25,474 results match your criteria Coxsackieviruses


Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the inhibition of the host intrinsic antiviral factor A3G.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

The First Hospital of Jilin University, Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Changchun 130021, PR China.

Although the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) has broad spectrum antiviral activity, whether A3G inhibits enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been unclear until now. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that A3G could inhibit EV71 virus replication. Silencing A3G in H9 cells enhanced EV71 replication, and EV71 replication was lower in H9 cells expressing A3G than in Jurkat cells without A3G expression, indicating that the EV71 inhibition was A3G-specific. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Influence of non-polio enteroviruses and the bacterial gut microbiota on oral poliovirus vaccine response: a study from south India.

J Infect Dis 2018 Sep 24. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in LMIC countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.

Methods: We assessed prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (6-11 months) receiving monovalent type3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Read More

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September 2018

Key Characteristics of Foods with an Elevated Risk for Viral Enteropathogen Contamination.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Sep 23. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Department of Food Science, Fayetteville, AR, 72704.

Viral enteropathogens are one of the leading causative agents of foodborne illnesses in both the United States and the European Union. While human noroviruses (hNoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) cause the vast majority of outbreaks and illnesses, there are handful of human enteric viruses that contribute to sporadic outbreaks worldwide including astrovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and Aichi virus. In addition, Hepatitis E virus is increasingly being recognized as an emerging zoonotic threat within the food supply. Read More

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September 2018

Microbial risk assessment in recreational freshwaters from southern Brazil.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 14;651(Pt 1):298-308. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidade Feevale, ERS 239, no 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS 93352-000, Brazil.

In this study, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and human mastadenovirus species C and F (HAdV-C and HAdV-F) were evaluated in water samples from Belo Stream. For HAdV-C and F, the infectivity was assessed by integrated cell culture quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (ICC-qPCR). Samples were collected monthly (May/2015 to April/2016) at four sites. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 circulating in Hong Kong reveals common neurological manifestations and emergence of novel recombinant groups.

J Clin Virol 2018 Sep 8;108:43-49. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Collaborative Innovation Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) represents the predominant enterovirus serotype in Hong Kong, but its epidemiology in our population was unknown.

Objectives: To examine the clinical and molecular epidemiology of CV-A6 and detect emerging recombinant strains in Hong Kong.

Study Design: Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from patients with febrile or respiratory illness were subject to RT-PCR for CV-A6 and sequencing of 5'-NCR and VP1. Read More

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September 2018

Viral etiological causes of febrile seizures for respiratory pathogens (EFES Study).

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

p Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics , Eskisehir Osmangazi University , Eskisehir , Turkey.

Background: Febrile seizure is the most common childhood neurological disorder, is an important health problem with potential short- and long-term complications, also leading to economic burden and increased parental anxiety about fevers and seizures occurring in their children. There are no routine recommendation to detect etiological causes of FS for neurological perspective, further knowledge about the etiological causes of FS in children will support preventive measures and follow-up strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the percentage of respiratory viruses in children with FS. Read More

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September 2018

Twenty-Nine Cases of Enterovirus-D68 Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Europe 2016; A Case Series and Epidemiologic Overview.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Sep 18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a respiratory virus within the genus Enterovirus and the family of Picornaviridae. Genetically, it is closely related to rhinovirus that replicates in the respiratory tract and causes respiratory disease. Since 2014, EV-D68 has been associated with the neurologic syndrome of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Read More

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September 2018

Crystal structure of a soluble fragment of poliovirus 2CATPase.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Sep 19;14(9):e1007304. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

MOH key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Poliovirus (PV) 2CATPase is the most studied 2C protein in the Picornaviridae family. It is involved in RNA replication, encapsidation and uncoating and many inhibitors have been found that target PV 2CATPase. Despite numerous investigations to characterize its functions, a high-resolution structure of PV 2C has not yet been determined. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Clinical Significance of Upper Airway Virus Detection in Critically Ill Hematology Patients.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

St Louis Hospital, Paris, Paris, France ;

Rationale: Noninvasive diagnostic tests can ensure the early identification and treatment of viral infections in patients with hematological malignancies.

Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of a positive virus PCR test on nasal swabs in critically ill hematology patients Methods: Post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort of critically ill hematology patients admitted to 17 ICUs. Nasal swabs sampled and frozen at ICU admission were tested using a multiplex PCR assay. Read More

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September 2018

Enterovirus infection during pregnancy is inversely associated with atopic disease in the offspring.

Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Prenatal environment has been shown to influence child's risk of atopic diseases. Laboratory-confirmed data about the role of maternal infections during pregnancy is scarce.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associations between serologically-confirmed maternal infections during pregnancy and atopic disease in the offspring. Read More

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September 2018

Molecular diversity and biennial circulation of enterovirus D68: a systematic screening study in Lyon, France, 2010 to 2016.

Euro Surveill 2018 Sep;23(37)

Virpath, CIRI, Université de Lyon, INSERM U1111, CNRS 5308, ENS de Lyon, UCBL, Lyon, France.

BackgroundUnderstanding enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) circulation patterns as well as risk factors for severe respiratory and neurological illness is important for developing preventive strategies. : Between 2010 and 2016, 11,132 respiratory specimens from hospitalised patients in Lyon, France, were screened for EV-D68 by PCR. Phylogenetic relationships of the viral-protein-1 sequences were reconstructed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian-Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo approaches. Read More

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September 2018

Whole genome analysis of a novel picornavirus related to the Enterovirus/Sapelovirus supergroup from porcine feces in Japan.

Virus Res 2018 Sep 15;257:68-73. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan; Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Disease of Animal, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Department of Bioproduction Science, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi, Ishikawa, 921-8836, Japan. Electronic address:

A novel virus related to the Enterovirus/Sapelovirus supergroup in the family Picornaviridae was identified in healthy porcine feces in Japan by using a metagenomics approach. The genome of the virus, named Sapelo-like porcine picornavirus Japan (SPPVJ) Pig/Isi-Im1/JPN/2016, had a type-IV internal ribosomal entry site and carried a 6978-nucleotide-long single open reading frame encoding a 2326 amino acids (aa) polyprotein precursor. The coding sequence region consisted of leader protein (68 aa), a structural protein region P1 (824 aa), and the non-structural protein regions P2 (672 aa) and P3 (762 aa). Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Emerging Enteroviruses Causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, China, 2010-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Oct;24(10):1902-1906

Coxsackievirus A6 emerged as one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease epidemics in many provinces of China in 2013 and 2015. This virus strain accounted for 25.9% of mild and 15. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Transient posterior cerebral arteriopathy: An unusual case enterovirus-related.

Brain Dev 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Mother and Child Department, University-Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy; Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Medicine and Surgery Department, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Transient Cerebral Arteriopathy (TCA) is one of the main causes of childhood stroke. Here we present an unusual case of Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS) caused by a TCA of posterior flow and originally located in the right thalamus. The detection of enterovirus in the cerebrospinal fluid allowed us to suppose a probable post infectious etiology. Read More

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September 2018

Molecular diversity of Coxsackievirus A10 circulating in the southern and northern region of India [2009-17].

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Bangalore, India. Electronic address:

Non-Polio EnteroViruses (NPEV) are one of the known causative agents of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). In the present study, we identified, sequenced and characterized the complete genome of sixty-five Coxsackievirus-A10, an NPEV. These were isolated from stool specimens of AFP cases from Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, and Uttar Pradesh (UP) states of India. Read More

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September 2018

Epidemic dynamics, interactions and predictability of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease in Japan.

J R Soc Interface 2018 Sep 12;15(146). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease have been documented in Japan since 1963. This disease is primarily caused by the two closely related serotypes of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Here, we analyse Japanese virologic and syndromic surveillance time-series data from 1982 to 2015. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Establishment of normal reference values of NT-proBNP and its application in diagnosing acute heart failure in children with severe hand food and mouth disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(36):e12218

School Of Basic Medical Science, Central South University.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), caused by enteroviruses, is an acute contagious disease in children. Some severe infections caused by human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) lead to rapid death in children with acute heart failure (HF). N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is an important indicator of HF; however, its normal reference values in children and role in HFMD remain unclear. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Acute flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus D68 infection: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(36):e11831

Department of Pediatrics, Cathay General Hospital.

