602 results match your criteria Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [Journal]


Inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and/or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and its implication in the treatment of cancers.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Feb 18:1-20. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

b Department of Chemistry , McGill University , Montreal , Canada.

Dysregulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis is implicated in numerous biochemical disorders that play a role in the onset and/or progression of age-related diseases, such as hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, various cancers, and neurodegeneration. The mevalonate metabolic pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of the two key isoprenoid metabolites, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). Post-translational prenylation of various proteins, including the small GTP-binding proteins (GTPases), with either FPP or GGPP is vital for proper localization and activation of these proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2019.1568964DOI Listing
February 2019

A concert of RNA-binding proteins coordinates mitochondrial function.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec;53(6):652-666

a Institute for Genetics and Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne , Cologne , Germany.

Mitochondria are dynamic and plastic organelles, which flexibly adapt morphology, ATP production, and metabolic function to meet extrinsic challenges and demands. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential during development and in adult life to survive stress and pathological insults, and is achieved not only by increasing mitochondrial mass, but also by remodeling the organellar proteome, metabolome, and lipidome. In the last decade, the post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins has emerged as a fast, flexible, and powerful mechanism to shape mitochondrial function and coordinate it with other cellular processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1553927DOI Listing
December 2018

Rab-dependent cellular trafficking and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec;53(6):623-651

a Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Centre for MND Research , Macquarie University , Sydney , Australia.

Rab GTPases are becoming increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, although their role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been somewhat overlooked. However, dysfunction of intracellular transport is gaining increasing attention as a pathogenic mechanism in ALS. Many previous studies have focused axonal trafficking, and the extreme length of axons in motor neurons may contribute to their unique susceptibility in this disorder. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1553926DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

A tumor suppressive DNA translocase named FANCM.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Feb 4:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

a Institute of Human Genetics (IGH), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université de Montpellier (UM) , Montpellier , France.

FANCM is named after Fanconi anemia (FA) complement group M. The clinical symptoms of FA include congenital abnormalities, pancytopenia, and cancer proneness. However, recent studies reveal that biallelic inactivation of FANCM does not cause the constellation of FA symptoms, but predisposes patients to cancer and infertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2019.1568963DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The ZZ domain as a new epigenetic reader and a degradation signal sensor.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jan 28:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

a Department of Pharmacology , University of Colorado School of Medicine , Aurora , CO , USA.

Although relatively small in size, the ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain is a versatile signaling module that is implicated in a diverse set of cell signaling events. Here, we highlight the most recent studies focused on the ZZ domain function as a histone reader and a sensor of protein degradation signals. We review and compare the molecular and structural mechanisms underlying targeting the amino-terminal sequences of histone H3 and arginylated substrates by the ZZ domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1564730DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
7.714 Impact Factor

Molecular intricacies of aerobic glycolysis in cancer: current insights into the classic metabolic phenotype.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 22;53(6):667-682. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

a The Division of Interventional Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology & Radiological Science , The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Aerobic glycolysis is the process of oxidation of glucose into pyruvate followed by lactate production under normoxic condition. Distinctive from its anaerobic counterpart (i.e. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1556578DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

SLX4: multitasking to maintain genome stability.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Oct 4;53(5):475-514. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

a CRCM, CNRS, INSERM, Aix Marseille Univ, Institut Paoli-Calmettes , Marseille , France.

The SLX4/FANCP tumor suppressor has emerged as a key player in the maintenance of genome stability, making pivotal contributions to the repair of interstrand cross-links, homologous recombination, and in response to replication stress genome-wide as well as at specific loci such as common fragile sites and telomeres. SLX4 does so in part by acting as a scaffold that controls and coordinates the XPF-ERCC1, MUS81-EME1, and SLX1 structure-specific endonucleases in different DNA repair and recombination mechanisms. It also interacts with other important DNA repair and cell cycle control factors including MSH2, PLK1, TRF2, and TOPBP1 as well as with ubiquitin and SUMO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1488803DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Transcriptional quiescence in primordial germ cells.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 3;53(6):579-595. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

a Institute of Gene Biology , Russian Academy of Sciences , Moscow , Russia.

