27,741 results match your criteria Coxsackieviruses

Etiology of acute meningitis and encephalitis from hospital-based surveillance in South Kazakhstan oblast, February 2017-January 2018.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251494. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Encephalitis and meningitis (EM) are severe infections of the central nervous system associated with high morbidity and mortality. The etiology of EM in Kazakhstan is not clearly defined, so from February 1, 2017 to January 31, 2018 we conducted hospital-based syndromic surveillance for EM at the Shymkent City Hospital, in the South Kazakhstan region. All consenting inpatients meeting a standard case definition were enrolled. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Incidence of enterovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Service of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA) and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Enteroviruses (EV) have been linked to lymphocytic meningitis and exanthems, but they may also be involved in acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a condition whose aetiological agent often remains unidentified. In this work 1214 samples from individuals with AGE were studied with the aim of establishing the incidence of EV. The samples were collected between September and December in three different years and subjected to real-time genomic amplification in order to determine the viral load (VL). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Parechovirus Infection in Early Childhood and Association With Subsequent Celiac Disease.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):788-795

1Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Paediatric, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, Norway; 4Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 5Division of Institute Resources, Department of IT and e-health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 6Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: To test whether parechovirus and anellovirus, frequent enteric viruses, were associated with subsequent celiac disease (CD). We hypothesized that children who later developed CD would have increased frequency of parechovirus infections before transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibody development. Anellovirus testing was exploratory, as a potential marker of immune status. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficient delivery of oncolytic enterovirus by carrier cell line NK-92.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Jun 1;21:110-118. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Peptide and Protein Technologies, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow 117997, Russia.

Many members of the enterovirus family are considered as promising oncolytic agents; however, their systemic administration is largely inefficient due to the rapid neutralization of the virus in the circulation and the barrier functions of the endothelium. We aimed to evaluate natural killer cells as carriers for the delivery of oncolytic enteroviruses, which would combine the effects of cell immunotherapy with virotherapy. We tested four strains of nonpathogenic enteroviruses against the glioblastoma cell line panel and evaluated the produced infectious titers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Enteroviruses-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Herpangina Outbreak in Zunyi, China, 2019.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:656699. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zunyi Medical University Third Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi, China.

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA), two of the most common childhood infectious diseases, are associated with enteroviruses (EVs) infection. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular epidemiology of enterovirus causing HFMD/HA in Zunyi, China, during 2019, and to describe the clinical features of the cases. We collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory data of laboratory-confirmed EVs associated HFMD/HA cases in Zunyi Medical University Third Affiliated Hospital between March 1 and July 31, 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Platinum complexes act as shielding agents against virus infection.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4666-4669

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Queensland, Australia.

We determine that the substitution-inert polynuclear platinum complex (PPC) TriplatinNC is an antiviral agent and protects cells from enterovirus 71 and human metapneumovirus infection. This protection occurs through the formation of adducts with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans. Our detailed mechanistic investigation demonstrates that TriplatinNC blocks viral entry by shielding cells from virus attack, opening new directions for metalloshielding antiviral drug development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Methods in Screening Antiviral Drugs Against Enterovirus 71.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:167-184

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia.

Enteroviruses 71 (EV71) is a single-stranded, neurotrophic RNA virus responsible for the numerous outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific regions. HFMD primarily affects children to cause range of infection, from mild symptoms to acute flaccid paralysis, and hemorrhage. Despite increased incidence of EV71 epidemics globally and research against EV71 becoming prioritized, no antiviral agent against EV71 has yet been licensed and approved worldwide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Acute Enterovirus Encephalitis as a Cause for Isolated Visual and Auditory Hallucinations in a 22-Year-Old Patient.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 23;2021:6687735. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Viral encephalitis often presents with severe illness, headache, fever, behavioral changes, altered level of consciousness, and focal neurologic deficits. One of the most feared kind of virus encephalitis is herpes simplex encephalitis; however, other central virus infections are also capable of presenting with psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report the case of a 22-year-old woman with first time visual and auditory hallucinations due to an acute enterovirus encephalitis with no cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities but a positive PCR result for enterovirus (ECHO). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

False-positive results in SARS-CoV-2 antigen test with rhinovirus-A infection.

Pediatr Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular characterisation and epidemiology of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa 2018-2019.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104845. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa and the National Health Laboratory Service, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Enteroviruses are amongst the most common causes of aseptic meningitis. Between November 2018 and May 2019, an outbreak of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis cases was noted in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and phylogeography of enterovirus infections during an aseptic meningitis outbreak in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbial co-infections in COVID-19: Associated microbiota and underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 4;156:104941. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh; Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel capsid binder and PI4KIIIbeta inhibitors for EV-A71 replication inhibition.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9719. Epub 2021 May 6.

Collaborative and Translation Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral illness generally manifests as a mild disease in young children and immunocompromised adults. It has however emerged as a significant public health threat in recent years as outbreaks have been occurring regularly, especially in the Asia-Pacific. The disease can result from infections by a wide variety of human enteroviruses, particularly, Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has garnered more attention due to its association with severe disease in infected patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The prevalence of enteroviral RNA and protein in mitral valves of chronic rheumatic heart disease.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Apr 30;15(4):566-572. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bangalore, India.

Introduction: Acute Rheumatic Fever/ Rheumatic Heart Disease (ARF/RHD), a sequel of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection, even today constitutes a public health issue in developing countries including India. Differences in the prevalence of ARF/RHD in countries with a similar prevalence of GAS infections indicate the role of other cofactors in pathogenesis of RHD.

Methodology: We investigated the prevalence of enterovirus (EV) in RHD by probing for both EV RNA and VP1 protein using Nonisotopic In Situ Hybridization (NISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively in 75 valvectomy specimens obtained from RHD cases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Upregulation of a Novel Long Noncoding RNA AK097647 Promotes Enterovirus 71 Replication and Decreases IFN-λ1 Secretion.

Intervirology 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shenzhen Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infects millions of children every year in China and has become a challenge to public health. However, there is no effective treatment for EV71 infection. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play various roles in virus replication and infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical characterization of benign enterovirus infection in neonates.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25706

Department of Neonatology, Zhangzhou Hospital, Zhangzhou, Fujian, China.

Abstract: Enteroviruses is a group of positive single-stranded RNA viruses ubiquitous in the environment, which is a causative agent of epidemic diseases in children and infants. But data on neonates are still limited. The present study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of enterovirus infection in neonates and arise the awareness of this disease to general public. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ICAM-1 induced rearrangements of capsid and genome prime rhinovirus 14 for activation and uncoating.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno 62500, Czech Republic

Most rhinoviruses, which are the leading cause of the common cold, utilize intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a receptor to infect cells. To release their genomes, rhinoviruses convert to activated particles that contain pores in the capsid, lack minor capsid protein VP4, and have an altered genome organization. The binding of rhinoviruses to ICAM-1 promotes virus activation; however, the molecular details of the process remain unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Analysis of enterovirus genotypes in the cerebrospinal fluid of children associated with aseptic meningitis in Liaocheng, China, from 2018 to 2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 1;21(1):405. Epub 2021 May 1.

Key Laboratory for Pediatrics of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, No. 67 Dongchang West Road, Liaocheng, 252000, Shandong Province, PR China.

Background: Aseptic meningitis is most often caused by enteroviruses (EVs), but EVs associated with aseptic meningitis have not yet been reported in Liaocheng. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic characteristics of EVs causing aseptic meningitis in children in Liaocheng.

Methods: We reviewed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 504 paediatric cases of aseptic meningitis in Liaocheng from 2018 to 2019 and analysed the phylogeny of the predominant EV types causing this disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Simultaneous enterovirus EV-D68 and CVA6 infections causing acute respiratory distress syndrome and hand, foot and mouth disease.

Virol J 2021 Apr 30;18(1):88. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-coinfections have been rarely reported with development of complications and severe clinical outcome. An atypical case of a child presenting HFMD and severe acute respiratory syndrome, co-infected with EV-D68 and CVA6, is reported herein. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Blood Virosphere in Febrile Tanzanian Children.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 30:1-237. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Viral infections are the leading cause of childhood acute febrile illnesses motivating consultation in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of causal viruses are never identified in low-resource clinical settings as such testing is either not part of routine screening or available diagnostic tools have limited ability to detect new/unexpected viral variants. An in-depth exploration of the blood virome is therefore necessary to clarify the potential viral origin of fever in children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fludarabine Inhibits Infection of Zika Virus, SFTS Phlebovirus, and Enterovirus A71.

