30,032 results match your criteria Criminal Justice and Behavior[Journal]


Incidence of future arrests in adults involved in the criminal justice system with opioid use disorder receiving extended release naltrexone compared to treatment as usual.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 3;194:482-486. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Academic Affairs, Baystate Medical Center, 3601 Main St., Springfield, MA 01199, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Criminal justice involved (CJS) populations with opioid use disorder (OUD) have high rates of relapse, future arrests, and death upon release. While medication for OUD (MOUD) reduces opioid relapse, concerns regarding diversion and stigma limit treatment in CJS populations. Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX), as an opioid antagonist, may be more acceptable to CJS administrators. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Testing Claims of Crime-Related Amnesia.

Authors:
Marko Jelicic

Front Psychiatry 2018 21;9:617. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Forensic Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Many violent offenders report amnesia for their crime. Although this type of memory loss is possible, there are reasons to assume that many claims of crime-related amnesia are feigned. This article describes ways to evaluate the genuineness of crime-related amnesia. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Clinical Experiences: Navigating the Intricacies of Student Placement Requirements.

J Allied Health 2018 ;47(4):237-242

Dep. of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 930 Madison Ave, Suite 662, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Tel 901-448-2136, fax 901-448-7545.

Clinical apprenticeships, also called clinical experiences, are integral to most allied health (AH) student professional education. Clinical experiences begin the process of enculturating students into a healthcare profession where higher cognitive mastery of learned skills is supported through social interaction and scaffolding with an AH professional. In AH programs, clinical experiences for students are a necessity for programmatic accreditation; however, clinical sites have developed a range of requirements for students, which lead to a myriad of issues. Read More

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January 2018

Remission from chronic opioid use-Studying environmental and socio-economic factors on recovery (RECOVER): Study design and participant characteristics.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Indivior Inc., 10710 Midlothian Turnpike, Suite 430, Richmond, VA 23235, United States. Electronic address:

Few opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment studies measure meaningful life changes during long-term recovery, focusing instead on retention and abstinence. Here, we report on the design and participant characteristics of the RECOVER Study, a study exploring life changes in persons with OUD for up to 24 months following participation in a Phase III trial evaluating buprenorphine extended-release monthly injection for subcutaneous use (known as RBP-6000 during development). This multisite, observational, cohort study tracks clinical, environmental, and socio-economic changes using self-administered assessments, urine drug screens (UDS), and public databases. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The Face as Diversity: What Was the Medical-Scientific Value of Lombrosian Morphoanthropology?

J Nerv Ment Dis 2018 Dec;206(12):962-963

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

The face as an element of diversity. The ugliness of a face or a body and deformities were considered in 1800 as symbols of atavism, regression to being primates, or expression of inferior beings. The Italian physician Cesare Lombroso was the author of the concept of morphoanthropology, according to which the human being is judged on the basis of his or her physical connotations. Read More

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December 2018

An exploratory study toward the contribution of 3D surface scanning for association of an injury with its causing instrument.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University Centre for Legal Medicine Lausanne-Geneva, Chemin de la Vulliette 4, 25, 1000, Lausanne, Switzerland.

3D surface scanning is a technique brought forward for wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing tools in legal medicine and forensic science. Although many case reports have been published, little is known about the methodology employed by the authors. The study reported here is exploratory in nature, and its main purpose was to get a first evaluation of the ability of an operator, by means of 3D surface scanning and following a simple methodology, to correctly exclude or associate an incriminated tool as the source of a mock wound. Read More

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December 2018

Limits to the appropriateness of intensive care : Policy statement of the German Interdisciplinary Association of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI).

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Medical Clinic and Medical Intensive Care Medicine, St.-Antonius Hospital, Dechant-Decker-Str. 8, 52249, Eschweiler, Germany.

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November 2018

Analysis of pediatric gunshot wounds in Houston, Texas: A social perspective.