In most animal species, newly formed primordial germ cells (PGCs) acquire the special characteristics that distinguish them from the surrounding somatic cells. Proper fate specification of the PGCs is coupled with transcriptional quiescence, whether they are segregated by determinative or inductive mechanisms. Inappropriate differentiation of PGCs into somatic cells is thought to be prevented due to repression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II-dependent transcription. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1506733DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

A structural perspective on the PP-loop ATP pyrophosphatase family.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 3;53(6):607-622. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Michigan State University , East Lansing , MI , USA.

Derived from an ancient ATP-hydrolyzing Rossmann-like fold protein, members of the PP-loop ATP pyrophosphatase family feature an absolutely conserved P-loop-like "SxGxDS/T" motif used for binding and presenting ATP for substrate adenylylation (AMPylation). Since the first family member was reported more than 20 years ago, numerous representatives catalyzing very diverse reactions have been characterized both functionally and structurally. The availability of more than 100 high quality structures in the protein data bank provides an excellent opportunity to gain structural insights into the generally conserved catalytic mechanism and the uniqueness of the reactions catalyzed by family members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1516728DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Processing and roles of snoRNA-ended long noncoding RNAs.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 25;53(6):596-606. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

a State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology , Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai , China.

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a family of conserved nuclear RNAs that function in the modification of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) or ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), or participate in the processing of rRNAs during ribosome subunit maturation. Eukaryotic DNA transcription and RNA processing produce many long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) species. Although most lncRNAs are processed like typical mRNAs to be 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated, other types of lncRNAs are stabilized from primary Pol II transcripts by alternative mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1508411DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Exosomes at a glance - common nominators for cancer hallmarks and novel diagnosis tools.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Oct 24;53(5):564-577. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

a MEDFUTURE - Research Center for Advanced Medicine "Iuliu-Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca , Romania.

Cancer represents a heterogeneous disease with multiple levels of regulation and a dynamic environment that sustains the evolution of the malignant mass. This dynamic is in part sustained by a class of extracellular vesicles termed exosomes that are able to imprint the pathological state by incorporating differential cargos in order to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes are stable within the extracellular medium and function as shuttles secreted by healthy or pathological cells, being further taken by the accepting cell with direct effects on its phenotype. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1508276DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

New insights into the structure of PINK1 and the mechanism of ubiquitin phosphorylation.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Oct 21;53(5):515-534. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

b Groupe de Recherche Axé sur la Structure des Protéines (GRASP) , Montréal , Canada.

Mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset recessive Parkinson's disease. This gene encodes a protein kinase implicated in mitochondrial quality control via ubiquitin phosphorylation and activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Here, we review and analyze functional features emerging from recent crystallographic, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry studies of PINK1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1491525DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

The Src module: an ancient scaffold in the evolution of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Oct 5;53(5):535-563. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

a Department of Molecular and Cell Biology , University of California , Berkeley , CA , USA.

Tyrosine kinases were first discovered as the protein products of viral oncogenes. We now know that this large family of metazoan enzymes includes nearly one hundred structurally diverse members. Tyrosine kinases are broadly classified into two groups: the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, which sense extracellular stimuli, and the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, which contain modular ligand-binding domains and propagate intracellular signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1495173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328253PMC
October 2018
11 Reads

A compendium of chemical and genetic approaches to light-regulated gene transcription.

Authors:
Robert M Hughes

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Oct 24;53(5):453-474. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

a Department of Chemistry , East Carolina University , Greenville , NC , USA.

On-cue regulation of gene transcription is an invaluable tool for the study of biological processes and the development and integration of next-generation therapeutics. Ideal reagents for the precise regulation of gene transcription should be nontoxic to the host system, highly tunable, and provide a high level of spatial and temporal control. Light, when coupled with protein or small molecule-linked photoresponsive elements, presents an attractive means of meeting the demands of an ideal system for regulating gene transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1487382DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Organization of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface and its physiopathological relevance.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Aug 24;53(4):403-419. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

b Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II , Napoli , Italy.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a class of proteins attached to the extracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane via a post-translational modification, the glycolipid anchor. The presence of both glycolipid anchor and protein portion confers them unique features. GPI-APs are expressed in all eukaryotes, from fungi to plants and animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1485627DOI Listing
August 2018
13 Reads

The molecular era of protein S-acylation: spotlight on structure, mechanisms, and dynamics.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Aug 12;53(4):420-451. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

a Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences , Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Lausanne , Switzerland.