Viruses 2021 04 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Viral infections are one of the leading causes in human mortality and disease. Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are a powerful weapon against new and re-emerging viruses. However, viral resistance to existing broad-spectrum antivirals remains a challenge, which demands development of new broad-spectrum therapeutics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surveillance for Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, and Other Mucocutaneous Symptoms in Spain, 2006-2020.

Viruses 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Enterovirus Unit, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Madrid, Spain.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild illness caused by enteroviruses (EV), although in some Asian countries, large outbreaks have been reported in the last 25 years, with a considerable incidence of neurological complications. This study describes epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EV infections involved in HFMD and other mucocutaneous symptoms from 2006 to 2020 in Spain. EV-positive samples from 368 patients were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In Vitro Characterization of Neutralizing Hen Antibodies to A16.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Ph.D. Program in Medical Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110301, Taiwan.

A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Children aged <5 years are the most affected by CA16 HFMD globally. Although clinical symptoms of CA16 infections are usually mild, severe complications, such as aseptic meningitis or even death, have been recorded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune Transcriptome of Cells Infected with Enterovirus Strains Obtained from Cases of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 19;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Global Virus Network, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease are autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) of unknown origin. Enterovirus (EV) infection of thyroid cells has been implicated as a possible initiator of cell damage and of organ-specific autoimmunity. We asked whether persistent infection of human epithelial cells with EV strains obtained from thyroid tissue of AITD patients could be associated with transcriptional changes capable of fostering immunopathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Nuclear Pore Complex Is a Key Target of Viral Proteases to Promote Viral Replication.

Viruses 2021 04 19;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City 07360, Mexico.

Various viruses alter nuclear pore complex (NPC) integrity to access the nuclear content favoring their replication. Alteration of the nuclear pore complex has been observed not only in viruses that replicate in the nucleus but also in viruses with a cytoplasmic replicative cycle. In this last case, the alteration of the NPC can reduce the transport of transcription factors involved in the immune response or mRNA maturation, or inhibit the transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, favoring the translation of viral mRNAs or allowing access to nuclear factors necessary for viral replication. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stool Serology: Development of a Non-Invasive Immunological Method for the Detection of Enterovirus-Specific Antibodies in Congo Gorilla Faeces.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 12;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, CEDEX 05, 13005 Marseille, France.

Background: The incidence of poliovirus has been significantly reduced by as much as 99.9% globally. Alongside this, however, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has emerged. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Generation of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus Capsid Protein VP4 Using Hepatitis B Core VLPs as a Scaffold.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright GU24 0NF, UK.

The picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of the economically important disease of livestock, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). VP4 is a highly conserved capsid protein, which is important during virus entry. Previous published work has shown that antibodies targeting the N-terminus of VP4 of the picornavirus human rhinovirus are broadly neutralising. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cross-Antigenicity between EV71 Sub-Genotypes: Implications for Vaccine Efficacy.

Viruses 2021 04 21;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing 102600, China.

Enterovirus A-71 (EV71) is a global, highly contagkkious pathogen responsible for severe cases of hand-food-mouth-disease (HFMD). The use of vaccines eliciting cross neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against the different circulating EV71 sub-genotypes is important for preventing HFMD outbreaks. Here, we tested the cross-neutralizing activities induced by EV71 genotype/sub-genotype A, B0-B4, C1, C2, C4, and C5 viruses using rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection and Typing of Human Enteroviruses from Clinical Samples by Entire-Capsid Next Generation Sequencing.

Viruses 2021 04 8;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK.

There are increasing concerns of infections by enteroviruses (EVs) causing severe disease in humans. EV diagnostic laboratory methods show differences in sensitivity and specificity as well as the level of genetic information provided. We examined a detection method for EVs based on next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of amplicons covering the entire capsid coding region directly synthesized from clinical samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Micafungin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection through the Disruption of Virus Binding, Entry, and Stability.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center (NDMC), No. 161, Section 6, Minquan East Road, Taipei 114, Taiwan.

Dengue fever is an arbovirus disease caused by infection with the dengue virus (DENV). Half of the world's population lives under the threat of dengue fever, however, researchers have yet to develop any drugs that are clinically applicable to this infection. Micafungin is a member of the echinocandins family of anti-fungal drugs, capable of blocking the synthesis of β-1,3-D-glucan in the walls of fungal cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in Seasonal Respiratory Illnesses in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Health Informatics and Surveillance, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Background: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF