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    260 results match your criteria Cowpox Infection Human

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    Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 neutralizing epitope mapping.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 7;152:18-25. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia. Electronic address:
    In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scFv). ELISA demonstrated that selected pdAbs could recognize ECTV, VACV, and cowpox virus (CPXV). Atomic force microscopy visualized binding of the pdAbs to VACV. Read More

    Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in a Series of Cats.
    J Comp Pathol 2018 Jan 9;158:71-76. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:
    Within 4 weeks, five cats with skin lesions affecting the hindlimbs and mainly consisting of oedema, hyperaemia and plaque-like alterations were presented to the same veterinary clinic. The cats were suffering from lameness, trauma, renal insufficiency or complicated tail amputation. Although the lesions seemed unusual for a poxvirus infection, microscopical examination of biopsy samples or specimens taken during necropsy examination revealed ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes with eosinophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies indicative of an orthopoxvirus infection. Read More

    A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.
    Antiviral Res 2018 02 7;150:20-29. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. Read More

    Two Distinct Clinical Courses of Human Cowpox, Germany, 2015.
    Viruses 2017 12 7;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Viruses and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany.
    Here we present two cases of human infection with cowpox virus with distinct clinical courses. A series of clinical photographs documents lesion progression over time. In the first case-an unvaccinated young veterinary assistant-a pustule was treated locally with cortisone. Read More

    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    ZMPSTE24 Is Downstream Effector of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Antiviral Activity.
    DNA Cell Biol 2017 Jul 8;36(7):513-517. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    2 Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts.
    The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed host restriction factor that is responsible for limiting infection by a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, including influenza A, vesicular stomatitis, zika, ebola, Sindbis, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. Antiviral function is independent of ZMPSTE24 enzymatic activity. Protein interaction and genetic complementation studies indicate that ZMPSTE24 is a component of a common antiviral pathway that is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane proteins. Read More

    Cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.
    New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):148-150. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. Read More

    ZMPSTE24 defends against influenza and other pathogenic viruses.
    J Exp Med 2017 Apr 28;214(4):919-929. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
    Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity. Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    Cowpox in a human, Russia, 2015.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 03 5;145(4):755-759. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology 'Vector',Koltsovo,Novosibirsk Region,Russia.
    We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world. Read More

    Fatal disseminated cowpox virus infection in an adolescent renal transplant recipient.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Mar 28;32(3):533-536. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Nephrology Department, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.
    Background: A 17-year-old boy on long-term immunosuppression following renal transplantation for chronic kidney disease (CKD), the result of dysplastic kidneys, initially presented with a swelling in his neck while attending hospital for an unrelated problem. A clinical diagnosis of tonsillitis was made, and he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over a few days, his condition deteriorated, and he developed multiple vesicopustular skin lesions and required an emergency tonsillectomy due to respiratory distress. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.
    J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 10;155(1 Suppl 1):S41-53. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. Read More

    [Cutaneous infection with Orthopoxvirus bovis in a German Spaniel].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2016 Aug 14;44(4):273-7. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
    Dr. Kathrin Jäger, Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Labor für klinische Diagnostik, Steubenstraße 4, 97688 Bad Kissingen, E-Mail:
    A 4-year-old female German Spaniel was presented with anorexia. Clinically, the dog showed papular to ulcerative lesions on the nasal planum and on the tongue. Hematological, bacteriological and mycological examinations did not contribute any evidence for the etiology of the lesions. Read More

    Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Cowpox Virus Replication in a Three-Dimensional Skin Model.
    J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 9;155(1):55-61. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    Institut für Virologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are rare, but can result in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. The majority of recent cases were traced back to contacts with infected domestic cats or pet rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a three-dimensional (3D) skin model as a possible replacement for animal experiments. Read More

    Exposure of rhesus monkeys to cowpox virus Brighton Red by large-particle aerosol droplets results in an upper respiratory tract disease.
    J Gen Virol 2016 Aug 9;97(8):1942-54. Epub 2016 May 9.
    1​Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA 3​Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.
    We previously demonstrated that small-particle (0.5-3.0 µm) aerosol infection of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with cowpox virus (CPXV)-Brighton Red (BR) results in fulminant respiratory tract disease characterized by severe lung parenchymal pathology but only limited systemic virus dissemination and limited classic epidermal pox-like lesion development (Johnson et al. Read More

    Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Mar 18;65(10):257-62. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e. Read More

    Out of the Reservoir: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of a Novel Cowpox Virus Isolated from a Common Vole.
    J Virol 2015 Nov 26;89(21):10959-69. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
    Unlabelled: The incidence of human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections has increased significantly in recent years. Serological surveys have suggested wild rodents as the main CPXV reservoir. We characterized a CPXV isolated during a large-scale screening from a feral common vole. Read More