Rationale: We present the first case of enterovirus (EV) D68, lineage B3 infection, associated with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in Taiwan. AFM caused by EV D68 is relatively rare. This report highlights the importance of clinical recognition of the disease and discusses treatments that can benefit such patients. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

USP4 positively regulates RLR-induced NF-κB activation by targeting TRAF6 for K48-linked deubiquitination and inhibits enterovirus 71 replication.

Sci Rep 2018 Sep 7;8(1):13418. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213003, P. R. China.

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor (RLR) is one of the most important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system that detects positive and/or negative stranded RNA viruses. Subsequently, it stimulates downstream transcription of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inducing the production of interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory cytokines. Tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key protein involved in the RLR-mediated antiviral signalling pathway, recruiting additional proteins to form a multiprotein complex capable of activating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway. Read More

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September 2018

Serum-derived IgG from coxsackievirus A6-infected patients can enhance the infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with coxsackievirus A6.

Microb Pathog 2018 Sep 4;125:7-11. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Univ Lille Faculté de Médecine, CHU Lille Laboratoire de Virologie EA3610, F-59037, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) has recently emerged as an enterovirus causing Hand Foot and Mouth Disease with severe complications. The pathogenic mechanisms of CV-A6- associated Hand foot and Mouth disease are largely unknown. In this study, it was investigated whether serum and IgG from patients with CV-A6 infection can enhance the infection of PBMC with the virus. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of an Enterovirus A-Infected Placenta Associated With Stillbirth: A Case Report.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2018 Sep 7:1093526618798772. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

5 Department of Virology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MFD) is a morphologically defined severe placental lesion associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is unknown, and recurrence risk in subsequent pregnancies is assumed to be high. In most cases, a pathologic immune reaction is supposed to be responsible for the lesion. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Understanding physician antibiotic prescribing behavior for children with enterovirus infection.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(9):e0202316. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Our previous study demonstrated that pediatricians prescribe antibiotics without proper clinical justification to patients with enterovirus infection, although antibiotics are not effective in treating the infections caused by these viruses. To improve the quality of healthcare, we aim to evaluate the association of clinical and demographic characteristics of patients and further to identify the determining factors for prescribing antibiotics to children experiencing enterovirus infection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children who were hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2016 with a diagnosis of herpangina or hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses in young children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(9):e0201959. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Young children are susceptible to enterovirus (EV) infections, which cause significant morbidity in this age group. However, the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of EVs and the circulating virus strains is mostly based on viruses detected in children with severe diseases leading to contact with the health care system, while the vast reservoir of EVs that circulate in the general population is less characterized.

Methodology: The present study investigates the types and the prevalence of EVs circulating in the young children of the background population in Georgia, Colorado, and Washington State in the USA, and Germany, Sweden, and Finland in Europe. Read More

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September 2018

Distinct Inflammatory Changes of the Pancreas of Slowly Progressive Insulin-dependent (Type 1) Diabetes.

Pancreas 2018 Oct;47(9):1101-1109

Department of Gastroenterology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the distinct pathological changes on the endocrine and exocrine pancreas of slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM) or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.

Methods: The pancreases from 12 islet autoantibody-positive SPIDDM patients and 19 age-matched subjects with no diabetes were examined histologically for islet inflammation/insulitis, expressions of cytokines, and enterovirus VP1 protein, exocrine pancreatic inflammation, pancreatic ductal changes, major histocompatibility complex class I hyperexpression, and amylin-positive amyloid in the islets.

Results: Insulitis dominant for CD8 T-cells and CD68 macrophages was observed in all SPIDDM cases irrespective of duration of diabetes and weight of residual beta cells. Read More

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October 2018

Association between preceding viral respiratory infection and subsequent respiratory illnesses among children: A prospective cohort study in the Philippines.

J Infect Dis 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Virology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is of great concern in public health. It remains unclear whether viral infections can affect the host's susceptibility to subsequent ARIs.

Methods: A prospective cohort study on ARIs of children below five years old was conducted in the Philippines from 2014 to 2016. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads
6.00 Impact Factor

Respiratory Pathogens in Children 1 Month to 5 Years of Age Presenting With Undifferentiated Acute Respiratory Distress in 2 District-Level Hospitals in Ghana.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Sep 3. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Ghanaian children (2176) aged <5 years who presented with undifferentiated acute respiratory distress were tested for respiratory pathogens using a BioFire FilmArray polymerase chain reaction assay. Rhinovirus and/or enterovirus was detected in 36% of the assays, respiratory syncytial virus in 11%, and parainfluenza in 7%. Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus were detected more frequently in the rainy season than in the dry season. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Temperature and humidity affect the incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease: a systematic review of the literature - a report from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Dermato-Venereology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enterovirus-mediated condition that predominantly affects children under 5 years of age. The tendency for outbreaks to peak in warmer summer months suggests a relationship between HFMD and weather patterns. We reviewed the English-language literature for articles describing a relationship between meteorological variables and HFMD. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Clinical benefits of introducing real-time multiplex PCR for cerebrospinal fluid as routine diagnostic at a tertiary care pediatric center.

Infection 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Dr. v. Hauner Children's Hospital, LMU Munich, University of Munich (LMU), Lindwurmstraße 4, 80337, Munich, Germany.

Background: Sepsis-like illness with suspected meningitis or encephalitis is a common reason for using empiric antimicrobial therapy in infants and children. However, in cases of viral meningitis not covered by these antimicrobials, this management is ineffective and due to side effects potentially harmful.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) multiplex PCRs (Biofire FilmArray) in children with clinical suspicion of meningitis, encephalitis or sepsis-like illness was performed over the period of 1 year. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

MicroR-9-5p suppresses EV71 replication through targeting NFκB of the RIG-I-mediated innate immune response.

FEBS Open Bio 2018 Sep 29;8(9):1457-1470. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Pediatrics Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital China.

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that there is a causative link between hsa-microRNA-9-5p (miR-9) and pathophysiological processes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been found to contribute to numerous severe clinical symptoms which result in death. The exact mechanism by which EV71 influences miR-9 expression is unknown, and the relationship between miR-9 and EV71 is still unclear. Read More

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September 2018

Immunomagnetic enrichment to evaluate the role of home environment specimens in transmission of enterovirus 71.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Sep 19;16(3):2355-2362. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

The School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350004, P.R. China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) immunomagnetic enrichment technique and routine detection methods were combined to detect swab environmental specimens to elucidate the role of environmental specimens in the spread of EV71. Immunomagnetic beads with specific enrichment of EV71 virus were prepared, then the beads were used to absorb the EV71 virus from environmental samples. Obtained immunomagnetic bead-virus complexes were detected by RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and cell culture. Read More

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September 2018
0.94 Impact Factor

Detection by Direct Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Emerging Enterovirus D68 and C109 Strains in an Environmental Sample From Scotland.

Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:1956. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

Human enteroviruses (EVs) have been linked with severe disease and syndromes as varied as acute respiratory illness, myocarditis, and flaccid paralysis. With global polio eradication on sight the focus of clinical investigations has expanded to the identification of other EV serotypes associated with severe neurological conditions such as EV-D68, responsible for large outbreaks in 2014 and 2016 that spread worldwide and were related with severe respiratory disease leading to acute myelitis in some cases. New EV serotypes with epidemic potential continue to emerge such as EV-C104, EV-C105, EV-C109, and EV-C117 identified in respiratory samples in recent years. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

PJA1 Coordinates with the SMC5/6 Complex to Restrict DNA Viruses and Episomal Genes through Interferon-independent Manner.

J Virol 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

Viral and episomal DNAs, as signs of infections and dangers, induce series of immune responses in the host, and cells must sense foreign DNAs to eliminate the invaders. Cell nucleus is not "immune privileged" and exerts intrinsic mechanisms to control nuclear replicating DNA viruses. Thus, it is important to understand the action of viral DNA sensing in the cell nucleus. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads
4.44 Impact Factor

Identificación etiológica de agentes virales de la encefalitis aguda en Guadalajara, México, 2011-2015.

Biomedica 2018 Jun 15;38(2):216-223. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Departamento de Microbiología y Patología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

Introducción. La encefalitis viral aguda se define como un proceso inflamatorio asociado a disfunción neurológica con desenlace fatal o daño grave permanente. En México no se han hecho estudios de identificación directa de los agentes etiológicos causales de la encefalitis viral aguda. Read More

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Clinical and Epidemiologic Patterns of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Coincident Arboviral Disease in a School Cohort in Haiti, 2014-2015.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of Medicine.