J Pediatr Surg 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Departments of Pediatric Surgery and Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School/University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and Mischer Neuroscience Institute, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background: This study sought to determine the role of social factors in pediatric gunshot wounds (GSW).

Methods: We identified medical records of victims aged 0-15 years who presented to our Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2001 to 2016.

Results: Three hundred fifty-eight children were treated between 2001 and 2016. Read More

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November 2018

Lifetime Punishments for Mentally Ill Juvenile Rampage School Shooters: No Hope for the Future?

Authors:
Kathryn Farr

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 Dec 2:306624X18812540. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

1 Portland State University, OR, USA.

This study examines the roles of age and mental health in the processing of 10 adolescent rampage school shooters who had shown signs of mental instability prior to their rampage, but were tried and convicted as adults and sentenced to life or almost life in prison. Findings from court transcripts show that expert witnesses for the defense provided evidence of mental illness in all cases; however, the court determined that the diagnoses failed to meet the insanity standard or did not qualify as a significant mitigating circumstance. The reality of the boys' actual guilt, the low competency standard, and the transfer of jurisdiction from Juvenile Court to criminal court all worked against their defense. Read More

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December 2018

Attitudes toward defendants with substance-related charges: An analysis of a national sample of criminal defense attorneys.

Am J Addict 2018 Dec;27(8):639-645

Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

Background And Objectives: While a large percentage of criminal offenders suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs), virtually nothing is known about the attitudes criminal defense attorneys possess toward their clients who are facing substance-related charges. This is a serious concern, as the burden of steering individuals with SUDs into treatment often falls to criminal defense attorneys. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of criminal defense attorneys toward individuals who have been accused of drug crimes. Read More

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December 2018

Que faire face à une demande de reconnaissance de l’origine professionnelle d’une affection psychique ?

Rev Prat 2016 Sep;66(7):765-768

Assistance publique-hôpitaux de Paris, hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Seine-Saint- Denis (université Paris-13, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité), hôpital Avicenne, unité fonctionnelle des pathologies professionnelles et environnementales, Bobigny, France.

How to deal with request of work-related acknowledgement of mental illness? The physician, face to face with patients attributing their mental illness to work, wonders about the etiology in order to propose appropriate care. It may concern a preexistent psychiatric disease, revealed, unbalanced or worsened by work, criminal working conditions (mobbing, discrimination, violence…) that may lead to a major depressive episode (MDE) or a posttraumatic stress disorder. Besides, some working circumstances and their evolution may constitute the pathogenic sequences or facts, source of MDE. Read More

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September 2016

Enhancing knowledge of adolescent mental health among law enforcement: Implementing youth-focused crisis intervention team training.

Eval Program Plann 2018 Nov 8;73:44-52. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Wayne State University, School of Social Work, United States. Electronic address:

This study explores the feasibility, acceptability, fidelity, and outcomes of a youth version of the Crisis Intervention Team training (CIT-Y). This intervention is designed to keep youth with a mental health problem out of the criminal/legal system by equipping police officers with developmentally appropriate information and techniques. Whereas much is known about the adult-focused CIT training, little is known about the youth-focused training. Read More

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November 2018

[Medical immobilization as impairment of bodily organ functions within the meaning of the Polish Penal Code - consultative problems and a proposal for a method of judicial and medical evaluation].

Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2018 ;68(2):119-148

Aim Of The Study: The aim of the paper is analysis of the impact of immobilization treatment of "less severe" motor organ injuries affecting soft tissues on the position of medical experts and court decisions in crimes against health. We also analysed the attitude of courts to expert opinions and present a proposal for a model of judicial and medical opinion in such cases.

Material And Methods: In the study, we analysed judgments of the criminal divisions of common courts, in which the use of medical immobilization of a given part of the body or lack thereof could have an impact on the degree of health impairment determined by the medical expert. Read More

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January 2018

[Preliminary analysis of polymorphism of STR markers in the population of domestic cats (Felis catus) in Lower Silesia].

Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2018 ;68(2):96-107

Aim Of The Study: Genetic tests play a crucial role in the crime investigation process and often provide the strongest evidence for case resolution. Although the majority of genetic analyses in the field of criminalistics focus on the human DNA, genetic identification of animals is becoming an increasingly common procedure. Domestic animals, which live around people, may be silent witnesses and even victims of criminal activity. Read More

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January 2018

Profiling of victimization, perpetration, and participation: A latent class analysis among people with severe mental illness.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0208457. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Tranzo Scientific Center for Care and Welfare, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University, LE Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Background: Persons with severe mental illness are more prone to victimization and experience more difficulties regarding societal participation than other community members. These experiences vary greatly among individuals. Community mental health care should offer more individualized support by addressing these differences in experience. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Forensic expertise as a tool for criminalistics prognostication].

Sud Med Ekspert 2018 ;61(6):4-7

Department of Special Laboratory Investigations, Federal state budgetary institution 'Russian Centre of Forensic Medical Expertise', Ministry of Health of the Russia, Moscow, Russia, 125284.

The objective of the present study was the criminalistics evaluation of the changes in the structure of the illegal drug market and the volume of drug sales that took place during the recent years. One of the most challenging problems associated with the new situation is the extensive distribution of synthetic cannabimimetics that constitutes one of the most serious threats to the public security. The criminological analysis of the forensic expert practice provided materials for the criminalistics characteristic of the recent events at the criminal drug market in several regions of this country as of 2014 with special reference to the cases of mass poisoning of the young people attributable to the use of the new psychoactive agents. Read More

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January 2018
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Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Furanyl Fentanyl, 4- Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl, Acryl Fentanyl, Tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and Ocfentanil in Schedule I. Final order.

Authors:

Fed Regist 2018 Nov;83(230):61320-3

With the issuance of this final order, the Acting Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration maintains the placement of the substances furanyl fentanyl [N-(1- phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-Nphenylfuran- 2-carboxamide], 4- fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or parafluoroisobutyryl fentanyl [N-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin- 4-yl)isobutyramide], acryl fentanyl or acryloylfentanyl [N-(1- phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-Nphenylacrylamide], tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl [N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)- N-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2- carboxamide], and ocfentanil [N-(2- fluorophenyl)-2-methoxy-N-(1- phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)acetamide], including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action discharges the United States obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961). This action continues to impose the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, import, export, engage in research or conduct instructional activities with, or possess), or propose to handle, furanyl fentanyl, 4- fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl, acryl fentanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and ocfentanil. Read More

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November 2018

Profile of partner aggressors as a function of risk of recidivism.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2016 Jan-Apr;16(1):39-46. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Universidad de Murcia, Spain.

Partner aggressors present psychopathological, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics that have been used for classification in typologies. The goal of the present work was to identify profile of aggressors as a function of the risk of recidivism, and assess whether there correspondence with type of offenders proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart. The sample was made up of 90 men condemned for partner violence, of whom 50 were serving a prison sentence, and 40 mandatory community intervention/programs. Read More

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Accuracy and reliability of feature selection by Chinese fingerprint examiners.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 20;2(4):203-209. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.

The selection of minutiae is a critical part of the analysis phase within the fingerprint identification methodology, known as analysis-comparison-evaluation-verification. This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of the minutiae selections of 92 Chinese fingerprint examiners during the analysis phase, absent an exemplar print, of the fingerprint identification process. Specifically, we measured the accuracy (trueness) of their annotation of minutiae, and we measured their reliability which is the reproducibility and repeatability in their annotations in one complex mark by using R software. Read More

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September 2017

CT-scan . 3D surface scanning of a skull: first considerations regarding reproducibility issues.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 13;2(2):93-99. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Forensic Imaging, University Centre for Legal Medicine Lausanne-Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Three-dimensional surface scanning (3DSS) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) are two techniques that are used in legal medicine for digitalizing objects, a body or body parts such as bones. While these techniques are more and more commonly employed, surprisingly little information is known about the quality rendering of digitalized three-dimensional (3D) models provided by each of them. This paper presents findings related to the measurement precision of 3D models obtained through observation of a study case, where a fractured skull reconstructed by an anthropologist was digitalized using both post-mortem imaging methods. Read More

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Clinical forensic imaging and fundamental rights in Austria.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 23;2(2):65-74. Epub 2017 May 23.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical Forensic Imaging, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft, Graz, Austria.

Clinical forensic imaging encompasses the diverse application of imaging procedures that serve the same purpose: to enable the analysis and investigation of criminal activities and consequences of a crime. All kinds of imaging techniques and their corresponding images can be subsumed under "forensigraphy", a more comprehensive term for forensic imaging created by the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical Forensic Imaging in Graz, Austria. As the word forensigraphy suggests, criminal imaging material should be of use in forensic investigations. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of opioids and cannabinoids in wastewater samples.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 30;2(1):18-25. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Department of Sciences, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach that uses the analysis of human excretion products in wastewater to obtain information about exposure to drugs in defined population groups. We developed and validated an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of opioids (morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone), and cannabinoids (Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11--9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide) in raw-influent wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation included linearity (5-1 000 ng/L for opioids, 10-1 000 ng/L for cannabinoids), imprecision (<21. Read More

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January 2017

Violent offences of methamphetamine users and dilemmas of forensic psychiatric assessment.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 16;2(1):11-17. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Faculty of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Methamphetamine (MA), an extremely addictive synthetic stimulant, has quickly spread to become the most frequently used illicit drug in China. People with a history of chronic and heavy MA use have a high possibility of exhibiting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, mainly delusions of reference, auditory hallucinations and cognitive deficits. These emerging findings suggest MA use increases aggression and violence and that there is a correlation between MA use and violence. Read More

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February 2017

Accident or crime? About the meaning of face injuries inflicted by blunt force.

Forensic Sci Res 2016 14;1(1):14-21. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, Julius-Maximilians-University, Würzburg, Germany.

Injuries caused by blunt force are seen frequently in daily forensic casework. Sometimes, especially when there is less information about the surrounding circumstances, it might become difficult to figure out the cause and background of injuries: accident, criminal violence or self-infliction? In the study presented, face injuries caused by blunt force in 694 cases were analyzed comparing the injury patterns in accidents to those in crimes. It turned out injuries of the ear and retroauricular region clearly indicate a crime. Read More

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December 2016
2 Reads

"A more accurate understanding of drug use": A critical analysis of wastewater analysis technology for drug policy.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Nov 26;63:47-55. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Sydney, Australia; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

The idea of identifying and monitoring urinary excretion of illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater has been seen by governments and international organisations as 'promising'. It is claimed that such approaches will enable governments to effectively direct resources to priority areas, monitor the progress of demand and supply reduction strategies, as well as identify emerging trends. Drawing on poststructural approaches to policy analysis and insights from science and technology studies, we consider how the technology of wastewater analysis may be seen as a kind of proposal with productive capacity and constitutive effects. Read More

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November 2018

The evaluation of malpractice cases arising from aesthetic intervention in Turkey based on Supreme Court case law.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Health Management, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate medical malpractice cases arising from aesthetic services based on the decisions of the Supreme Court.

Material And Methods: In the study, compensation and criminal lawsuits finalized by the civil and penal courts of the Supreme Court were examined retrospectively. All the case law decisions were obtained from the official website of the Supreme Court: www. Read More

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November 2018

The Share Project: Building Capacity of Justice-Involved Individuals, Policymakers, and Researchers to Collectively Transform Health Care Delivery.