S-Acylation (commonly referred to as S-palmitoylation) is a post-translational modification consisting in the covalent attachment of an acyl chain to a cysteine residue of the target protein. The lability of the resulting thioester bond gives S-acylation an essential characteristic: its reversibility. S-acylation dynamically regulates different aspects in the life of a protein (including stability, localization, interactome, and function) and, thus, plays critical roles in cellular physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1488804DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

Ribonucleotide discrimination by translesion synthesis DNA polymerases.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Aug 4;53(4):382-402. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

a Laboratory of Genomic Integrity , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , MD , USA.

The well-being of all living organisms relies on the accurate duplication of their genomes. This is usually achieved by highly elaborate replicase complexes which ensure that this task is accomplished timely and efficiently. However, cells often must resort to the help of various additional "specialized" DNA polymerases that gain access to genomic DNA when replication fork progression is hindered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1483889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261451PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Ironing out siderophore biosynthesis: a review of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-independent siderophore synthetases.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Aug 4;53(4):356-381. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

a Department of Biological Sciences , Simon Fraser University , Burnaby , Canada.

Iron is required for microbial growth and proliferation. To survive in low-iron environments, some microorganisms secrete ferric iron chelators called siderophores. Siderophore biosynthesis occurs via two pathways: the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) synthetase pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1476449DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Bacterial regulatory RNAs: complexity, function, and putative drug targeting.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Aug 24;53(4):335-355. Epub 2018 May 24.

a Advanced Medical & Dental Institute (AMDI), Universiti Sains Malaysia , Kepala Batas , Malaysia.

Over the past decade, RNA-deep sequencing has uncovered copious non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNAs) in bacteria. Many of them are key players in the regulation of gene expression, taking part in various regulatory circuits, such as metabolic responses to different environmental stresses, virulence, antibiotic resistance, and host-pathogen interactions. This has contributed to the high adaptability of bacteria to changing or even hostile environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1473330DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads
7.714 Impact Factor

Isoprenoids and protein prenylation: implications in the pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of Alzheimer's disease.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06;53(3):279-310

a Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , MN , USA.

The mevalonate-isoprenoid-cholesterol biosynthesis pathway plays a key role in human health and disease. The importance of this pathway is underscored by the discovery that two major isoprenoids, farnesyl and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, are required to modify an array of proteins through a process known as protein prenylation, catalyzed by prenyltransferases. The lipophilic prenyl group facilitates the anchoring of proteins in cell membranes, mediating protein-protein interactions and signal transduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1458070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6101676PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Functions of the sirtuin deacylase SIRT5 in normal physiology and pathobiology.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06 11;53(3):311-334. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

a Department of Pathology , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.

Sirtuins are NAD-dependent protein deacylases/ADP-ribosyltransferases that have emerged as candidate targets for new therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders and other diseases, including cancer. The sirtuin SIRT5 resides primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the removal of negatively charged lysine acyl modifications; succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups. Evidence has now accumulated to document the roles of SIRT5 as a significant regulator of cellular homeostasis, in a context- and cell-type specific manner, as has been observed previously for other sirtuin family members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1458071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233320PMC
June 2018
4 Reads
2 Citations
7.714 Impact Factor

Complexities of post-transcriptional regulation and the modeling of ceRNA crosstalk.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06 23;53(3):231-245. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

a MRC Human Genetics Unit within the Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine , University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , UK.

Control of gene and protein expression is required for cellular homeostasis and is disrupted in disease. Following transcription, mRNA turnover and translation is modulated, most notably by microRNAs (miRNAs). This modulation is controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that alter the availability of miRNAs for target binding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1447542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935048PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Cryptides: latent peptides everywhere.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06 22;53(3):246-263. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

c Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente , Università di Cagliari , Cagliari , Italy.

Proteomic surveys with top-down platforms are today revealing thousands of naturally occurring fragments of bigger proteins. Some of them have not functional meaning because they derive from pathways responsible for protein degradation, but many have specific functions, often completely different from that one of the parent proteins. These peptides encrypted in the protein sequence are nowadays called cryptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1447543DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

The hedgehog pathway in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06 20;53(3):264-278. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

a Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine , Duke University Medical Center , Durham , NC , USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of obesity-associated liver diseases and it has become the major cause of cirrhosis in the Western world. The high prevalence of NAFLD-associated advanced liver disease reflects both the high prevalence of obesity-related fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) and the lack of specific treatments to prevent hepatic steatosis from progressing to more serious forms of liver damage, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary liver cancer. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, and not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1448752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033520PMC
June 2018
6 Reads

Protein kinase C: perfectly balanced.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04;53(2):208-230

a Department of Pharmacology , University of California at San Diego , La Jolla , CA , USA.

Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes belong to a family of Ser/Thr kinases whose activity is governed by reversible release of an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate. For conventional and novel isozymes, this is effected by binding the lipid second messenger, diacylglycerol, but for atypical PKC isozymes, this is effected by binding protein scaffolds. PKC shot into the limelight following the discovery in the 1980s that the diacylglycerol-sensitive isozymes are "receptors" for the potent tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1442408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901981PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Structural fingerprints, interactions, and signaling networks of RAS family proteins beyond RAS isoforms.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 19;53(2):130-156. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

a Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Medical Faculty , Heinrich-Heine University , Düsseldorf , Germany.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1431605DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Mesoscale organization of domains in the plasma membrane - beyond the lipid raft.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 18;53(2):192-207. Epub 2018 Feb 18.

a Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital , Toronto , Canada.

The plasma membrane is compartmentalized into several distinct regions or domains, which show a broad diversity in both size and lifetime. The segregation of lipids and membrane proteins is thought to be driven by the lipid composition itself, lipid-protein interactions and diffusional barriers. With regards to the lipid composition, the immiscibility of certain classes of lipids underlies the "lipid raft" concept of plasmalemmal compartmentalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1436515DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Rce1: mechanism and inhibition.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 9;53(2):157-174. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

c Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , University of Georgia , Athens , GA , USA.

Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1) is an integral membrane endoprotease localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that mediates the cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal three amino acids from CaaX proteins, whose members play important roles in cell signaling processes. Examples include the Ras family of small GTPases, the γ-subunit of heterotrimeric GTPases, nuclear lamins, and protein kinases and phosphatases. CaaX proteins, especially Ras, have been implicated in cancer, and understanding the post-translational modifications of CaaX proteins would provide insight into their biological function and regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1431606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874806PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Greasing the wheels or a spanner in the works? Regulation of the cardiac sodium pump by palmitoylation.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 9;53(2):175-191. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

a Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK.

The ubiquitous sodium/potassium ATPase (Na pump) is the most abundant primary active transporter at the cell surface of multiple cell types, including ventricular myocytes in the heart. The activity of the Na pump establishes transmembrane ion gradients that control numerous events at the cell surface, positioning it as a key regulator of the contractile and metabolic state of the myocardium. Defects in Na pump activity and regulation elevate intracellular Na in cardiac muscle, playing a causal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1432560DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Expanding the boundary of biocatalysis: design and optimization of in vitro tandem catalytic reactions for biochemical production.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 04 7;53(2):115-129. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana , IL , USA.

Biocatalysts have been increasingly used in the synthesis of fine chemicals and medicinal compounds due to significant advances in enzyme discovery and engineering. To mimic the synergistic effects of cascade reactions catalyzed by multiple enzymes in nature, researchers have been developing artificial tandem enzymatic reactions in vivo by harnessing synthetic biology and metabolic engineering tools. There is also growing interest in the development of one-pot tandem enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic processes in vitro due to their neat and concise catalytic systems and product purification procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2018.1431201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112242PMC
April 2018
31 Reads

The impact of non-genetic heterogeneity on cancer cell death.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 18;53(1):99-114. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

a Cancer Biology Program , Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , CA , USA.

The goal of cancer chemotherapy is to induce homogeneous cell death within the population of targeted cancer cells. However, no two cells are exactly alike at the molecular level, and sensitivity to drug-induced cell death, therefore, varies within a population. Genetic alterations can contribute to this variability and lead to selection for drug resistant clones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1412395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089072PMC
February 2018
10 Reads

Protein depalmitoylases.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 14;53(1):83-98. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

a Program in Chemical Biology , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.