    Serologic survey of orthopoxvirus infection among rodents in hungary.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2015 May;15(5):317-22
    1Virological Research Group, Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    As a result of discontinuing vaccination against smallpox after the late 1970s, different orthopoxviruses (OPVs), such as cowpox virus (CPXV), have become a re-emerging healthcare threat among zoonotic pathogens. In Hungary, data on OPV prevalence among its rodent host species have been absent. Here, rodents belonging to four species, i. Read More

    Viral inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP): a striking example of functional convergent evolution.
    PLoS Pathog 2015 Apr 16;11(4):e1004743. Epub 2015 Apr 16.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses that are highly abundant within their host populations. Even in the presence of a healthy immune system, these viruses manage to cause lifelong infections. This persistence is partially mediated by the virus entering latency, a phase of infection characterized by limited viral protein expression. Read More

    Neurogenic inflammation and colliquative lymphadenitis with persistent orthopox virus DNA detection in a human case of cowpox virus infection transmitted by a domestic cat.
    Br J Dermatol 2015 Aug 18;173(2):535-9. Epub 2015 May 18.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Veterinärstrasse 13, 80539, Munich, Germany.
    Cowpox viruses are orthopoxviruses that may survive in the environment for years. Rodents are regarded as the primary hosts, but transmission to other species has been reported. This report describes a cowpox virus infection in a cat with subsequent transmission to its owner leading to protracted, atypical and severe clinical signs. Read More

    Serological survey of rodent-borne viruses in Finnish field voles.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2014 Apr 1;14(4):278-83. Epub 2014 Apr 1.
    1 Suonenjoki Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute , Suonenjoki, Finland .
    In northern Europe, rodent populations display cyclic density fluctuations that can be correlated with the human incidence of zoonotic diseases they spread. During density peaks, field voles (Microtus agrestis) become one of the most abundant rodent species in northern Europe, yet little is known of the viruses they host. We screened 709 field voles, trapped from 14 sites over 3 years, for antibodies against four rodent-borne, potentially zoonotic viruses or virus groups-hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Ljungan virus (LV), and orthopoxviruses (OPV). Read More

    Elimination of A-type inclusion formation enhances cowpox virus replication in mice: implications for orthopoxvirus evolution.
    Virology 2014 Mar 29;452-453:59-66. Epub 2014 Jan 29.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 33 North Drive, MSC 3210, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210, USA. Electronic address:
    Some orthopoxviruses including cowpox virus embed virus particles in dense bodies, comprised of the A-type inclusion (ATI) protein, which may provide long-term environmental protection. This strategy could be beneficial if the host population is sparse or spread is inefficient or indirect. However, the formation of ATI may be neutral or disadvantageous for orthopoxviruses that rely on direct respiratory spread. Read More

    Structural insights into the interaction between a potent anti-inflammatory protein, viral CC chemokine inhibitor (vCCI), and the human CC chemokine, Eotaxin-1.
    J Biol Chem 2014 Mar 30;289(10):6592-603. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
    From the Molecular Cell Biology, University of California, Merced, California 95343.
    Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirus-encoded protein viral CC chemokine inhibitor (vCCI), a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Read More

    A role for H/ACA and C/D small nucleolar RNAs in viral replication.
    Mol Biotechnol 2014 May;56(5):429-37
    Zirus, Inc., 1384 Buford Business Boulevard, Suite 700, Buford, GA, 30518, USA,
    We have employed gene-trap insertional mutagenesis to identify candidate genes whose disruption confer phenotypic resistance to lytic infection, in independent studies using 12 distinct viruses and several different cell lines. Analysis of >2,000 virus-resistant clones revealed >1,000 candidate host genes, approximately 20 % of which were disrupted in clones surviving separate infections with 2-6 viruses. Interestingly, there were 83 instances in which the insertional mutagenesis vector disrupted transcripts encoding H/ACA-class and C/D-class small nucleolar RNAs (SNORAs and SNORDs, respectively). Read More

    Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging.
    Virology 2014 Jan 28;449:120-32. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Read More

    Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats.
    Animals (Basel) 2014 Jul 15;4(3):434-45. Epub 2014 Jul 15.
    Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Read More

    An increasing danger of zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections.
    PLoS Pathog 2013 5;9(12):e1003756. Epub 2013 Dec 5.
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia ; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    On May 8, 1980, the World Health Assembly at its 33(rd) session solemnly declared that the world and all its peoples had won freedom from smallpox and recommended ceasing the vaccination of the population against smallpox. Currently, a larger part of the world population has no immunity not only against smallpox but also against other zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections. Recently, recorded outbreaks of orthopoxvirus diseases not only of domestic animals but also of humans have become more frequent. Read More

    Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to Variola virus.
    PLoS One 2013 3;8(12):e79953. Epub 2013 Dec 3.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Zoonotic infections caused by several orthopoxviruses (OPV) like monkeypox virus or vaccinia virus have a significant impact on human health. In Europe, the number of diagnosed infections with cowpox viruses (CPXV) is increasing in animals as well as in humans. CPXV used to be enzootic in cattle; however, such infections were not being diagnosed over the last decades. Read More

    Concomitant human infections with 2 cowpox virus strains in related cases, France, 2011.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2013 Dec;19(12):1996-9
    We investigated 4 related human cases of cowpox virus infection reported in France during 2011. Three patients were infected by the same strain, probably transmitted by imported pet rats, and the fourth patient was infected by another strain. The 2 strains were genetically related to viruses previously isolated from humans with cowpox infection in Europe. Read More

    Effects of nasal or pulmonary delivered treatments with an adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201) on respiratory and systemic infections in mice caused by cowpox and vaccinia viruses.
    PLoS One 2013 9;8(7):e68685. Epub 2013 Jul 9.
    Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.
    An adenovirus 5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201) was evaluated for efficacy against lethal cowpox (Brighton strain) and vaccinia (WR strain) virus respiratory and systemic infections in mice. Two routes of mDEF201 administration were used, nasal sinus (5-µl) and pulmonary (50-µl), to compare differences in efficacy, since the preferred treatment of humans would be in a relatively small volume delivered intranasally. Lower respiratory infections (LRI), upper respiratory infections (URI), and systemic infections were induced by 50-µl intranasal, 10-µl intranasal, and 100-µl intraperitoneal virus challenges, respectively. Read More

    Vaccine chronicle in Japan.
    J Infect Chemother 2013 Oct 9;19(5):787-98. Epub 2013 Jul 9.
    Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo,
    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. Read More

    Cowpox virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.
    J Feline Med Surg 2013 Jul;15(7):557-9
    European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases.
    Overview: The misnomer 'cowpox' has historical roots: cats rather acquire the virus from small rodents. It has a wide host spectrum (including man) and causes skin lesions, predominantly on the head and paws. Progressive proliferative ulcerations in kittens and immunosuppressed cats may take a fatal course. Read More

    Smallpox: can we still learn from the journey to eradication?
    Indian J Med Res 2013 May;137(5):895-9
    The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, USA.
    One of the most celebrated achievements of immunology and modern medicine is the eradication of the dreaded plague smallpox. From the introduction of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner, to its popularization by Louis Pasteur, to the eradication effort led by Donald Henderson, this story has many lessons for us today, including the characteristics of the disease and vaccine that permitted its eradication, and the obviousness of the vaccine as a vector for other intractable Infectious diseases. The disease itself, interpreted in the light of modern molecular immunology, is an obvious immunopathological disease, which occurs after a latent interval of 1-2 weeks, and manifests as a systemic cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) syndrome. Read More

    Poxvirus antigen staining of immune cells as a biomarker to predict disease outcome in monkeypox and cowpox virus infection in non-human primates.
    PLoS One 2013 5;8(4):e60533. Epub 2013 Apr 5.
    Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.
    Infection of non-human primates (NHPs) such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with monkeypox virus (MPXV) or cowpox virus (CPXV) serve as models to study poxvirus pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccines and anti-orthopox therapeutics. Intravenous inoculation of macaques with high dose of MPXV (>1-2×10(7) PFU) or CPXV (>10(2) PFU) results in 80% to 100% mortality and 66 to 100% mortality respectively. Here we report that NHPs with positive detection of poxvirus antigens in immune cells by flow cytometric staining, especially in monocytes and granulocytes succumbed to virus infection and that early positive pox staining is a strong predictor for lethality. Read More

    Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes.
    Virol J 2013 Feb 20;10:61. Epub 2013 Feb 20.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens 1, Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. Read More

    Cowpox virus employs a two-pronged strategy to outflank MHCI antigen presentation.
    Mol Immunol 2013 Sep 10;55(2):156-8. Epub 2013 Jan 10.
    Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States.
    Smallpox decimated humanity for thousands of years before being eradicated by vaccination, a success facilitated by the fact that humans are the only host of variola virus. In contrast, other orthopoxviruses such as cowpox virus can infect a variety of mammalian species, although its dominant reservoir appears to be rodents. This difference in host specificity suggests that cowpox may have developed promiscuous immune evasion strategies to facilitate zoonosis. Read More

    Cowpox virus but not Vaccinia virus induces secretion of CXCL1, IL-8 and IL-6 and chemotaxis of monocytes in vitro.
    Virus Res 2013 Jan 30;171(1):161-7. Epub 2012 Nov 30.
    Centre for Biological Security 1, Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
    Orthopoxviruses are large DNA viruses which can cause disease in numerous host species. Today, after eradication of Variola virus and the end of vaccination against smallpox, zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infections are emerging as potential threat to human health. The most common causes of zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infections are Cowpox virus in Europe, Monkeypox virus in Africa and Vaccinia virus in South America. Read More

    Viral interference with antigen presentation: trapping TAP.
    Mol Immunol 2013 Sep 8;55(2):139-42. Epub 2012 Nov 8.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Following primary infection, herpesviruses persist for life in their hosts, even when vigorous anti-viral immunity has been induced. Failure of the host immune system to eliminate infected cells is facilitated by highly effective immune evasion strategies acquired by these herpesviruses during millions of years of co-evolution with their hosts. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of viral gene products that lead to cytotoxic T cell evasion through interference with the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, TAP. Read More

    Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases: current clinical developments using MVA-based vaccines.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012 Dec 16;8(12):1746-57. Epub 2012 Aug 16.
    Transgene, Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre d'Infectiologie, Lyon, France.
    A famous milestone in the vaccine field has been the first successful vaccination against smallpox, in 1798, by Edward Jenner. Using the vaccinia cowpox virus, Jenner was able to protect vaccinees from variola or smallpox. The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense strategy. Read More

    [Cowpox: features of spread after cancellation of mandatory pox immunization].
    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2012 May-Jun(3):103-7
    Features of spread of cowpox in the contemporary conditions are examined. A decrease of population immunity to pox in the population of Russia caused by cancellation of pox immunization, hidden circulation of cowpox virus in various species of rodents, as well as lack of vigilance to pathogenic orthopoxviurses in healthcare workers were noted to create the real preconditions for the emergence of infection of humans caused by cowpox virus. Thereby presence of means of express laboratory diagnostics of cowpox and means of effective medical protection for the prevention of development of this disease in the population of Russia becomes an actual necessity. Read More

    Investigation of the first laboratory-acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States.
    J Infect Dis 2012 Jul 26;206(1):63-8. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
    Poxvirus Team, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Background: Cowpox virus is an Orthopoxvirus that can cause infections in humans and a variety of animals. Infections occur in Eurasia; infections in humans and animals have not been reported in the United States. This report describes the occurrence of the first known human case of laboratory-acquired cowpox virus infection in the United States and the ensuing investigation. Read More

    Formation of orthopoxvirus cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and embedding of virions are dynamic processes requiring microtubules.
    J Virol 2012 May 21;86(10):5905-14. Epub 2012 Mar 21.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    In cells infected with some orthopoxviruses, numerous mature virions (MVs) become embedded within large, cytoplasmic A-type inclusions (ATIs) that can protect infectivity after cell lysis. ATIs are composed of an abundant viral protein called ATIp, which is truncated in orthopoxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) that do not form ATIs. To study ATI formation and occlusion of MVs within ATIs, we used recombinant VACVs that express the cowpox full-length ATIp or we transfected plasmids encoding ATIp into cells infected with VACV, enabling ATI formation. Read More

    Synthesis and antiviral activity of 6-deoxycyclopropavir, a new prodrug of cyclopropavir.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2012 Apr 20;20(8):2669-74. Epub 2012 Feb 20.
    Developmental Therapeutics Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201-1379, USA.
    Synthesis of 6-deoxycyclopropavir (10), a prodrug of cyclopropavir (1) and its in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity is described. 2-Amino-6-chloropurine methylenecyclopropane 13 was transformed to its 6-iodo derivative 14 which was reduced to prodrug 10. It is converted to cyclopropavir (1) by the action of xanthine oxidase and this reaction can also occur in vivo. Read More

    Clinical course and pathology in rats (Rattus norvegicus) after experimental cowpox virus infection by percutaneous and intranasal application.
    Vet Pathol 2012 Nov 12;49(6):941-9. Epub 2012 Mar 12.
    Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel, Riems, Germany.
    Recently, several cases of human cowpox virus (CPXV) infections were reported in France and Germany, which had been acquired through close contact with infected pet rats. The animals exhibited respiratory signs or skin lesions and died shortly after purchase. After natural infection of white rats with CPXV in the USSR in 1978, a peracute pulmonary form, a milder dermal form, and a mixed form exhibiting features of both have been described. Read More

    Inhibition of influenza A virus replication by antagonism of a PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway member identified by gene-trap insertional mutagenesis.
    Antivir Chem Chemother 2012 May 14;22(5):205-15. Epub 2012 May 14.
    Zirus, Inc., Buford, GA, USA.
    Background: Host genes serving potential roles in virus replication may be exploited as novel antiviral targets.

    Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of host gene expression was used to validate candidate genes in screens against six unrelated viruses, most importantly influenza. A mouse model of influenza A virus infection was used to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate FDA-approved drug identified in the screening effort. Read More

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