548 results match your criteria Cowpox Infection Human


Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the "animal vaccine" in 1870, establishment of "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 27;38(30):4773-4779. Epub 2020 May 27.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

For the first 80-90 years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, the main strategy used to disseminate and maintain the smallpox vaccine was arm-to-arm vaccination, also known as Jennerian or humanized vaccination. A major advance occurred after 1860 with the development of what was known as "animal vaccine", which referred to growing vaccine material from serial propagation in calves before use in humans. The use of "animal vaccine" had several advantages over arm-to-arm vaccination: it would not transmit syphilis or other human diseases, it ensured a supply of vaccine even in the absence of the spontaneous occurrence of cases of cowpox or horsepox, and it allowed the production of large amounts of vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294234PMC

What a Difference a Gene Makes: Identification of Virulence Factors of Cowpox Virus.

J Virol 2020 01 6;94(2). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Institut für Virologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes spillover infections from its animal hosts to humans. In 2009, several human CPXV cases occurred through transmission from pet rats. An isolate from a diseased rat, RatPox09, exhibited significantly increased virulence in Wistar rats and caused high mortality compared to that caused by the mildly virulent laboratory strain Brighton Red (BR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01625-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955266PMC
January 2020
1 Read

Cowpox virus encodes a protein that binds B7.1 and B7.2 and subverts T cell costimulation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 1;116(42):21113-21119. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110;

Costimulation is required for optimal T cell activation, yet it is unclear whether poxviruses dedicatedly subvert costimulation during infection. Here, we report that the secreted M2 protein encoded by cowpox virus (CPXV) specifically interacts with human and murine B7.1 (CD80) and B7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909414116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800355PMC
October 2019
2 Reads

[Human poxvirus infections].

Authors:
G Bohelay T-A Duong

Ann Dermatol Venereol 2019 May 9;146(5):387-398. Epub 2019 May 9.

Service de dermatologie, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France. Electronic address:

Poxvirus (PXV) infections are a common cause of cutaneous signs. In France, certain forms of poxvirus are frequent and benign (molluscum contagiosum), while others are rare but potentially serious (cowpox virus [CPXV]). Whereas only smallpox and molluscum contagiosum viruses have a human reservoir and are transmitted between humans, most poxvirus infections are zoonoses having only animal reservoirs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annder.2019.03.001DOI Listing
May 2019
15 Reads

[Facial necrosis caused by orthopoxvirus : Differential diagnosis and dermatohistopathological correlation of infectious facial ulcers].

Hautarzt 2019 Sep;70(9):715-722

Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Deutschland.

This article reports the remarkable course of a facial ulcer in a patient receiving prednisolone for Crohn's disease. Based on the initially unclear origin of the ulcer the patient received a triple anti-infective treatment (antiviral, antibiotic, antimycotic) but the lesion showed a rapid progression. An orthopoxvirus infection could be verified later by extensive diagnostics and relevant differential diagnoses could be ruled out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00105-019-4409-5DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

A Genome-Wide Haploid Genetic Screen Identifies Heparan Sulfate-Associated Genes and the Macropinocytosis Modulator TMED10 as Factors Supporting Vaccinia Virus Infection.

J Virol 2019 07 14;93(13). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Vaccinia virus is a promising viral vaccine and gene delivery candidate and has historically been used as a model to study poxvirus-host cell interactions. We employed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis approach in human haploid cells to identify host factors crucial for vaccinia virus infection. A library of mutagenized HAP1 cells was exposed to modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02160-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580964PMC
July 2019
11 Reads

Identification of CP77 as the Third Orthopoxvirus SAMD9 and SAMD9L Inhibitor with Unique Specificity for a Rodent SAMD9L.

J Virol 2019 06 29;93(12). Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) have a broad host range in mammalian cells, but Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are nonpermissive for vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, we revealed a species-specific difference in host restriction factor SAMD9L as the cause for the restriction and identified orthopoxvirus CP77 as a unique inhibitor capable of antagonizing Chinese hamster SAMD9L (chSAMD9L). Two known VACV inhibitors of SAMD9 and SAMD9L (SAMD9&L), K1 and C7, can bind human and mouse SAMD9&L, but neither can bind chSAMD9L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00225-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6613757PMC
June 2019
14 Reads

RNAi-based small molecule repositioning reveals clinically approved urea-based kinase inhibitors as broadly active antivirals.