Am J Public Health 2018 Nov 29:e1-e3. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Johanna Elumn Madera, Jenerius A. Aminawung, Kei-Hoi Cheung, Luis Marenco, Karen Wang, and Emily A. Wang are with the Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Amy Carroll-Scott is with the Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA. Joseph Calderon is with the San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA.

The Share Project (TSP), a US health justice initiative, convened key stakeholders to advance the use of inclusive research methods and data sharing to engage groups that are typically marginalized from research. TSP trained justice-involved patients, community health workers, policymakers, and researchers in participatory research and the use of a data-sharing platform developed with justice-involved patients. The platform allowed users to analyze health and criminal justice data to develop new research that is patient driven and responsive to the needs of providers. Read More

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November 2018

HIV/tuberculosis/hepatitis C virus services for incarcerated populations in Azerbaijan and the Eastern Europe Central Asia region.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):66-70

WHO Collaboration Center on Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Prisons, Ministry of Justice, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic.

Purpose Of Review: The tide of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge for the penitentiary system in Eastern Europe Central Asia (EECA) region. We have analyzed the existing services for incarcerated individuals with HIV, HCV and TB to assess the current situation in the EECA region.

Recent Findings: Because of the current criminal-legal system, key risk population with strong linkage to the blood-borne and airborne infections has a high proportion among prisoners. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Moral concerns, criminal punishment, and whether offenders in general or individual offenders are being considered.

J Exp Psychol Appl 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

University of Johannesburg.

Public opinion can play a role in shaping punishment policies. A problem can arise, however, in that public opinion about appropriate punishments may vary depending on whether offenders in general or individual offenders are being considered. It has been argued that, for offenders in general, the public is concerned with protecting the social group at large, while for individual offenders, public attention is directed more toward the individual offender. Read More

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November 2018

Community-based service requests and utilization among pregnant women incarcerated in jail.

Psychol Serv 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychological Sciences, The College of William and Mary.

Pregnant incarcerated women represent a unique population in the criminal justice system that has been largely overlooked in terms of their service-related needs. The present study examines 241 pregnant incarcerated women's service requests and preincarceration service utilization related to material help (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Murder in the archives: additions to the Sydney Smith Collection.

Authors:
R M Cessford

J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2018 Dec;48(4):371-377

School of Histories, Languages and Cultures, Larkin Building, Cottingham Road, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK,

Axes, knives, truncheons and several home-made weapons are some of the feature pieces of a newly deposited collection within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh archive. This paper uses examples from this unusual collection, consisting of 40 weapons and over 400 glass slides, to demonstrate the significance and contribution it has to understanding late 19th- and early 20th-century forensic science and medicine in Scotland. Previously belonging to the late Sir Sydney Smith, these objects and glass slides supplement the Sydney Smith paper collection that contains numerous casefiles spanning his career as a forensic practitioner both in Britain and internationally. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Integrating Retention Rates into Economic Analyses of Prevention Interventions.

Prev Sci 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Social Work, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Evidence-based prevention interventions hold great promise for enhancing the well-being of individuals, families, and society. As these interventions are implemented in new contexts and at wider scales, policymakers and private sector organizations are increasingly interested in understanding the economic returns that programs produce through reductions of burden on public service systems, such as criminal justice and human services. Thus, it is important to ensure that economic models account for factors, such as retention, which are important when interventions are implemented in real-world contexts with selective populations and voluntary participation. Read More

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November 2018

Protective Effects of Pregnancy on Risk of Alcohol Use Disorder.

Am J Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29:appiajp201818050632. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry (Edwards, Kendler), and the Departments of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Obstetrics and Gynecology (Svikis), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond; the Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (Ohlsson, J. Sundquist, K. Sundquist); and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (K. Sundquist).

Objective:: The authors sought to clarify the etiology of the association between pregnancy and reduced risk of alcohol use disorder.

Methods:: The authors used data from longitudinal population-wide Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries to evaluate whether rates of alcohol use disorder are lower during pregnancy. They compared pregnant women born between 1975 and 1992 (N=322,029) with matched population controls, with female relatives discordant for pregnancy, and with pre- and postpregnancy periods within individuals. Read More

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November 2018

Detection of Cutting Agents in Drug-Positive Seized Exhibits within the United States.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation, 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, 19090.

The following report summarizes a study performed on seized drug exhibits collected in two U.S. states to evaluate the presence and identification of cutting agents. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Deep-sea anthropogenic macrodebris harbours rich and diverse communities of bacteria and archaea.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206220. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.

The deep sea is the largest biome on earth, and microbes dominate in biomass and abundance. Anthropogenic litter is now almost ubiquitous in this biome, and its deposition creates new habitats and environments, including for microbial assemblages. With the ever increasing accumulation of this debris, it is timely to identify and describe the bacterial and archaeal communities that are able to form biofilms on macrodebris in the deep sea. Read More

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November 2018

Examining Commonly Reported Sex Trafficking Indicators From Practitioners' Perspectives: Findings From a Pilot Study.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Nov 28:886260518812813. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

4 Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Commonly reported sex trafficking indicators have been disseminated widely by government and non-governmental organizations in trainings aimed to increase identification and referral to resources. However, very little research evaluates such indicators. Drawing from survey responses of 86 social service providers, health care practitioners, and justice system officials in a Midwestern City, this pilot study aimed to examine: (a) the pervasiveness of the commonly reported indicators, (b) the salience of domains of indicators, and (c) the extent to which indicators differ across service populations (U. Read More

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November 2018

Finding Dutch natives in online forums.

Forensic Sci Res 2018 28;3(3):230-239. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (LIACS), Leiden, The Netherlands.

Law enforcement agencies have a restricted area in which their powers apply, which is called their jurisdiction. These restrictions also apply to the Internet. However, on the Internet, the physical borders of the jurisdiction, typically country borders, are hard to discover. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Review of the accreditation of digital forensics in China.

Authors:
Hong Guo Junlei Hou

Forensic Sci Res 2018 4;3(3):194-201. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Cyber Security Department, Ministry of PRC, Beijing, China.

As a result of the many developments in information technology, digital evidence plays an increasingly important role in criminal and civil litigation. Because digital evidence is necessary for litigation, the judicial system must be assured of its accuracy, reliability, and verifiability, which can be assured by accreditation. This paper focuses on a comparison of the evolution of the accreditation of digital forensics internationally and domestically, discusses the existing problems that such accreditation encounters, and proposes the corresponding solutions. Read More

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October 2018

Critical review of the use and scientific basis of forensic gait analysis.

Forensic Sci Res 2018 9;3(3):183-193. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Digital Technology and Biometry, Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands.

This review summarizes the scientific basis of forensic gait analysis and evaluates its use in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Denmark, following recent critique on the admission of gait evidence in Canada. A useful forensic feature is (1) measurable, (2) consistent within and (3) different between individuals. Reviewing the academic literature, this article found that (1) forensic gait features can be quantified or observed from surveillance video, but research into accuracy, validity and reliability of these methods is needed; (2) gait is variable within individuals under differing and constant circumstances, with speed having major influence; (3) the discriminative strength of gait features needs more research, although clearly variation exists between individuals. Read More

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October 2018

The uses of (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomology.

Forensic Sci Res 2018 21;3(1):2-15. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Southern African Forensic Entomology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

(Fabricius, 1794) occurs on every continent and is closely associated with carrion and decaying material in human environments. Its abilities to find dead bodies and carry pathogens give it a prominence in human affairs that may involve prosecution or litigation, and therefore forensic entomologists. The identification, geographical distribution and biology of the species are reviewed to provide a background for approaches that four branches of forensic entomology (urban, stored-product, medico-criminal and environmental) might take to investigations involving this fly. Read More

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It Takes Two: The Round-Robin Methodology for Investigative Interviewing Research.

