manage postpartum complications in the early stages as well as to prevent potentially life-threatening health conditions that lead to maternal death. However, postnatal care utilization is persistently low in Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to assess the magnitude and correlates of postnatal care utilization among reproductiveaged women in Kersa district, in eastern Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018

FTY720 inhibits the activation of pancreatic stellate cells by promoting apoptosis and suppressing autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin 300100, China; Nankai Clinical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300107, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. Any agents that can affect PSC activation could become potential candidates for treating pancreatic fibrosis. FTY720 can attenuate chronic pancreatic fibrosis by suppressing T-cell infiltration, but its effect on PSCs remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

USP14-mediated IκBα degradation exacerbates NF-κB activation and IL-1β-stimulated chondrocyte dedifferentiation.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Rehabilitation Department, the Third Hospital of Xingtai City, Xingtai City, Hebei 054000, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disease. USP14, a deubiquitinating enzyme critical for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal protein degradation, is implicated in inflammation regulation. However, its role and mechanism in OA are poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Peptide antibiotic trichogin in model membranes: Self-association and capture of fatty acids.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The antimicrobial action of peptides in bacterial membranes is commonly related to their mode of self-assembling which results in pore formation. To optimize peptide antibiotic use for therapeutic purposes, a study on the concentration dependence of self-assembling process is thus desirable. In this work, we investigate this dependence for peptaibol trichogin GA IV (Tric) in the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) model membrane in the range of peptide concentrations between 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Dissecting the Thermodynamic Contributions of the Charged Residues in the Membrane Anchoring of Bcl-xl C-Terminal Domain.

Chem Phys Lipids 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Bioinformatics Centre, Bose Institute, P-1/12 C.I.T. Scheme VII M, Kolkata, 700054, India. Electronic address:

The C-terminal helix of the Bcl-xl is known to initiate the membrane insertion of the protein by anchoring into the mitochondrial outer membrane. The C-terminal charged residues of that helix, R232, and K233, are reported to have an important structural role in the process of insertion. The present work provides a quantitative understanding of the thermodynamic contribution of these residues on the membrane insertion profile from Adaptive Biasing Force based MD simulations of 2. Read More

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December 2018

Stromal PTEN Regulates Extracellular Matrix Organization in the Mammary Gland.

Neoplasia 2018 Dec 11;21(1):132-145. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018
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Challenges and Demand for Modeling Disorders of Consciousness following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), many patients experience coma - an unresponsive state lacking wakefulness or awareness. Coma rarely lasts more than two weeks, and emergence involves passing through a state of wakefulness without awareness of self or environment. Patients that linger in these Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) undergo clinical assessments of awareness for diagnosis into Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (no awareness, also called vegetative state) or Minimally Conscious State (periodic increases in awareness). Read More

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December 2018

Ribosomal protein eL42 contributes to the catalytic activity of the yeast ribosome at the elongation step of translation.

Biochimie 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Sorbonne Université, Campus Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire "Enzymologie de l'ARN", SU-UR6; (Bâtiment B); Case courrier 60 - 4, Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 05, France.

The GGQ minidomain of the ribosomal protein eL42 was previously shown to contact the CCA-arm of P-site bound tRNA in human ribosome, indicating a possible involvement of the protein in the catalytic activity. Here, using Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) cells, we demonstrate that the GGQ minidomain and neighboring region of eL42 is critical for the ribosomal function. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of putative non-host essential genes and novel drug targets against Acinetobacter baumannii by in silico comparative genome analysis.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

Acinetobacter baumannii, the gram-negative bacteria emerged as an extremely critical pathogen causing nosocomial and different kinds of infections. A. baumannii exhibit resistivity towards various classes of antibiotics that shows that there is a dire need to search more drug targets by exploiting the full genome of the bacteria. Read More

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December 2018

A scoping review to map empirical evidence regarding key domains and questions in the clinical pathway of delirium in palliative care.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Palliative Care, Dept of Medicine, University of Ottawa; Ottawa, ON, Canada; Bruyère Continuing Care; Ottawa, ON, Canada; Bruyère Research Institute; Ottawa, ON, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Context: Based on the clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care (PC), a published analytic framework (AF) formulated research questions in key domains and recommended a scoping review to identify evidence gaps.

Objectives: To produce a literature map for key domains of the published AF: screening; prognosis and diagnosis; management and the health-related outcomes.

Methods: A standard scoping review framework was used by an interdisciplinary study team of nurse and physician delirium researchers, an information specialist and review methodologists to conduct the review. Read More

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December 2018

Detection of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens from Cerebrospinal Fluid by Next-Generation Sequencing Technology.

J Infect 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Bacterial meningitis remains one of the major challenges in infectious diseases, leading to sequel in many cases. A prompt diagnosis of the causative microorganism is critical to significantly improve outcome of bacterial meningitis. Although various targeted tests for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples are available, it is a big problem for the identification of etiology of bacterial meningitis. Read More

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December 2018

Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a Health-Related Quality of Life (QoL) instrument for Patients with Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) living in the United States.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

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December 2018

Combined Raman- and AFM-based detection of biochemical and nanomechanical features of endothelial dysfunction in aorta isolated from ApoE/LDLR-/- mice.

Nanomedicine 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Physiology II, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; Institute of Physiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as a critical condition in the development of cardiovascular disorders. This multifactorial process involves changes in the biochemical and mechanical properties of endothelial cells leading to disturbed release of vasoprotective mediators. Hypercholesterolemia and increased stiffness of the endothelial cortex are independently shown to result in reduced release of nitric oxide and thus endothelial dysfunction. Read More

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December 2018

Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

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December 2018

Drp1/Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation leads to lysosomal dysfunction in cardiac models of Huntington's disease.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances, is caused by CAG-repeat expansion in exon 1 of Huntingtin (HTT). However, in addition to the neurological disease, mutant HTT (mHTT), which is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, impairs other organ systems. Not surprisingly, cardiovascular dysautonomia as well as the deterioration of circadian rhythms are among the earliest detectable pathophysiological changes in individuals with HD. Read More

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December 2018

Identification and immune-related analysis of SNPs in Litopenaeus vannamei Toll3 receptor.

Immunol Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China. Electronic address:

Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as innate immune-recognition receptors that recognize molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens, play a critical role in antimicrobial immune responses. Here, we report on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Litopenaeus vannamei Toll3 (LvToll3). Multiple sequence alignment of the L. Read More

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December 2018

The cytochrome b lysine 329 residue is critical for ubihydroquinone oxidation and proton release at the Q site of bacterial cytochrome bc.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

The ubihydroquinone:cytochrome (cyt) c oxidoreductase (or cyt bc) is an important enzyme for photosynthesis and respiration. In bacteria like Rhodobacter capsulatus, this membrane complex has three subunits, the iron‑sulfur protein (ISP) with its FeS cluster, cyt c and cyt b, forming two catalytic domains, the Q (hydroquinone (QH) oxidation) and Q (quinone (Q) reduction) sites. At the Q site, the electron transfer pathways originating from QH oxidation are known, but their associated proton release routes are less well defined. Read More

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December 2018

The Drying Kinetics of Salt Solution Droplets: Water Evaporation Rates and Crystallisation.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The drying and crystallisation of solution droplets is a problem of broad relevance, determining the micro-structures of particles formed in spray drying, the phase of particles delivered by, for example, aerosol formulations for inhalation therapies, and the impact of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate. The ephemeral nature of free-droplets, particularly when considering the drying kinetics of droplets with highly volatile constituents, has often precluded the accurate measurement of transient properties such as droplet size and composition, preventing the robust assessment of predictive models of droplet drying rates, nucleation and crystallisation. Here, we report novel measurements of the drying kinetics of individual aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets using a comparative-kinetics electrodynamic balance to isolate and trap single aerosol droplets (radius ~ 25 µm). Read More

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December 2018

Glandular defects in the mouse uterus with sustained activation of TGF-beta signaling is associated with altered differentiation of endometrial stromal cells and formation of stromal compartment.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209417. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Uterine gland development, also known as adenogenesis, is a key uterine morphogenic process indispensable for normal uterine function and fertility. Our earlier studies have reported that overactivation of TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in the mouse uterus using progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase causes female infertility, defective decidualization, and reduced uterine gland formation, a developmental milestone of postnatal uterus. To understand mechanisms that underpin the disrupted uterine gland formation in mice with sustained activation of TGFBR1, we raised the question of whether early postnatal adenogenesis was compromised in these mice. Read More

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December 2018

Dissecting the regulation and function of ATP at the single-cell level.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 14;16(12):e3000095. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Quantitative Biology and Peking-Tsinghua Joint Center for Life Sciences, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Regulation of cellular ATP level is critical for diverse biological processes and may be defective in diseases such as cancer and mitochondrial disorders. While mitochondria play critical roles in ATP level regulation, we still lack a systematic and quantitative picture of how individual mitochondrial-related genes contribute to cellular ATP level and how dysregulated ATP levels may affect downstream cellular processes. Advances in genetically encoded ATP biosensors have provided new opportunities for addressing these issues. Read More

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December 2018

Enteropathogenic E. coli relies on collaboration between the formin mDia1 and the Arp2/3 complex for actin pedestal biogenesis and maintenance.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 14;14(12):e1007485. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America.

Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely related extracellular pathogens that reorganize host cell actin into "pedestals" beneath the tightly adherent bacteria. This pedestal-forming activity is both a critical step in pathogenesis, and it makes EPEC and EHEC useful models for studying the actin rearrangements that underlie membrane protrusions. Read More

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December 2018

Using a coupled dynamic factor - random forest analysis (DFRFA) to reveal drivers of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208400. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude, and spatial distribution of the key environmental and socioeconomic factors driving vegetation change in a southern African savanna. This research was conducted across the Kwando, Okavango and Zambezi catchments of southern Africa (Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zambia) and explored vegetation cover change across the region from 2001-2010. Read More

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December 2018

Procalcitonin and other markers to guide antibiotic use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in the era of antimicrobial resistance.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Diseases Capital Medical University.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the latest discoveries regarding the use of clinical indicators and biomarkers to guide antibiotic use in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), and it analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various indicators and markers.

Recent Findings: For AECOPD patients admitted to emergency departments and medical wards, procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic therapy reduced antibiotic use without adverse outcomes. In contrast, for severe AECOPD patients admitted to ICUs, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy increased the overall mortality in a 3-month follow-up period, and antibiotic use was not decreased. Read More

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December 2018
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Ocular Considerations in Face Transplantation: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery and.

Purpose: Periorbital injuries are common in face transplantation (FT) candidates. It is therefore essential that the ophthalmologist play a central role in the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients. In this study, the authors perform a comprehensive review of all procedures involving periorbital components, provide an update for the ophthalmology community regarding the current state of the field, and present 2 cases. Read More

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December 2018
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A Case Report Describing the Use of Point of Care Ultrasound to Guide Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation After Unanticipated Arrest in Ambulatory Surgery.

A A Pract 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

From the Department of Anesthesia, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

We present a case of a 41-year-old man who suffered cardiac arrest after induction of general anesthesia for an ambulatory ophthalmologic procedure. In this report, we highlight the use of focused transthoracic echocardiography by the anesthesia team to guide a prolonged resuscitation. Emergency room and critical care physicians have described the use of focused echocardiography to aid in diagnosing correctible causes of cardiac arrest, predicting outcomes, and in decision making regarding termination of resuscitation. Read More

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December 2018

In Reply.

Anesthesiology 2019 Jan;130(1):174-175

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (S.S.).

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January 2019

Succinylcholine Use and Dantrolene Availability for Malignant Hyperthermia Treatment: Database Analyses and Systematic Review.

Anesthesiology 2019 Jan;130(1):41-54

From The North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2000 through 2017; M.G.L., B.W.B.) Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (2018; M.G.L.) Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (T.T.K., M.T.V., S.K.) Department of Nurse Anesthesia, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2016 through 2018; B.W.B.) Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine (K.G.B., T.W.K., J.C.) School of Public Health (K.G.B.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (E.L.S.) Department of Anesthesiology (A.H.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (J.L.) Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (S.R.) Department of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Egleston Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia (D.M.). Current positions: Dr. Larach is now at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Sivak is now at the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Beaumont Health, Dearborn, Michigan Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, Michigan Beaumont Health, Farmington Hills, Michigan Beaumont Health, Grosse Pointe, Michigan Bronson Healthcare, Battle Creek, Michigan Bronson Healthcare, Kalamazoo, Michigan CHOC Children's Hospital, Orange, California Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, Michigan Holland Hospital, Holland, Michigan Mercy Health, Muskegon, Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care, and Pain Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon St. Joseph Mercy, Ann Arbor, Michigan St. Joseph Mercy Oakland, Pontiac, Michigan St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, Michigan Sparrow Health System, Lansing, Michigan Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado Department of Anesthesiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Department of Anesthesiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, Tennessee Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Department of Anesthesiology, University of Vermont, Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

What We Already Know About This Topic: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Although dantrolene effectively treats malignant hyperthermia (MH), discrepant recommendations exist concerning dantrolene availability. Whereas Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States guidelines state dantrolene must be available within 10 min of the decision to treat MH wherever volatile anesthetics or succinylcholine are administered, a Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia protocol permits Class B ambulatory facilities to stock succinylcholine for airway rescue without dantrolene. The authors investigated (1) succinylcholine use rates, including for airway rescue, in anesthetizing/sedating locations; (2) whether succinylcholine without volatile anesthetics triggers MH warranting dantrolene; and (3) the relationship between dantrolene administration and MH morbidity/mortality. Read More

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January 2019

Computed Tomography Imaging for Novel Therapies of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg.

Novel therapeutic options in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require delicate patient selection and thus demand for expert radiologists visually and quantitatively evaluating high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with additional functional acquisitions such as paired inspiratory-expiratory scans or dynamic airway CT. The differentiation between emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes by imaging has immediate clinical value for patient management. Assessment of emphysema severity, distribution patterns, and fissure integrity are essential for stratifying patients for different surgical and endoscopic lung volume reduction procedures. Read More

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December 2018

Factors Associated With Long-Term Outcomes After Injury: Results of the Functional Outcomes and Recovery After Trauma Emergencies (FORTE) Multicenter Cohort Study.

Ann Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with patient-reported outcomes, 6 to 12 months after moderate to severe injury.

Summary Of Background Data: Due to limitations of trauma registries, we have an incomplete understanding of factors that impact long-term patient-reported outcomes after injury. As 96% of patients survive their injuries, several entities including the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine have called for a mechanism to routinely follow trauma patients and determine factors associated with survival, patient-reported outcomes, and reintegration into society after trauma. Read More

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December 2018

The utility of trans thoracic echocardiograhic measures of right ventricular systolic function in a lung resection cohort.

Echo Res Pract 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Shelley, Anaesthesia, Pain and Critical Care Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction occurs following lung resection and is associated with post-operative complications and long-term functional morbidity. Accurate peri-operative assessment of RV function would have utility in this population. The difficulties of trans thoracic echocardiographic (TTE) assessment of RV function may be compounded following lung resection surgery and no parameters have been validated in this patient group. Read More

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December 2018

Coordination of Care Around Surgery for Colon Cancer: Insights From National Patterns of Physician Encounters With Medicare Beneficiaries.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec 14:JOP1800228. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Purpose:: To improve care coordination for complex cancers, it is critical to establish a more nuanced understanding of the types of providers involved. As the number of provider types increases, strategies to support cancer care coordination must adapt to a greater variety of information needs, communication styles, and treatment strategies.

Methods:: We categorized providers into 11 types, using National Provider Identifier specialties. Read More

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December 2018

Compliance with vaccination schedules.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Medical School , European University , Cyprus.

Childhood immunization is amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions for reducing children's morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is commonly used to assess the vaccination status of a community. Adherence to schedule is critical for providing maximum effectiveness against vaccine-preventable diseases in the community. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of High Fat Diet on Vasoconstrictor Reactivity of White and Brown Adipose Tissue Resistance Arteries.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Internal Medicine-Division of Geriatrics, University of Utah, United States.

Blood flow regulation is a critical factor for tissue oxygenation and substrate supply. Increased reactivity of arteries to vasoconstrictors may increase vascular resistance, resulting in reduced blood flow. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat (HF) diet on stiffness and vasoconstrictor reactivity of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) resistance arteries and also investigated the interconversion of both the adipose depots during HF diet condition. Read More

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December 2018

Motion fluency and object preference: Robust perceptual but fragile memory effects.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

In 8 experiments, we investigated motion fluency effects on object preference. In each experiment, distinct objects were repeatedly seen moving either fluently (with a smooth and predictable motion) or disfluently (with sudden and unpredictable direction changes) in a task where participants were required to respond to occasional brief changes in object appearance. Results show that (a) fluent objects are preferred over disfluent objects when ratings follow a moving presentation, (b) there is some evidence that object-motion associations can be learned with repeated exposures, (c) sufficiently potent motions can yield preference for fluent objects after a single viewing, and (d) learned associations do not transfer to situations where ratings follow a stationary presentation, even after deep levels of encoding. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra-High Evaporative Heat Fluxes in Nano-Confined Geometries.

Langmuir 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Advancement in high-performance photonics/electronics devices has amplified generated thermal energy making thermal management a bottleneck for the accelerated innovation in these disciplines. While various methods have been used to tackle the thermal management problem, evaporation with nanometer fluid thickness is one of the most promising approaches for future technological demands. Here, we studied thin-film evaporation in nanochannels under absolute negative pressure in both transient and steady-state conditions. Read More

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December 2018
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