Protein depalmitoylation describes the removal of thioester-linked long chain fatty acids from cysteine residues in proteins. For many S-palmitoylated proteins, this process is promoted by acyl protein thioesterase enzymes, which catalyze thioester hydrolysis to solubilize and displace substrate proteins from membranes. The closely related enzymes acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1; LYPLA1) and acyl protein thioesterase 2 (APT2; LYPLA2) were initially identified from biochemical assays as G protein depalmitoylases, yet later were shown to accept a number of S-palmitoylated protein and phospholipid substrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1409191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6009847PMC
February 2018
8 Reads

Sources of spontaneous mutagenesis in bacteria.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 6;53(1):29-48. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

a Department of Bacteriology , University of Wisconsin - Madison , Madison , WI , USA.

Mutations in an organism's genome can arise spontaneously, that is, in the absence of exogenous stress and prior to selection. Mutations are often neutral or deleterious to individual fitness but can also provide genetic diversity driving evolution. Mutagenesis in bacteria contributes to the already serious and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1394262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975382PMC
February 2018
49 Reads

What is all this fuss about Tus? Comparison of recent findings from biophysical and biochemical experiments.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 6;53(1):49-63. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

a Department of Bionanoscience , Kavli institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology , Delft , the Netherlands.

Synchronizing the convergence of the two-oppositely moving DNA replication machineries at specific termination sites is a tightly coordinated process in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, a "replication fork trap" - found within a chromosomal region where forks are allowed to enter but not leave - is set by the protein-DNA roadblock Tus-Ter. The exact sequence of events by which Tus-Ter blocks replisomes approaching from one direction but not the other has been the subject of controversy for many decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1394264DOI Listing
February 2018
10 Reads

Specificity of reversible ADP-ribosylation and regulation of cellular processes.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 3;53(1):64-82. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

a Sir William Dunn School of Pathology , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

Proper and timely regulation of cellular processes is fundamental to the overall health and viability of organisms across all kingdoms of life. Thus, organisms have evolved multiple highly dynamic and complex biochemical signaling cascades in order to adapt and survive diverse challenges. One such method of conferring rapid adaptation is the addition or removal of reversible modifications of different chemical groups onto macromolecules which in turn induce the appropriate downstream outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1394265DOI Listing
February 2018
6 Reads

Finding the needle in the haystack: towards solving the protein-folding problem computationally.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2018 02 4;53(1):1-28. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

a Department of Chemistry , Vanderbilt University , Nashville , TN , USA.

Prediction of protein tertiary structures from amino acid sequence and understanding the mechanisms of how proteins fold, collectively known as "the protein folding problem," has been a grand challenge in molecular biology for over half a century. Theories have been developed that provide us with an unprecedented understanding of protein folding mechanisms. However, computational simulation of protein folding is still difficult, and prediction of protein tertiary structure from amino acid sequence is an unsolved problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1380596DOI Listing
February 2018
50 Reads

Functions of SMARCAL1, ZRANB3, and HLTF in maintaining genome stability.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 28;52(6):696-714. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

a Department of Biochemistry , Vanderbilt University School of Medicine , Nashville , TN , USA.

A large number of SNF2 family, DNA and ATP-dependent motor proteins are needed during transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair to manipulate protein-DNA interactions and change DNA structure. SMARCAL1, ZRANB3, and HLTF are three related members of this family with specialized functions that maintain genome stability during DNA replication. These proteins are recruited to replication forks through protein-protein interactions and bind DNA using both their motor and substrate recognition domains (SRDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1380597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962345PMC
December 2017
8 Reads

New tricks for the glycyl radical enzyme family.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 13;52(6):674-695. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

a Department of Chemistry , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge , MA , USA.

Glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) are important biological catalysts in both strict and facultative anaerobes, playing key roles both in the human microbiota and in the environment. GREs contain a backbone glycyl radical that is post-translationally installed, enabling radical-based mechanisms. GREs function in several metabolic pathways including mixed acid fermentation, ribonucleotide reduction and the anaerobic breakdown of the nutrient choline and the pollutant toluene. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1373741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911432PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

The dark side of the ring: role of the DNA sliding surface of PCNA.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 17;52(6):663-673. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

a Structural Biology Laboratory , Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A , Trieste , Italy.

The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp lies at the heart of the accurate duplication of eukaryotic genomes. While the outer surface of the PCNA ring interacts with polymerases and other factors, the role of the inner wall facing the DNA is elusive. Recent evidence shows that conserved basic residues in the PCNA central channel create a specific surface that recognizes the DNA backbone and enables the clamp to slide by rotationally tracking the DNA helix. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1364218DOI Listing
December 2017
33 Reads

Cell cycle transcription control: DREAM/MuvB and RB-E2F complexes.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 11;52(6):638-662. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

a Molecular Oncology, Medical School, University of Leipzig , Leipzig , Germany.