Front Psychol 2018 13;9:2181. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.

Investigative interviews are complex, dyadic, and social interactions typically studied by evaluating interviewers' questioning strategies. In field settings, interviewers naturally vary in their interviewing practice. Thus, it is important to conduct research reflective of idiosyncrasies in witnesses, interviewers, and the resulting unique pairings. Read More

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November 2018

Children's Conversational Memory Regarding a Minor Transgression and a Subsequent Interview.

Psychol Public Policy Law 2018 Aug 2;24(3):379-392. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

University of Southern California.

Children's memories for their conversations are commonly explored in child abuse cases. In two studies, we examined conversational recall in 154 4- to 9-year-old children's reports of an interaction with a stranger, some of whom were complicit in a transgression and were admonished to keep it a secret. Immediately afterwards, all children were interviewed about their interaction. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Sororicides in Ghana: A Study of Homicidal Aggression Against Sisters.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 Nov 27:306624X18814169. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

1 Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA.

Sororicide has received scarce attention in the homicide literature. This is particularly the case for sororicide incidents occurring in the nonindustrialized, non-Western world. To help address this gap in the literature and extend the study of sororicides, the current exploratory, descriptive study examined the major characteristics of 18 media-reported sororicides that occurred in Ghana from 1990 to 2017, including the sociodemographic characteristics of victims and offenders, victim-offender relationship, incident location, modus operandi, motive, and criminal justice outcomes. Read More

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November 2018

U.S. Police Rosters: Fatigue and Public Complaints.

Sleep 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Sleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USA.

Study Objectives: Recent experimental research indicates a substantial impact of fatigue on police officers' encounters with the public. In recent years, biomathematical models of fatigue have provided a new way to identify potential relationships between working time arrangements and job performance. This study focused on public complaints against police officers and determined whether the odds of a public complaint were associated with work schedules and/or a biomathematical model's predictions of fatigue and sleepiness. Read More

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November 2018

Non-significant p-values? Strategies to understand and better determine the importance of effects and interactions in logistic regression.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(11):e0205076. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Arts, Education & Law, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

In the context of generalized linear models (GLMs), interactions are automatically induced on the natural scale of the data. The conventional approach to measuring effects in GLMs based on significance testing (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Measuring LGBTQ Microaggressions: The Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS).

Authors:
Kevin L Nadal

J Homosex 2018 Nov 26:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

a John Jay College of Criminal Justice , City University of New York , New York , New York , USA.

Microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, intentional or unintentional, that demonstrate bias toward members of historically marginalized groups. While numerous quantitative studies on racial microaggressions have emerged in recent years, studies on sexual orientation and gender identity microaggressions have been mostly qualitative-likely due to limited measures of anti-LGBTQ microaggressions. In this three-part study, the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS) are introduced to empirically explore the multifaceted experiences of microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) people and transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. Read More

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November 2018

The role of rearrests in juvenile offenders' and their mothers' attitudes toward police.

Law Hum Behav 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine.

Both personal experience and parental attitudes shape youths' attitudes toward the justice system. The present study tested the influence of (a) youth rearrests and (b) parents' attitudes toward police on trajectories of youthful offenders' attitudes toward police over 3 years. Among a sample of 317 first-time male juvenile offenders and their mothers, group-based trajectory modeling identified 4 trajectories of youths' attitudes toward police over the 3 years since the youths' first arrests. Read More

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November 2018
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Justice at any cost? The impact of cost-benefit salience on criminal punishment judgments.

Behav Sci Law 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

This study investigated the effect of cost-benefit salience on simulated criminal punishment judgments. In two vignette-based survey experiments, we sought to identify how the salience of decision costs influences laypeople's punishment judgments. In both experiments (N  = 109; N  = 398), undergraduate participants made sentencing judgments with and without explicit information about the direct, material costs of incarceration. Read More

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November 2018