584 results match your criteria Cowpox Infection Human

The presumed receptivity and susceptibility to monkeypox of European animal species.

Nadia Haddad

Infect Dis Now 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Anses, INRAe, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UMR BIPAR, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Maisons-Alfort, F-94700 France. Electronic address:

The Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxviral genus, as does the specifically human smallpox virus. It is zoonotic and had never previously been considered as capable of human-to-human transmission over more than nine viral generation cycles. While relevant animal reservoirs have yet to be identified, non-human primates (NHP) are only accidental hosts. Read More

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A Belgian student with black eschars.

Acta Clin Belg 2022 Jun 22:1-5. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Ghent University, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Human cowpox virus infection is a rare zoonotic disease. Cowpox virus is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, like smallpox. Over the last years records of cowpox virus transmission from pet cats and pet rats to humans in Europe have increased. Read More

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Genomic Sequencing and Analysis of a Novel Human Cowpox Virus With Mosaic Sequences From North America and Old World Orthopoxvirus.

Front Microbiol 2022 3;13:868887. Epub 2022 May 3.

Section of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria.

Orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) not only infect their natural hosts, but some OPXVs can also cause disease in humans. Previously, we partially characterized an OPXV isolated from an 18-year-old male living in Northern Norway. Restriction enzyme analysis and partial genome sequencing characterized this virus as an atypical cowpox virus (CPXV), which we named CPXV-No-H2. Read More

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Molecular mimicry of NF-κB by vaccinia virus protein enables selective inhibition of antiviral responses.

Nat Microbiol 2022 01 23;7(1):154-168. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Infection of mammalian cells with viruses activates NF-κB to induce the expression of cytokines and chemokines and initiate an antiviral response. Here, we show that a vaccinia virus protein mimics the transactivation domain of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to inhibit selectively the expression of NF-κB-regulated genes. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that the vaccinia virus protein F14 associates with NF-κB co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and disrupts the interaction between p65 and CBP. Read More

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January 2022

Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Orthopoxvirus in Stray Cats and in Different Domestic, Wild and Exotic Animal Species of Central Italy.

Viruses 2021 10 19;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Via Appia Nuova, 1411, 00178 Rome, Italy.

Orthpoxvirus infection can spread more easily in a population with a waning immunity with the subsequent emergence/re-emergence of the viruses pertaining to this genus. In the last two decades, several cases of Orthopoxvirus, and in particular Cowpoxvirus infections in humans were reported in different parts of the world, possibly due to the suspension of smallpox vaccinations. To date, in Italy, few investigations were conducted on the presence of these infections, and because of this a serosurvey was carried out to evaluate Cowpoxvirus infection in feline colonies situated in the province of Rome, since these are also susceptible to other zoonotic viruses belonging to Orthopoxvirus, and from which humans may contract the infection. Read More

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October 2021

The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, Prevention, and Control of Increasing Human Infections with Animal Orthopoxviruses.

James H Diaz

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Dec 22;32(4):528-536. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, LSU School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisianna. Electronic address:

Zoonotic orthopoxvirus outbreaks have occurred repeatedly worldwide, including monkeypox in Africa and the United States, cowpox in Europe, camelpox in the Middle East and India, buffalopox in India, vaccinia in South America, and novel emerging orthopoxvirus infections in the United States, Europe, Asia, and South America. Waning smallpox immunity may increase the potential for animal-to-human transmission followed by further community transmission person-to-person (as demonstrated by monkeypox and buffalopox outbreaks) and by contact with fomites (as demonstrated by camelpox, cowpox, and, possibly, Alaskapox). The objectives of this review are to describe the disease ecology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention, and control of human infections with animal orthopoxviruses and to discuss the association with diminished population herd immunity formerly induced by vaccinia vaccination against smallpox. Read More

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December 2021

Adaptive Immune Response to Vaccinia Virus LIVP Infection of BALB/c Mice and Protection against Lethal Reinfection with Cowpox Virus.