The precise timing of cell cycle gene expression is critical for the control of cell proliferation; de-regulation of this timing promotes the formation of cancer and leads to defects during differentiation and development. Entry into and progression through S phase requires expression of genes coding for proteins that function in DNA replication. Expression of a distinct set of genes is essential to pass through mitosis and cytokinesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1360836DOI Listing
December 2017
12 Reads

The connections of Wnt pathway components with cell cycle and centrosome: side effects or a hidden logic?

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 25;52(6):614-637. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

c Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine , Masaryk University , Brno , Czech Republic.

Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10409238.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1350135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047740PMC
December 2017
34 Reads

MarR family transcription factors: dynamic variations on a common scaffold.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 3;52(6):595-613. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

a Department of Biological Sciences , Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge , LA , USA.

Members of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors are critical for bacterial cells to respond to chemical signals and to convert such signals into changes in gene activity. Obligate dimers belonging to the winged helix-turn-helix protein family, they are critical for regulation of a variety of functions, including degradation of organic compounds and control of virulence gene expression. The conventional regulatory paradigm is based on a genomic locus in which the gene encoding the MarR protein is divergently oriented from a gene under its control; MarR binding to the intergenic region controls expression of both genes by changing the interaction of RNA polymerase with gene promoters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1344612DOI Listing
December 2017
12 Reads

Lytic transglycosylases: concinnity in concision of the bacterial cell wall.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 23;52(5):503-542. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Notre Dame , Notre Dame , IN , USA.

The lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are bacterial enzymes that catalyze the non-hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidoglycan structures of the bacterial cell wall. They are not catalysts of glycan synthesis as might be surmised from their name. Notwithstanding the seemingly mundane reaction catalyzed by the LTs, their lytic reactions serve bacteria for a series of astonishingly diverse purposes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1337705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6102726PMC
October 2017
7 Reads

Multiple functions of insulin-degrading enzyme: a metabolic crosslight?

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 21;52(5):554-582. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

a Department of Clinical Sciences and Translation Medicine , University of Roma Tor Vergata , Roma , Italy.

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases. Over the last decade, a novel scenario on IDE biology has emerged, pointing out a multi-functional role of this enzyme in several basic cellular processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1337707DOI Listing
October 2017
10 Reads

Encapsulins: molecular biology of the shell.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 21;52(5):583-594. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

a Department of Molecular and Cell Biology , UC Berkeley , Berkeley , CA , USA.

Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1337709DOI Listing
October 2017
21 Reads

Sphingosine kinase and sphingosine-1-phosphate in liver pathobiology.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 15;52(5):543-553. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Massey Cancer Center , VCU School of Medicine , Richmond , VA , USA.

Over 20 years ago, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule. Subsequent studies later identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which are responsible for the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Many stimuli increase sphingosine kinase activity and S1P production and secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1337706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944845PMC
October 2017
6 Reads

Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: Receptors, pores, and translocation into cells.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 08 26;52(4):461-473. Epub 2017 May 26.

a Molecular Medicine Program , The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute , Toronto , ON , Canada.

The most potent toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria contain enzymatic moieties that must reach the cytosol of target cells to exert their full toxicity. Toxins such as anthrax, diphtheria, and botulinum toxin all use three well-defined functional domains to intoxicate cells: a receptor-binding moiety that triggers endocytosis into acidified vesicles by binding to a specific host-cell receptor, a translocation domain that forms pores across the endosomal membrane in response to acidic pH, and an enzyme that translocates through these pores to catalytically inactivate an essential host cytosolic substrate. The homologous toxins A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB) secreted by Clostridium difficile are large enzyme-containing toxins that for many years have eluded characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1325831DOI Listing
August 2017
32 Reads

Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 08 19;52(4):425-460. Epub 2017 May 19.

a IMBA , Vienna , Austria.

Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1325829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490640PMC
August 2017
23 Reads

Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 19;52(5):475-502. Epub 2017 May 19.

a National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR) , New Delhi , India.

Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409238.2017.1325830DOI Listing
October 2017
29 Reads