PLoS Pathog 2019 03 18;15(3):e1007601. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.

Influenza viruses (IVs) tend to rapidly develop resistance to virus-directed vaccines and common antivirals targeting pathogen determinants, but novel host-directed approaches might preclude resistance development. To identify the most promising cellular targets for a host-directed approach against influenza, we performed a comparative small interfering RNA (siRNA) loss-of-function screen of IV replication in A549 cells. Analysis of four different IV strains including a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 strain, an influenza B virus (IBV) and two human influenza A viruses (IAVs) revealed 133 genes required by all four IV strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422253PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Use of Next Generation Sequencing to study two cowpox virus outbreaks.

PeerJ 2019 1;7:e6561. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany.

Background: Between 2008 and 2011 about 40 cases of human cowpox were reported from Germany and France. Infections had been acquired via close contact to infected, young pet rats. An identical and unique sequence of the hemagglutinin gene was found in various cowpox virus (CPXV) isolates pointing to a common source of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398431PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):212-219

We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.171433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346447PMC
February 2019
27 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
36 Reads

A standardized approach to the evaluation of antivirals against DNA viruses: Orthopox-, adeno-, and herpesviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 11 1;159:104-112. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, United States. Electronic address:

The search for new compounds with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity is important and requires the evaluation of many compounds against several distinct viruses. Researchers attempting to develop new antiviral therapies for DNA virus infections currently use a variety of cell lines, assay conditions and measurement methods to determine in vitro drug efficacy, making it difficult to compare results from within the same laboratory as well as between laboratories. In this paper we describe a common assay platform designed to facilitate the parallel evaluation of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and adenovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.09.015DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Polyglutamine Repeats in Viruses.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 May 4;56(5):3664-3675. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

This review explores the presence and functions of polyglutamine (polyQ) in viral proteins. In mammals, mutations in polyQ segments (and CAG repeats at the nucleotide level) have been linked to neural disorders and ataxias. PolyQ regions in normal human proteins have documented functional roles, in transcription factors and, more recently, in regulating autophagy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-018-1269-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1269-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399083PMC
May 2019
47 Reads

The Virology of Taterapox Virus In Vitro.

Viruses 2018 08 29;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Taterapox virus (TATV) is phylogenetically the closest related virus to variola-the etiological agent of smallpox. Despite the similarity, few studies have evaluated the virus. In vivo, TATV can infect several animals but produces an inapparent infection in wild-type mice; however, TATV does cause morbidity and mortality in some immunocompromised strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10090463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163509PMC
August 2018
52 Reads

Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine.

PLoS Pathog 2018 07 26;14(7):e1007082. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Virus, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062137PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

Edward Jenner's 1798 report of challenge experiments demonstrating the protective effects of cowpox against smallpox.

Authors:
Alfredo Morabia

J R Soc Med 2018 Jul;111(7):255-257

Barry Commoner Center, Queens College, Remsen 311, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing NY 11367, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0141076818783658DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Cowpox virus infection in two brothers with possible human-to-human transmission.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019 Jan 22;33(1):e8-e10. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Departments of Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology and Immunology, Dessau Medical Center, Brandenburg Medical School Theodore Fontane, Dessau, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.15103DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Rare necrotic lesion in a pregnant woman.

J Clin Pathol 2018 May 16;71(5):472. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Histopathology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2017-204459DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

Virulent Poxviruses Inhibit DNA Sensing by Preventing STING Activation.

J Virol 2018 05 27;92(10). Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Microbial Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerizes and translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02145-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923072PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Cross-priming induces immunodomination in the presence of viral MHC class I inhibition.

PLoS Pathog 2018 02 14;14(2):e1006883. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is well-illustrated by our prior studies on cowpox virus (CPXV) that encodes potent MHCI inhibitors. Deletion of CPXV viral MHCI inhibitors markedly attenuated in vivo infection due to effects on CTL effector function, not priming. However, the CTL response to CPXV in C57BL/6 mice is dominated by a single peptide antigen presented by H-2Kb. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5812664PMC
February 2018
17 Reads

Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 neutralizing epitope mapping.

Antiviral Res 2018 04 7;152:18-25. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia. Electronic address:

In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scFv). ELISA demonstrated that selected pdAbs could recognize ECTV, VACV, and cowpox virus (CPXV). Atomic force microscopy visualized binding of the pdAbs to VACV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.02.006DOI Listing
April 2018
21 Reads

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in a Series of Cats.

J Comp Pathol 2018 Jan 9;158:71-76. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Within 4 weeks, five cats with skin lesions affecting the hindlimbs and mainly consisting of oedema, hyperaemia and plaque-like alterations were presented to the same veterinary clinic. The cats were suffering from lameness, trauma, renal insufficiency or complicated tail amputation. Although the lesions seemed unusual for a poxvirus infection, microscopical examination of biopsy samples or specimens taken during necropsy examination revealed ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes with eosinophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies indicative of an orthopoxvirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2017.12.003DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

The Myth of the Milkmaid.

N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(5):414-415

From the Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences-Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1715349DOI Listing
February 2018
15 Reads

Global ubiquitination analysis reveals extensive modification and proteasomal degradation of cowpox virus proteins, but preservation of viral cores.

Sci Rep 2018 01 29;8(1):1807. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Robert Koch Institute, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens: Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Berlin, 13353, Germany.

The emergence of Variola virus-like viruses by natural evolution of zoonotic Orthopoxviruses, like Cowpox virus (CPXV), is a global health threat. The proteasome is essential for poxvirus replication, making the viral components interacting with the ubiquitin-proteasome system attractive antiviral targets. We show that proteasome inhibition impairs CPXV replication by prevention of uncoating, suggesting that uncoating is mediated by proteasomal degradation of viral core proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20130-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788924PMC
January 2018
13 Reads

Cowpox Virus Infection.

N Engl J Med 2018 Jan;378(2):181

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMicm1702548DOI Listing
January 2018
14 Reads

A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

Antiviral Res 2018 02 7;150:20-29. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.12.005DOI Listing
February 2018
23 Reads

Two Distinct Clinical Courses of Human Cowpox, Germany, 2015.

Viruses 2017 12 7;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Department of Viruses and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany.

Here we present two cases of human infection with cowpox virus with distinct clinical courses. A series of clinical photographs documents lesion progression over time. In the first case-an unvaccinated young veterinary assistant-a pustule was treated locally with cortisone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9120375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744150PMC
December 2017
15 Reads

Equination (inoculation of horsepox): An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine.

Vaccine 2017 12 11;35(52):7222-7230. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens 1 - Highly Pathogenic Viruses & German Consultant Laboratory for Poxviruses & WHO Collaborating Centre for Emerging Infections and Biological Threats, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the "Inquiry" in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different from the cowpox virus. In the absence of a known natural host, vaccinia has been considered to be a laboratory virus that may have originated from mutational or recombinational events involving cowpox virus, variola viruses or some unknown ancestral Orthopoxvirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.003DOI Listing
December 2017
14 Reads

Revisiting Jenner's mysteries, the role of the Beaugency lymph in the evolutionary path of ancient smallpox vaccines.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 02 18;18(2):e55-e63. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine consisting of pustular material obtained from lesions on cows affected by so-called cow-pox. The disease, caused by cowpox virus, confers crossprotection against smallpox. However, historical evidence suggests that Jenner might have used vaccinia virus or even horsepox virus instead of cowpox virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30445-0DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.

MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181459PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5519081PMC
September 2017
78 Reads

Generalised cowpox virus infection.

Lancet 2017 Oct 29;390(10104):1769. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Lower Saxony Institute of Occupational Dermatology, University Medical Centre Göttingen and University of Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01406736173142
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31428-9DOI Listing
October 2017
15 Reads

Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage.

Viruses 2017 06 10;9(6). Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9060142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490819PMC
June 2017
5 Reads

ZMPSTE24 Is Downstream Effector of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Antiviral Activity.

DNA Cell Biol 2017 Jul 8;36(7):513-517. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts.

The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed host restriction factor that is responsible for limiting infection by a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, including influenza A, vesicular stomatitis, zika, ebola, Sindbis, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. Antiviral function is independent of ZMPSTE24 enzymatic activity. Protein interaction and genetic complementation studies indicate that ZMPSTE24 is a component of a common antiviral pathway that is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2017.3791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512318PMC
July 2017
82 Reads

Review of poxvirus: emergence of monkeypox.

Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):29-39

Service de dermatologie, HIA Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France.

This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Read More

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http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/medline.md?doi=10.1684/ms
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/mst.2017.0653DOI Listing
February 2017
11 Reads

Cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.

New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):148-150. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. Read More

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April 2017
22 Reads

ZMPSTE24 defends against influenza and other pathogenic viruses.

J Exp Med 2017 04 28;214(4):919-929. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115

Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20161270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5379977PMC
April 2017
31 Reads

A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.

Sci Rep 2017 02 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316968PMC
February 2017
33 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil.

Emerg Infect Dis 2017 02;23(2):360-362

We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2302.161341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324812PMC
February 2017
15 Reads

A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20052901163012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2016.09.003DOI Listing
December 2016
26 Reads

Rapid and sensitive point-of-care detection of Orthopoxviruses by ABICAP immunofiltration.

Virol J 2016 12 9;13(1):207. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens (ZBS), Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce.

Results: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). Read More

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http://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-016-0665-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5148848PMC
December 2016
34 Reads

Cowpox in a human, Russia, 2015.

Epidemiol Infect 2017 03 5;145(4):755-759. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology 'Vector',Koltsovo,Novosibirsk Region,Russia.

We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816002922DOI Listing
March 2017
25 Reads

Fatal disseminated cowpox virus infection in an adolescent renal transplant recipient.

Pediatr Nephrol 2017 03 28;32(3):533-536. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Nephrology Department, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Background: A 17-year-old boy on long-term immunosuppression following renal transplantation for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the result of dysplastic kidneys, initially presented with a swelling in his neck while attending hospital for an unrelated problem. A clinical diagnosis of tonsillitis was made, and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over a few days, his condition deteriorated, and he developed multiple vesicopustular skin lesions and required an emergency tonsillectomy due to respiratory distress. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00467-016-3534-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-016-3534-yDOI Listing
March 2017
14 Reads

Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.

Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9

The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093772PMC
October 2016
60 Reads

Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 10;155(1 Suppl 1):S41-53. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.07.006DOI Listing
July 2016
16 Reads

Vacca pox to pexa vec: John Hunter's and Edward Jenner's contribution to oncolytic virotherapy.

Authors:
Rajiv V Dave

J Surg Res 2016 07 23;204(1):228-31. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Department of General Surgery, Wythenshawe Hospital, University Hospitals South Manchester, Manchester. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.04.025DOI Listing
July 2016
4 Reads

Multilocular Facial Necrosis in a Young Boy: A Quiz.

Acta Derm Venereol 2017 02;97(2):299-301

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, University Medical Centre, Hauptstraße 7, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2499DOI Listing
February 2017
4 Reads

[Cutaneous infection with Orthopoxvirus bovis in a German Spaniel].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2016 Aug 14;44(4):273-7. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Dr. Kathrin Jäger, Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Labor für klinische Diagnostik, Steubenstraße 4, 97688 Bad Kissingen, E-Mail:

A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15654/TPK-150712DOI Listing
August 2016
52 Reads

Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Cowpox Virus Replication in a Three-Dimensional Skin Model.

J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 9;155(1):55-61. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Institut für Virologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are rare, but can result in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. The majority of recent cases were traced back to contacts with infected domestic cats or pet rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a three-dimensional (3D) skin model as a possible replacement for animal experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.05.001DOI Listing
July 2016
10 Reads

Exposure of rhesus monkeys to cowpox virus Brighton Red by large-particle aerosol droplets results in an upper respiratory tract disease.

J Gen Virol 2016 08 9;97(8):1942-1954. Epub 2016 May 9.

Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

We previously demonstrated that small-particle (0.5-3.0 µm) aerosol infection of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with cowpox virus (CPXV)-Brighton Red (BR) results in fulminant respiratory tract disease characterized by severe lung parenchymal pathology but only limited systemic virus dissemination and limited classic epidermal pox-like lesion development (Johnson et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764124PMC
August 2016
33 Reads