Viruses 2021 08 17;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, 630559 Koltsovo, Russia.

Mass vaccination has played a critical role in the global eradication of smallpox. Various vaccinia virus (VACV) strains, whose origin has not been clearly documented in most cases, have been used as live vaccines in different countries. These VACV strains differed in pathogenicity towards various laboratory animals and in reactogenicity exhibited upon vaccination of humans. Read More

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Acute Late-Stage Myocarditis in the Crab-Eating Macaque Model of Hemorrhagic Smallpox.

Viruses 2021 08 9;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Group, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Hemorrhagic smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV), was a rare but nearly 100% lethal human disease manifestation. Hemorrhagic smallpox is frequently characterized by secondary bacterial infection, coagulopathy, and myocardial and subendocardial hemorrhages. Previous experiments have demonstrated that intravenous (IV) cowpox virus (CPXV) exposure of macaques mimics human hemorrhagic smallpox. Read More

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Replication of cowpox virus in macrophages is dependent on the host range factor p28/N1R.

Virol J 2021 08 23;18(1):173. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens 1, Robert Koch Institute, Seestraße 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections continue to represent a threat to human health. The disease caused by distinct orthopoxviruses differs in terms of symptoms and severity, which may be explained by the unique repertoire of virus factors that modulate the host's immune response and cellular machinery. We report here on the construction of recombinant cowpox viruses (CPXV) which either lack the host range factor p28 completely or express truncated variants of p28. Read More

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Fatal Cowpox Virus Infection in Human Fetus, France, 2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 10 5;27(10):2570-2577. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) has an animal reservoir and is typically transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals. In 2017, CPXV infection of a pregnant woman in France led to the death of her fetus. Fetal death after maternal orthopoxvirus (smallpox) vaccination has been reported; however, this patient had not been vaccinated. Read More

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October 2021

Orbital Cowpox.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun 5;384(23):2241. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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Serological Evidence of Multiple Zoonotic Viral Infections among Wild Rodents in Barbados.

Pathogens 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, St. Michael BB11000, Barbados.

Background: Rodents are reservoirs for several zoonotic pathogens that can cause human infectious diseases, including orthohantaviruses, mammarenaviruses and orthopoxviruses. Evidence exists for these viruses circulating among rodents and causing human infections in the Americas, but much less evidence exists for their presence in wild rodents in the Caribbean.

Methods: Here, we conducted serological and molecular investigations of wild rodents in Barbados to determine the prevalence of orthohantavirus, mammarenavirus and orthopoxvirus infections, and the possible role of these rodent species as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. Read More

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New methylene blue derivatives suggest novel anti-orthopoxviral strategies.

Antiviral Res 2021 07 13;191:105086. Epub 2021 May 13.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. Electronic address:

Decades after the eradication of smallpox and the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination, over half of the world's population is immunologically naïve to variola virus and other orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Even in those previously vaccinated against smallpox, protective immunity wanes over time. As such, there is a concomitant increase in the incidence of human OPXV infections worldwide. Read More

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Necrotic lesions in a father and son.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Oct 10;46(7):1355-1357. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of, Department of, Dermatology, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, Manchester, UK.

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October 2021

Adamantane derivatives as potential inhibitors of p37 major envelope protein and poxvirus reproduction. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Oct 29;221:113485. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Samara State Technical University, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Samara Region, 443100, Russia.

Currently, smallpox, caused by the variola virus belonging to the poxvirus family, has been completely eradicated according to the WHO. However, other representatives of poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus, mousepox virus and others, remain in the natural environment and can infect both animals and humans. The pathogens of animal diseases, belonging to the category with a high epidemic risk, have already caused several outbreaks among humans, and can, in an unfavorable combination of circumstances, cause not only an epidemic, but also a pandemic. Read More

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October 2021

Balancing the influenza neuraminidase and hemagglutinin responses by exchanging the vaccine virus backbone.

PLoS Pathog 2021 04 19;17(4):e1009171. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Virions are a common antigen source for many viral vaccines. One limitation to using virions is that the antigen abundance is determined by the content of each protein in the virus. This caveat especially applies to viral-based influenza vaccines where the low abundance of the neuraminidase (NA) surface antigen remains a bottleneck for improving the NA antibody response. Read More

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Twenty Years after Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil: Where We Are and Where Are We Going?

Pathogens 2021 Mar 31;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil.

Orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections have been present in human life for hundreds of years. It is known that Variola virus (VARV) killed over 300 million people in the past; however, it had an end thanks to the physician Edward Jenner (who developed the first vaccine in history) and also thanks to a massive vaccination program in the 20th century all over the world. Although the first vaccine was created using the Cowpox virus (CPXV), it turned out later that the Vaccinia virus was the one used during the vaccination program. Read More

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On the Shoulders of Giants - From Jenner's Cowpox to mRNA Covid Vaccines.

N Engl J Med 2021 Mar 20;384(12):1081-1083. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

From the Division of Infectious Diseases at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania - both in Philadelphia.

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(+)-Camphor and (-)-borneol derivatives as potential anti-orthopoxvirus agents.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Jun 19;354(6):e2100038. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

N. N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation.

Although the World Health Organisation had announced that smallpox was eradicated over 40 years ago, the disease and other related pathogenic poxviruses such as monkeypox remain potential bioterrorist weapons and could also re-emerge as natural infections. We have previously reported (+)-camphor and (-)-borneol derivatives with an antiviral activity against the vaccinia virus. This virus is similar to the variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, but can be studied at BSL-2 facilities. Read More

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A class of viral inducer of degradation of the necroptosis adaptor RIPK3 regulates virus-induced inflammation.

Immunity 2021 02 13;54(2):247-258.e7. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, DUMC 3010, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology Program, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. Electronic address:

The vaccine strain against smallpox, vaccinia virus (VACV), is highly immunogenic yet causes relatively benign disease. These attributes are believed to be caused by gene loss in VACV. Using a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we identified a viral inhibitor found in cowpox virus (CPXV) and other orthopoxviruses that bound to the host SKP1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) machinery and the essential necroptosis kinase receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Read More

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February 2021

Here, There, and Everywhere: The Wide Host Range and Geographic Distribution of Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses.

Viruses 2020 12 30;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais: Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

The global emergence of zoonotic viruses, including poxviruses, poses one of the greatest threats to human and animal health. Forty years after the eradication of smallpox, emerging zoonotic orthopoxviruses, such as monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses continue to infect humans as well as wild and domestic animals. Currently, the geographical distribution of poxviruses in a broad range of hosts worldwide raises concerns regarding the possibility of outbreaks or viral dissemination to new geographical regions. Read More

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December 2020

Cowpox: How dangerous could it be for humans? Case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 24;104:239-241. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Ophthalmic University Hospital (SPKSO), Marszałkowska 24/26, 00-576 Warsaw, Poland.

Cowpox is a rare zoonosis transmitted to humans mainly from cats. The disease usually causes skin lesions; however, the ocular form may lead to other serious complications. We describe a case of cowpox in a rare location of the upper eyelid of an immunocompetent male, which lead to necrosis of the upper eyelid, keratitis and leucomatous opacity, and the neovascularization of the cornea. Read More

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Differential Efficacy of Novel Antiviral Substances in 3D and Monolayer Cell Culture.

Viruses 2020 11 12;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Highly Pathogenic Viruses, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

Repurposing of approved drugs that target host functions also important for virus replication promises to overcome the shortage of antiviral therapeutics. Mostly, virus biology including initial screening of antivirals is studied in conventional monolayer cells. The biology of these cells differs considerably from infected tissues. Read More

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November 2020

COVID-19, varying genetic resistance to viral disease and immune tolerance checkpoints.

Immunol Cell Biol 2021 02 23;99(2):177-191. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonosis like most of the great plagues sculpting human history, from smallpox to pandemic influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. When viruses jump into a new species the outcome of infection ranges from asymptomatic to lethal, historically ascribed to "genetic resistance to viral disease." People have exploited these differences for good and bad, for developing vaccines from cowpox and horsepox virus, controlling rabbit plagues with myxoma virus and introducing smallpox during colonization of America and Australia. Read More

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February 2021

A Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Peptide Blocks Infection of Viruses by Binding to Phosphatidylserine in the Viral Envelope.

Cells 2020 08 29;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The ongoing threat of viral infections and the emergence of antiviral drug resistance warrants a ceaseless search for new antiviral compounds. Broadly-inhibiting compounds that act on elements shared by many viruses are promising antiviral candidates. Here, we identify a peptide derived from the cowpox virus protein CPXV012 as a broad-spectrum antiviral peptide. Read More

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Effect of the Route of Administration of the Vaccinia Virus Strain LIVP to Mice on Its Virulence and Immunogenicity.

Viruses 2020 07 24;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo 630559, Novosibirsk Region, Russia.

The mass smallpox vaccination campaign has played a crucial role in smallpox eradication. Various strains of the vaccinia virus (VACV) were used as a live smallpox vaccine in different countries, their origin being unknown in most cases. The VACV strains differ in terms of pathogenicity exhibited upon inoculation of laboratory animals and reactogenicity exhibited upon vaccination of humans. Read More

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A case of cowpox virus infection in the UK occurring in a domestic cat and transmitted to the adult male owner.

Br J Dermatol 2020 12 21;183(6):e190. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

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December 2020

Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the "animal vaccine" in 1870, establishment of "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry.

Vaccine 2020 06 27;38(30):4773-4779. Epub 2020 May 27.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

For the first 80-90 years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, the main strategy used to disseminate and maintain the smallpox vaccine was arm-to-arm vaccination, also known as Jennerian or humanized vaccination. A major advance occurred after 1860 with the development of what was known as "animal vaccine", which referred to growing vaccine material from serial propagation in calves before use in humans. The use of "animal vaccine" had several advantages over arm-to-arm vaccination: it would not transmit syphilis or other human diseases, it ensured a supply of vaccine even in the absence of the spontaneous occurrence of cases of cowpox or horsepox, and it allowed the production of large amounts of vaccine. Read More

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Harm as a Necessary Component of the Concept of Medical Disorder: Reply to Muckler and Taylor.

J Med Philos 2020 05;45(3):350-370

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, BE, and New York University, New York, USA.

Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis asserts that the concept of medical disorder includes a naturalistic component of dysfunction (failure of biologically designed functioning) and a value (harm) component, both of which are required for disorder attributions. Muckler and Taylor, defending a purely naturalist, value-free understanding of disorder, argue that harm is not necessary for disorder. They provide three examples of dysfunctions that, they claim, are considered disorders but are entirely harmless: mild mononucleosis, cowpox that prevents smallpox, and minor perceptual deficits. Read More

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Three different paths to introduce the smallpox vaccine in early 19th century United States.

José Esparza

Vaccine 2020 03 11;38(12):2741-2745. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

The ancient technique of variolation (inoculation of the smallpox) which was introduced in the United States in 1721 was replaced by vaccination (inoculation of the cowpox) soon after the procedure was published by Edward Jenner in 1798. Benjamin Waterhouse is recognized as the introducer of smallpox vaccination in the United States having conducted the first vaccination in Boston on 8 July 1800, although other American physicians also played an important role in extending vaccination in the East Coast of the United States. A different route of introduction brought the smallpox vaccine from Mexico to New Mexico (March 1805) and Texas (April 1806) which at that time where part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Read More

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