26,923 results match your criteria Coxsackieviruses


Distribution of species Enterovirus B in patients with central nervous system infections in São Paulo State, Brazil.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Virology Center, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Ave. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, 01246-902, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Enteroviruses (EV) are most common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection, mainly aseptic meningitis. In Brazil, data available concerning the distribution of EV types are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe of types EV in patients with infection of the CNS in São Paulo State. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26131DOI Listing

Detection of Herpesviruses and Enteroviruses in Patients with Suspected Infectious Meningoencephalitis in Three Referral Hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Po Box 1274, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: In Cameroon, routine diagnosis of central nervous system infections (CNS) is based on the detection of bacteria, fungi, parasites and mycobacteria in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Therefore, there is no data on viral etiologies of meningoencephalitis (ME) in the country. We aim to identify viral etiologies (herpesviruses and enteroviruses) of meningoencephalitis (ME) in Cameroon, in order to provide useful information to physicians that will help improving management of ME. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26109DOI Listing

Seroepidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in a Healthy Population in Beijing, China, between 2012 and 2017: A Retrospective Study.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

College of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. No.10 West, You'anmen Avenue, Fengtai district, Beijing, 100069, P. R. China.

Objectives: To investigate the seroepidemiological features of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the healthy population from 2012 to 2017 in Beijing City, China.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional investigation was conducted using serum specimens collected from healthy individuals in Beijing from 2012 to 2017. These samples were tested for neutralization antibodies (NtAbs) against EV-D68. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26132DOI Listing

Co-infections among patients with COVID-19: The need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents?

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Co-infection has been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but there is limited knowledge on co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence of co-infection was variable among COVID-19 patients in different studies, however, it could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Co-pathogens included bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila and Acinetobacter baumannii; Candida species and Aspergillus flavus; and viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245213PMC

Beyond HIV infection: neglected and varied impacts of CCR5 and CCR5Δ32 on viral diseases.

Virus Res 2020 May 29:198040. Epub 2020 May 29.

Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Núcleo de Bioinformática do Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260533PMC

Prevalence of Eleven Infectious Viruses Causing Diarrhea in Korea.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine.

Rotavirus and norovirus are well-known causes of viral infectious diarrhea. There are few reports about diarrhea caused by other viruses in Korea, although gastroenteritis attributable to other viruses is increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to detect various causes of viral diarrhea and to investigate their prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.069DOI Listing

Correlation between TLR4 gene polymorphism and severe enterovirus 71 infection.

J Infect Chemother 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection resulted in high mortality and disability in children. Immune response deficiency and cytokine genetic predispositions were associated with the severity of EV71 infection. We aim to evaluate the association between TLR4 gene polymorphisms and severity of EV71 infection in Chinese children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Association of gene polymorphisms of CD55 with susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 in the Han Chinese population.

J Med Virol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004, China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) can lead to high morbidity and mortality, and genetic background plays an important role during the disease process. We investigated the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2564978 of the CD55 gene and susceptibility to and severity of HFMD using the SNPscan multiple SNP typing method. Soluble CD55 (sCD55) expression was significantly lower in the EV71 HFMD group than in the control group and lower in severe cases than in mild cases (P<0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26088DOI Listing

Near-Complete Genome Sequence of an Enterovirus Species F Isolate Recovered from Sewage in Nigeria.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 May 28;9(22). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Here, we describe the near-complete genome of an enterovirus F (EV-F) isolate from Nigeria. The obtained sequence was 7,378 nucleotides (nt) long and encodes 2 open reading frames (ORFs), an upstream ORF (uORF; 56 amino acids [aa]) and a polyprotein ORF (ppORF; 2,167 aa). Both ORFs overlap but are in different reading frames, with the uORF in a +1 reading frame relative to the ppORF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00094-20DOI Listing

Inhibitory antibodies identify unique sites of therapeutic vulnerability in rhinovirus and other enteroviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, 201210 Shanghai, People's Republic of China;

The existence of multiple serotypes renders vaccine development challenging for most viruses in the genus. An alternative and potentially more viable strategy for control of these viruses is to develop broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting highly conserved proteins that are indispensable for the virus life cycle, such as the 3C protease. Previously, two single-chain antibody fragments, YDF and GGVV, were reported to effectively inhibit human rhinovirus 14 proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1918844117DOI Listing

Single B cells reveal the antibody responses of rhesus macaques immunized with an inactivated enterovirus D68 vaccine.

Arch Virol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China.

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection may cause severe respiratory system manifestations in pediatric populations. Because of the lack of an effective preventive vaccine or specific therapeutic drug for this infection, the development of EV-D68-specific vaccines and antibodies has become increasingly important. In this study, we prepared an experimental EV-D68 vaccine inactivated by formaldehyde and found that the serum of rhesus macaques immunized with the inactivated EV-D68 vaccine exhibited potent neutralizing activity against EV-D68 virus in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04676-6DOI Listing

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) among children: a 6-year population-based study.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 27;20(1):801. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is considered to be self-limited, however, severe HFMD is a deadly threat for children worldwide, therefore, it is essential to define the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of children with severe HFMD and identify the risk factors of death.

Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, children who diagnosed with severe HFMD from Chongqing, China were enrolled in this population-based study. A total of 459 severe HFMD children cases were identified during the study period, including 415 survivors and 44 fatal cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08961-6DOI Listing

Novel enteric viruses in fatal enteritis of grey squirrels.

J Gen Virol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Section for Experimental Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Hans-Knöll-Str. 2, Germany.

Astro- and kobuviruses infect both humans and animals. Here, we report on the disease history, detection and genomic characterization of novel astro- and kobuviruses from fatal diarrhoea of two juvenile grey squirrels. The virus particles had enterovirus-like morphology and a diameter of 28-32 nm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001431DOI Listing

Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants < 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators' Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 May 26;20(1):252. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 4-590 ECHA, 11405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Background: The relative contribution of viruses to central nervous system (CNS) infections in young infants is not clear. For viral CNS infections, there are limited data on features that suggest HSV etiology or on predictors of unfavorable outcome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, seven centers from the Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada identified infants < 90 days of age with CNS infection proven to be due to enterovirus (EV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV) January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02151-4DOI Listing

Using Nonpolio Enterovirus Detection to Assess the Integrity of Stool Specimens Collected From Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in Somalia During 2014-2017.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 May 21;7(5):ofaa135. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Global Immunization Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Despite insecurity challenges in Somalia, key indicators for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance have met recommended targets. However, recent outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses have raised concerns about possible gaps. We analyzed nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) and Sabin poliovirus isolation rates to investigate whether comparing these rates can inform about the integrity of stool specimens from inaccessible areas and the likelihood of detecting circulating polioviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235528PMC

Viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients: Evaluation of immunochromatographic methods for rapid detection in stool samples.

J Clin Virol 2020 May 15;128:104420. Epub 2020 May 15.

Enterovirus and Viral Gastroenteritis Unit, National Centre for Microbiology (CNM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo km 2, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: . Viral infections are recognized as the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Virus detection by immune analytical methods is recommended for diagnosis because of its simplicity and low cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104420DOI Listing

Microbiota-independent antiviral effects of antibiotics on poliovirus and coxsackievirus.

Virology 2020 Jul 8;546:20-24. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Coxsackieviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but they can disseminate systemically and cause severe disease. Using antibiotic treatment regimens to deplete intestinal microbes in mice, several groups have shown that bacteria promote oral infection with a variety of enteric viruses. However, it is unknown whether antibiotics have microbiota-independent antiviral effects for enteric viruses or whether antibiotics influence extra-intestinal, systemic infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253499PMC

Epidemiological Study of Influenza A, Influenza B, Enterovirus 71, and Coxsackievirus A16 Among Children in the Central Region of Zhejiang Province, China.

Curr Microbiol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang, China.

Influenza A virus (IAV), influenza B virus (IBV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are common pathogens for viral infection in children. In order to investigate the epidemiology of these four viral infections in the central region of Zhejiang province, China, 10,638 respiratory secretion samples previously tested for IAV and IBV, and 6427 whole blood samples previously tested for EV71 and CVA16 detection were analyzed retrospectively. The present data shows that viral infections with these four viruses featured with distinct seasonal patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02026-yDOI Listing

Eradication of persistent coxsackievirus B infection from a pancreatic cell line with clinically used antiviral drugs.

J Clin Virol 2020 Apr 26;128:104334. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Tampere University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Arvo Ylpönkatu 34, FIN-33520 Tampere, Finland; Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Persistent enterovirus infections create a difficult therapeutic challenge in immunocompromised patients and may also contribute to the development of chronic diseases including type 1 diabetes, cardiomyopathies, post-polio syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Objectives: To study the ability of antiviral drugs to eradicate such infection in vitro to evalaute their potential in the treatments of these patients.

Study Design: We set out to evaluate several licensed or clinically tested drugs which have shown some anti-enterovirus activity in previous studies for their ability to cure persistent infection established by two different coxsackievirus B1 strains in a pancreatic cell line (PANC-1 cells). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104334DOI Listing

N-methyladenosine modifications enhance enterovirus 71 ORF translation through METTL3 cytoplasmic distribution.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 11;527(1):297-304. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, School of Preclinical Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China. Electronic address:

During replication, numerous viral RNAs are modified by N-methyladenosine (mA), the most abundant internal RNA modification. mA is believed to regulate elements of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, translation, secondary structure formation, and viral replication. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of mA modification of the EV71 genome in human cells and revealed a preferred, conserved modification site across diverse viral strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.088DOI Listing

Environmental surveillance complements the case-based AFP surveillance in the polio endgame strategy.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention; Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 16992 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong, 250014, People's Republic of China

The Polio Endgame Strategy 2019-2023 has been developed. However, more effective and efficient surveillance activities should be conducted with the preparedness of emergence for vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) or wild poliovirus (WPV). We reviewed the impact of the case-based acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance (1991-2018) and environmental surveillance (2011-2018) in polio eradication in Shandong province of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00702-20DOI Listing

The intestinal virome in children with cystic fibrosis differs from healthy controls.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(5):e0233557. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Intestinal bacterial dysbiosis is evident in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and intestinal viruses may be contributory, given their influence on bacterial species diversity and biochemical cycles. We performed a prospective, case-control study on children with CF and age and gender matched healthy controls (HC), to investigate the composition and function of intestinal viral communities. Stool samples were enriched for viral DNA and RNA by viral extraction, random amplification and purification before sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233557PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244107PMC

Mosaic genome of Human Coxsackievirus A4 associated with herpangina and HFMD in Yancheng, China, 2016 and 2018.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Yancheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yancheng, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To better understand the spectrums of pathogens causing herpangina and circulation of Coxsackievirus A4 in Yancheng, China.

Methods: Stool samples from herpangina and HFMD cases were collected. Real Time PCR Kits was used to identify Enterovirus 71, CV-A16 and CV-A6, and nested reverse transcription PCR (nRT-PCR) to detect the other enterovirus types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.057DOI Listing

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2018-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 May 22;69(20):623-629. Epub 2020 May 22.

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988, the number of polio cases worldwide has declined approximately 99.99%; only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission (1). The primary means of detecting poliovirus circulation is through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years with testing of stool specimens for WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) (genetically reverted strains of the vaccine virus that regain neurovirulence) in World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratories (2,3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6920a3DOI Listing

Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of human rhinovirus/ in Odisha, Eastern India.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2019 Oct-Dec;37(4):569-573

Infection Biology Lab, School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-XI, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Introduction: Human rhinovirus (HRV) and Enterovirus (ENV) are the major causes of childhood acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). This study sought to understand the distribution pattern of HRV subgroups, their seasonality and association with respiratory complications in patients at a tertiary care hospital.

Results: Of the total 332 ARTI samples, 82 (24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_23DOI Listing

Efficiency of PEG secondary concentration and PCR for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of foodborne bacteria, viruses and protozoa.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2020 May;367(10)

Laboratorio Analises, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Fresh fruits are a potential source of many different pathogens, including bacteria, enteric viruses and protozoa that may pose serious health risks. The consumption of raspberries has been widely associated with large foodborne outbreaks and because of the low concentration at which most of these pathogens are found, sensitive and accurate detection methods are required. Methods that would allow for an accurate and sensitive simultaneous elution and concentration of the different classes of pathogens would decrease the time for analysis, the costs associated and the expertise necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa085DOI Listing

Enterovirus 71 induces neural cell apoptosis and autophagy through promoting ACOX1 downregulation and ROS generation.

Virulence 2020 12;11(1):537-553

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal neurological complications. However, the mechanisms underlying EV71 neurological pathogeneses are largely unknown. This study reveals a distinct mechanism by which EV71 induces apoptosis and autophagy in neural cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2020.1766790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250321PMC
December 2020

Epidemiology of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Before and After the Introduction of Enterovirus 71 Vaccines in Chengdu, China, 2009-2018.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatitics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has posed a serious threat to children's health. Three inactivated monovalent enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines are proved to be highly efficacious in phase III clinical trials and are now available in China.

Methods: We analyzed the citywide surveillance data on HFMD cases in Chengdu during 2009-2018, and estimated cumulative first-dose EV71 vaccination coverage among children eligible to EV71 vaccination after August 2016 in Chengdu. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002745DOI Listing

Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activity of Different Plant Parts of Banana (Musa spp.).

Viruses 2020 May 15;12(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Chikungunya and yellow fever virus cause vector-borne viral diseases in humans. There is currently no specific antiviral drug for either of these diseases. Banana plants are used in traditional medicine for treating viral diseases such as measles and chickenpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050549DOI Listing
May 2020
3.279 Impact Factor

Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Respiratory Viral Contagions.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Apr 29;2(4):e0107. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Both authors: Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Endemic and pandemic viral respiratory infections have recently emerged as a critical topic of investigation given the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 outbreak. Data from such outbreaks indicate that severe systemic comorbidities including acute neurologic illness are associated with illness and lead to significant outcome differences. Herein, we will discuss the neurologic manifestations of severe viral respiratory infections including coronavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188429PMC

Drug repurposing of pyrimidine analogs as potent antiviral compounds against human enterovirus A71 infection with potential clinical applications.

Sci Rep 2020 May 18;10(1):8159. Epub 2020 May 18.

Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, MD4 Level 5, 5 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the aetiological agents for the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children and a potential cause of neurological complications in afflicted patients. Since its discovery in 1969, there remains no approved antiviral for EV-A71 and other HFMD-causing enteroviruses. We set out to address the lack of therapeutics against EV-A71 by screening an FDA-approved drug library and found an enrichment of hits including pyrimidine antimetabolite, gemcitabine which showed 90. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65152-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235037PMC

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy with organic psychosis: a pediatric case report.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(2):320-325

Departments of Pediatric Neurology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Enteroviruses-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) of childhood is rarely reported in the literature. Clinico-radiological features of ANE are well-recognized and bilateral thalamic nuclei are frequently affected by ANE. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are rarely seen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.02.021DOI Listing
January 2020

WHO working group meeting to develop WHO Recommendations to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of enterovirus 71 vaccines.

Vaccine 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, United Kingdom.

Enterovirus A71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system syndromes. Vaccines against EV71 infection have been developed or are in development in several countries and few have been licensed in China. In response to requests from some of these countries, WHO convened a working group meeting in Shanghai China from 11 to 12 September 2019 to develop WHO Recommendations to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of EV71 vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Characterizing Environmental Surveillance Sites in Nigeria and Their Sensitivity to Detect Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses.

J Infect Dis 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Environmental surveillance (ES) for poliovirus is increasingly important for polio eradication, often detecting circulating virus before paralytic cases are reported. The sensitivity of ES depends on appropriate selection of sampling sites, which is difficult in low-income countries with informal sewage networks.

Methods: We measured ES site and sample characteristics in Nigeria during June 2018-May 2019, including sewage physicochemical properties, using a water-quality probe, flow volume, catchment population, and local facilities such as hospitals, schools, and transit hubs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa175DOI Listing
April 2020
5.997 Impact Factor

Tracking echovirus eleven outbreaks in Guangdong, China: a metatranscriptomic, phylogenetic, and epidemiological study.

Virus Evol 2020 Jan 10;6(1):veaa029. Epub 2020 May 10.

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou, China.

In April 2019, a suspect cluster of enterovirus cases was reported in a neonatology department in Guangdong, China, resulting in five deaths. We aimed to investigate the pathogen profiles in fatal cases, the circulation and transmission pattern of the viruses by combining metatranscriptomic, phylogenetic, and epidemiological analyses. Metatranscriptomic sequencing was used to characterize the enteroviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211399PMC
January 2020

Severe Acute Flaccid Myelitis Associated With Enterovirus in Children: Two Phenotypes for Two Evolution Profiles?

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:343. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Paediatric Neurology, Necker-Enfants malades Hospital, University of Paris, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an acute paralysis syndrome defined by a specific inflammation of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. From 2014, worrying waves of life-threatening AFM consecutive to enterovirus infection (EV-D68 and EV-A71) have been reported. We describe 10 children displaying an AFM with an EV infection, the treatments performed and the 1 to 3-years follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198806PMC

Alphatorquevirus is the most prevalent virus identified in blood from a matched maternal-infant preterm cohort.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 May 13:1-7. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

To determine the prevalence of virus in a previously uncharacterized matched maternal-infant preterm cohort and test if viral presence or viral load correlate with histologic chorioamnionitis, spontaneous preterm labor or pre-eclampsia. Using qRT-PCR/qPCR we tested plasma or whole blood samples from 56 matched maternal and premature infant dyads for: adenovirus, anellovirus (alphatorquevirus and betatorquevirus), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), enterovirus, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), parechovirus, and parvovirus B19. Viral detection was more common in maternal samples 29/56 (52%) than in cord blood from their infants (4/56 (7%)) ( ≤ . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1763298DOI Listing

Myristoylation of EV71 VP4 is Essential for Infectivity and Interaction with Membrane Structure.

Virol Sin 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

The Enterovirus 71 (EV71) VP4 is co-translationally linked to myristic acid at its amino-terminal glycine residue. However, the role of this myristoylation in the EV71 life cycle remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we developed a myristoylation-deficient virus and reporter (luciferase) pseudovirus with a Gly-to-Ala mutation (G2A) on EV71 VP4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00226-1DOI Listing

MicroRNA-628-5p Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Infection by Suppressing TRAF3 Signaling.

Cell Mol Immunol 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0453-4DOI Listing
May 2020
4.112 Impact Factor

Rosmarinic Acid Exhibits Broad Anti-Enterovirus A71 Activity by Inhibiting the Interaction between the Five-Fold Axis of Capsid VP1 and Cognate Sulfated Receptors.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 May 13:1-37. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC.

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), a positive-stranded RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family, may cause neurological complications or fatality in children. We examined specific factors responsible for this virulence using a chemical genetics approach. Known compounds from an anti-EV-A71 herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), were screened for anti-EV-A71. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1767512DOI Listing

Virus detections among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, Northern Vietnam.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(5):e0233117. Epub 2020 May 12.

Emerging Infectious Diseases Programme, Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is a major cause of death and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, however, the etiologic agents are often undetermined due to the lack of molecular diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. To examine evidence for select viral infections among patients with SARI in northern Vietnam, we studied 348 nasopharyngeal samples from military and civilian patients admitted to 4 hospitals in the greater Hanoi area from 2017-2019. Initial screening for human respiratory viral pathogens was performed in Hanoi, Vietnam at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) or the Military Institute of Preventative Medicine (MIPM), and an aliquot was shipped to Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore for validation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233117PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217455PMC

Subacute enterovirus-associated encephalitis in a young adult coinfected with borrelia burgdorferI.

Wiad Lek 2020 ;73(5):1053-1055

Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Objective: The aim: To pay attention of clinicians to sterile encephalitis in adults, which in fact may be caused by EVs.

Results: Results: A young woman was admitted to our clinic because of 3-month-history of mild fever, left-sided soft facial paralysis, and generalized weakness. MR brain imaging in T2W, FLAIR, and T1W mode showed focal hyper intensive abnormalities in various parts of the left hemisphere. Read More

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January 2020

Agammaglobulinemia: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Phenotype, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran. Iran.

Agammaglobulinemia is a type of primary antibody deficiencies, characterized by severe reduction in serum level of all types of immunoglobulins level and absence of B cells in the peripheral blood. X-linked and various autosomal recessive/dominant mutations have been identified underlying the pathogenesis of this disorder. Affected patients present a broad range of clinical manifestations, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal complications, Enterovirus infections, autoimmunity, and malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530320666200508114349DOI Listing

Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, and Anthelmintic Activities of Medicinal Plants of Nepal Selected Based on Ethnobotanical Evidence.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 22;2020:1043471. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Infections by microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungi) and parasites can cause serious diseases in both humans and animals. Heavy use of antimicrobials has created selective pressure and caused resistance to currently available antibiotics, hence the need for finding new and better antibiotics. Natural products, especially from plants, are known for their medicinal properties, including antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1043471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193273PMC
April 2020
1.880 Impact Factor

Are Italy and Iran really suffering from COVID-19 epidemic? A controversial study.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 04;24(8):4519-4522

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The number of global COVID-19 infected cases is increased rapidly to exceed 370 thousand. COVID-19 is transmitted between humans through direct contact and touching dirty surfaces. This paper aims to find the similarity between DNA sequences of COVID-19 in different countries, and to compare these sequences with three different diseases [HIV, Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD), and Cryptococcus]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202004_21034DOI Listing

Assessment of immunodeficiency scoring index performance in enterovirus/rhinovirus respiratory infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 3:e13301. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitari I Politècnic la Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Enterovirus/rhinoviruses (EvRh) are the most common cause of respiratory virus infections in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).

Objective: We sought to analyze the value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) in predicting lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) progression and mortality in a prospective cohort of consecutive adult (>16 years) allo-HSCT recipients with EvRh infection from December 1 2013 to December 1 2019 at two Spanish transplant centers.

Results: We included 234 allo-HSCT recipients with 383 EvRh episodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13301DOI Listing

Interpret with caution: An evaluation of the commercial AusDiagnostics versus in-house developed assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus.

J Clin Virol 2020 06 20;127:104374. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, NSW Health Pathology-Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia; Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology - Public Health, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Introduction: There is limited data on the analytical performance of commercial nucleic acid tests (NATs) for laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 infection.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal, combined nose and throat swabs, nasopharyngeal aspirates and sputum was collected from persons with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, serial dilutions of SARS-CoV-2 viral cultures and synthetic positive controls (gBlocks, Integrated DNA Technologies) were tested using i) AusDiagnostics assay (AusDiagnostics Pty Ltd); ii) in-house developed assays targeting the E and RdRp genes; iii) multiplex PCR assay targeting endemic respiratory viruses. Discrepant SARS-CoV-2 results were resolved by testing the N, ORF1b, ORF1ab and M genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104374DOI Listing

Coxsackievirus A16 in a 1-Day-Old Mouse Model of Central Nervous System Infection Shows Lower Neurovirulence than Enterovirus A71.

J Comp Pathol 2020 Apr 4;176:19-32. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) are the major causes of hand, foot and mouth disease in young children. Although less so with CV-A16, both viruses are associated with serious neurological syndromes, but the differences between their central nervous system infections remain unclear. We conducted a comparative infection study using clinically-isolated CV-A16 and EV-A71 strains in a 1-day-old mouse model to better understand the neuropathology and neurovirulence of the viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.02.001DOI Listing

Epidemiology of bacteria and viruses in the respiratory tract of humans and domestic pigs.

APMIS 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Infection Medicine, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Str. 4, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

Bacteria and viruses were analysed in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic pig-farmers and their domestic pigs. 86 human nasal and 495 (50 pools) porcine snout swabs were collected in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Staphylococcus (S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13046DOI Listing