Background: Beginning in December 2013, an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection spread across the Caribbean and into virtually all countries in the Western hemisphere, with >2.4 million cases reported through the end of 2017.

Methods: We monitored a cohort of school children in rural Haiti from May 2014, through February 2015, for occurrence of acute undifferentiated febrile illness, with clinical and laboratory data available for 252 illness episodes. Read More

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Viral Etiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in <2-Year-Old US Children in the Post-Rotavirus Vaccine Era.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Sep 3. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri.

Background: The rotavirus disease burden has declined substantially since rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the United States in 2006. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US children aged <2 years.

Methods: The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) of geographically diverse US sites conducts active pediatric population-based surveillance in hospitals and emergency departments. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

[The most frequent causative agents of Guillain-Barre syndrome in a Mexican general hospital].

Rev Neurol 2018 Sep;67(6):203-209

IMSS. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Veracruz, Mexico.

Introduction: After Zika virus outbreak and the increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), the causal relationship has been studied, however a full etiological correlation has not been found.

Patients And Methods: From January 1 to December 31, 2017, patients with GBS were included. In addition to the basic serologies, enterovirus, herpes, Campylobacter, hepatitis B and C, TORCH, HIV, Brucella and Salmonella were requested. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Direct and Indirect Effects on Viral Translation and RNA Replication Are Required for AUF1 Restriction of Enterovirus Infections in Human Cells.

MBio 2018 Sep 4;9(5). Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, USA

The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. AUF1 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection by these viruses due to the disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by viral proteinases. Previous studies have demonstrated that AUF1 binds to poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA during infection, with binding shown to occur within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the 5' noncoding region (NCR) or the 3' NCR, respectively. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

CCR5del32 genotype in human enteroviral cardiomyopathy leads to spontaneous virus clearance and improved outcome compared to wildtype CCR5.

J Transl Med 2018 Sep 4;16(1):249. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Institute of Cardiac Diagnostics and Therapy (IKDT), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Enteroviral cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening disease, and detection of enterovirus (EV) RNA in the initial endomyocardial biopsy is associated with adverse prognosis and increased mortality. Some patients with EV infection may spontaneously eliminate the virus and recover, whereas those with virus persistence deteriorate and progress to heart failure. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) therapy eliminates the virus, resulting in increased survival of treated patients. Read More

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September 2018

A case of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura with dilated coronary arteries.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Sep 4;16(1):54. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Children's Hospital Colorado, 13123 East 16th Avenue, B311, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Background: Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) is one of the most common vasculitides of childhood, with 10-20 cases per 100,000 children. It frequently occurs following an infectious trigger and involves IgA and C3 deposition in small vessel walls. HSP is characterized by palpable purpura plus IgA deposition on biopsy, arthritis/arthralgia, renal involvement (hematuria and/or proteinuria), and/or abdominal pain. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 of sulfated rhamnan isolated from the green alga Monostroma latissimum.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 Nov 24;200:43-53. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Glycoscience and Glycotechnology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Polysaccharide from Monostroma latissimum PML is a sulfated rhamnan, which consists of →3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ and →2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ residues with partial branches and sulfate groups at C-2 of →3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ and/or C-3 of →2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→. The anti-enterovirus 71 (EV71) activity in vitro of PML was assessed by cytopathic effect inhibition and plaque reduction assays, and the results showed that PML was non-cytotoxic and significantly inhibited EV71 infection. The mechanism analysis of anti-EV71 activity demonstrated that PML largely inhibited viral replication before or during viral adsorption, mainly by targeting the capsid protein VP1. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads
4.07 Impact Factor

Sex differences in common childhood infections in Taiwan.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Aug 28;75:115-117. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Sex differences in childhood infections are commonly reported in case-only studies. In this population-based study of 278000 Taiwanese children followed from 3 months to 18 years of age during the period 2000-2012, age-trajectories of monthly numbers of all-cause healthcare visits and monthly rates of infection-specific healthcare visits were compared between boys and girls. For all-cause healthcare visits and for healthcare visits related to conjunctivitis, respiratory tract infections, enteritis, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and herpangina, there was good resemblance of age trajectories between boys and girls. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

The Risk of Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Infants 0-90 Days of Life with a Respiratory Viral Infection.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Aug 30. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Background: Molecular diagnostic methods enhance the sensitivity and broaden the spectrum of detectable respiratory viruses in febrile infants ≤90 days of life. We describe the occurrence of respiratory viruses in this population as well as the rates of serious bacterial infection (SBI) and respiratory viral co-infection with regard to viral characteristics.

Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study performed in the emergency department that included previously healthy febrile infants ≤90 days of life. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Induction and antiviral activity of human β-defensin 3 in intestinal cells with picornavirus infection.

Acta Virol 2018 ;62(3):287-293

Antimicrobial peptides produced by epithelial and immune cells protect tissues from various infections. Whether enterovirus infection leads to stimulation of antimicrobial peptide expression is unknown. We examined antimicrobial peptide mRNA and protein production in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells infected with picornaviruses. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Coxsackievirus A6 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in G0/G1 Phase for Viral Production.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 15;8:279. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Recent epidemiological data indicate that outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which can be categorized according to its clinical symptoms as typical or atypical, have markedly increased worldwide. A primary causative agent for typical HFMD outbreaks, enterovirus 71 (EV71), has been shown to manipulate the cell cycle in S phase for own replication; however, it is not clear whether coxsackievirus (CVA6), the main agent for atypical HFMD, also regulates the host cell cycle. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that CVA6 infection arrests the host cell cycle in G0/G1-phase. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Type 2 Poliovirus Detection after Global Withdrawal of Trivalent Oral Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2018 08;379(9):834-845

From the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London (I.M.B., M.P.-S., N.A.M., N.C.G.); the Polio Eradication Department, World Health Organization, Geneva (O.M.D., P.C., M.Z., R.W.S.); and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle (A.S.B.).

Background: Mass campaigns with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) have brought the world close to the eradication of wild poliovirus. However, to complete eradication, OPV must itself be withdrawn to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Synchronized global withdrawal of OPV began with serotype 2 OPV (OPV2) in April 2016, which presented the first test of the feasibility of eradicating all polioviruses. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads
55.87 Impact Factor

Ending Use of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine - A Difficult Move in the Polio Endgame.

Authors:
Mark A Pallansch

N Engl J Med 2018 Aug;379(9):801-803

From the Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.

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August 2018
4 Reads

Immune Evasion of Enteroviruses Under Innate Immune Monitoring.

Front Microbiol 2018 14;9:1866. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Institute of Medical Biology, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.

As a major component of immunological defense against a great variety of pathogens, innate immunity is capable of activating the adaptive immune system. Viruses are a type of pathogen that proliferate parasitically in cells and have multiple strategies to escape from host immune pressure. Here, we review recent studies of the strategies and mechanisms by which enteroviruses evade innate immune monitoring. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Unusual ent-atisane type diterpenoids with 2-oxopropyl skeleton from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata and their antiviral activity against human rhinovirus 3 and enterovirus 71.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Aug 22;81:234-240. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

College of Pharmacy, Academy of Integrative Medicine, College of Medical Laboratory, The National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Drug Development of Neurodegenerative Disease, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China. Electronic address:

Two novel ent-atisane type diterpenoids possessing the extra unusal 2-oxopropyl moiety (1 and 2) and four known analogues have been isolated from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including 2D NMR, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, C NMR calculation, and electronic circular dichroism spectra calculation. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples of natural products with ent-atisane type diterpenoids possessing 2-oxopropyl skeleton. Read More

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August 2018
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Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase is an IFN-γ-inducible entry factor for Enterovirus.

J Clin Invest 2018 Aug 28. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) receptors that have been identified to date cannot fully explain the pathogenesis of EV-A71, which is an important global cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and life-threatening encephalitis. We identified an interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-inducible EV-A71 cellular entry factor, human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (hWARS), using genome-wide RNAi library screening. The importance of hWARS in mediating virus entry and infectivity was confirmed by virus attachment, in vitro pull-down, antibody/antigen blocking, and CRISPR/Cas9. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads