1,130 results match your criteria Cowpox Infection Human


Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Whole Genome Characterization of (OPV) Abatino, a Zoonotic Virus Representing a Putative Novel Clade of Old World Orthopoxviruses.

Viruses 2018 10 6;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 6.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, via Portuense 292, 00149 Rome, Italy.

(OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

A standardized approach to the evaluation of antivirals against DNA viruses: Orthopox-, adeno-, and herpesviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 1;159:104-112. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, United States. Electronic address:

The search for new compounds with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity is important and requires the evaluation of many compounds against several distinct viruses. Researchers attempting to develop new antiviral therapies for DNA virus infections currently use a variety of cell lines, assay conditions and measurement methods to determine in vitro drug efficacy, making it difficult to compare results from within the same laboratory as well as between laboratories. In this paper we describe a common assay platform designed to facilitate the parallel evaluation of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and adenovirus. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Polyglutamine Repeats in Viruses.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

This review explores the presence and functions of polyglutamine (polyQ) in viral proteins. In mammals, mutations in polyQ segments (and CAG repeats at the nucleotide level) have been linked to neural disorders and ataxias. PolyQ regions in normal human proteins have documented functional roles, in transcription factors and, more recently, in regulating autophagy. Read More

View Article
September 2018
8 Reads

The Virology of Taterapox Virus In Vitro.

Viruses 2018 08 29;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Taterapox virus (TATV) is phylogenetically the closest related virus to variola-the etiological agent of smallpox. Despite the similarity, few studies have evaluated the virus. In vivo, TATV can infect several animals but produces an inapparent infection in wild-type mice; however, TATV does cause morbidity and mortality in some immunocompromised strains. Read More

View Article
August 2018
6 Reads

Novel Orthopoxvirus and Lethal Disease in Cat, Italy.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Sep;24(9):1665-1673

We report detection and full-genome characterization of a novel orthopoxvirus (OPXV) responsible for a fatal infection in a cat. The virus induced skin lesions histologically characterized by leukocyte infiltration and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Different PCR approaches were unable to assign the virus to a defined OPXV species. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Edward Jenner's 1798 report of challenge experiments demonstrating the protective effects of cowpox against smallpox.

Authors:
Alfredo Morabia

J R Soc Med 2018 Jul;111(7):255-257

Barry Commoner Center, Queens College, Remsen 311, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing NY 11367, USA.

View Article

Cowpox virus infection in two brothers with possible human-to-human transmission.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

Departments of Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology and Immunology, Dessau Medical Center, Brandenburg Medical School Theodore Fontane, Dessau, Germany.

View Article

Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus.

Viruses 2018 05 12;10(5). Epub 2018 May 12.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Annotated whole genome sequences of three isolates of the Akhmeta virus (AKMV), a novel species of orthopoxvirus (OPXV), isolated from the Akhmeta and Vani regions of the country Georgia, are presented and discussed. The AKMV genome is similar in genomic content and structure to that of the cowpox virus (CPXV), but a lower sequence identity was found between AKMV and Old World OPXVs than between other known species of Old World OPXVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AKMV diverged prior to other Old World OPXV. Read More

View Article
May 2018
7 Reads

The Cowpox Controversy: Memory and the Politics of Public Health in Cuba.

Bull Hist Med 2018 ;92(1):110-140

Vaccination played an important role in the formation of a national consciousness in Cuba, and vaccination's earliest promoters dominate nationalist narratives of medical achievement on the island. This article investigates the intense hostility exhibited by the creole medical elite toward a pivotal figure in the history of smallpox vaccination in Cuba, Spanish physician Dr. Vicente Ferrer (1823-83), the first in the Americas to mass produce smallpox vaccine using calf vaccinifiers. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Mutagenic repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in vaccinia virus genomes requires cellular DNA ligase IV activity in the cytosol.

J Gen Virol 2018 Jun 20;99(6):790-804. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

1​Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Read More

View Article
June 2018
8 Reads

Rare necrotic lesion in a pregnant woman.

J Clin Pathol 2018 May 16;71(5):472. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Histopathology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick, UK.

View Article
May 2018
3 Reads

[Clinical presentation of cowpox virus infection in South American camelids - A review].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018 Feb 21;46(1):50-56. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. Read More

View Article
February 2018
2 Reads

Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

J Virol 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Microbial Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Read More

View Article
February 2018

Bayesian reconstruction of the evolutionary history and cross-species transition of variola virus and orthopoxviruses.

J Med Virol 2018 Jun 12;90(6):1134-1141. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia, and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts. Read More

View Article
June 2018
9 Reads

Cross-priming induces immunodomination in the presence of viral MHC class I inhibition.

PLoS Pathog 2018 02 14;14(2):e1006883. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is well-illustrated by our prior studies on cowpox virus (CPXV) that encodes potent MHCI inhibitors. Deletion of CPXV viral MHCI inhibitors markedly attenuated in vivo infection due to effects on CTL effector function, not priming. However, the CTL response to CPXV in C57BL/6 mice is dominated by a single peptide antigen presented by H-2Kb. Read More

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Phage display antibodies against ectromelia virus that neutralize variola virus: Selection and implementation for p35 neutralizing epitope mapping.

Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 7;152:18-25. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia. Electronic address:

In this study, five phage display antibodies (pdAbs) against ectromelia virus (ECTV) were selected from vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune phage-display library of human single chain variable fragments (scFv). ELISA demonstrated that selected pdAbs could recognize ECTV, VACV, and cowpox virus (CPXV). Atomic force microscopy visualized binding of the pdAbs to VACV. Read More

View Article
April 2018
11 Reads

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in a Series of Cats.

J Comp Pathol 2018 Jan 9;158:71-76. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Within 4 weeks, five cats with skin lesions affecting the hindlimbs and mainly consisting of oedema, hyperaemia and plaque-like alterations were presented to the same veterinary clinic. The cats were suffering from lameness, trauma, renal insufficiency or complicated tail amputation. Although the lesions seemed unusual for a poxvirus infection, microscopical examination of biopsy samples or specimens taken during necropsy examination revealed ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes with eosinophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies indicative of an orthopoxvirus infection. Read More

View Article
January 2018
3 Reads

The Myth of the Milkmaid.

N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(5):414-415

From the Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences-Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Global ubiquitination analysis reveals extensive modification and proteasomal degradation of cowpox virus proteins, but preservation of viral cores.

Sci Rep 2018 01 29;8(1):1807. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Robert Koch Institute, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens: Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Berlin, 13353, Germany.

The emergence of Variola virus-like viruses by natural evolution of zoonotic Orthopoxviruses, like Cowpox virus (CPXV), is a global health threat. The proteasome is essential for poxvirus replication, making the viral components interacting with the ubiquitin-proteasome system attractive antiviral targets. We show that proteasome inhibition impairs CPXV replication by prevention of uncoating, suggesting that uncoating is mediated by proteasomal degradation of viral core proteins. Read More

View Article
January 2018
2 Reads

Endocytosed soluble cowpox virus protein CPXV012 inhibits antigen cross-presentation in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 02 1;96(2):137-148. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 EA, The Netherlands.

Viruses may interfere with the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway in order to avoid CD8 T cell-mediated immunity. A key target within this pathway is the peptide transporter TAP. This transporter plays a central role in MHC class I-mediated peptide presentation of endogenous antigens. Read More

View Article
February 2018

Cowpox Virus Infection.

N Engl J Med 2018 Jan;378(2):181

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

View Article
January 2018
6 Reads

Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence.

Viruses 2017 12 19;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high prevalence in different vole and mouse species. Here, we report on experimental CPXV infections of bank voles () from different evolutionary lineages with a spectrum of CPXV strains. Read More

View Article
December 2017
7 Reads

A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

Antiviral Res 2018 02 7;150:20-29. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. Read More

View Article
February 2018
12 Reads

Two Distinct Clinical Courses of Human Cowpox, Germany, 2015.

Viruses 2017 12 7;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Department of Viruses and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany.

Here we present two cases of human infection with cowpox virus with distinct clinical courses. A series of clinical photographs documents lesion progression over time. In the first case-an unvaccinated young veterinary assistant-a pustule was treated locally with cortisone. Read More

View Article
December 2017
4 Reads

Dairy production practices and associated risks for bovine vaccinia exposure in cattle, Brazil.

New Microbes New Infect 2017 Nov 16;20:43-50. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Brazil.

A cross-sectional serosurvey was performed to identify environmental features or practices of dairy farms associated with risk for exposure to vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle in Brazil. Sera from 103 cows from 18 farms in Minas Gerais state were examined for -neutralizing antibodies. A database of 243 binary or multiple-selection categorical variables regarding the physical features and surrounding ecology of each property was obtained. Read More

View Article
November 2017
3 Reads

Epidemiological Investigations of Four Cowpox Virus Outbreaks in Alpaca Herds, Germany.

Viruses 2017 11 18;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 18.

Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Centre for Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 1, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Four cowpox virus (CPXV) outbreaks occurred in unrelated alpaca herds in Eastern Germany during 2012-2017. All incidents were initially noticed due to severe, generalized, and finally lethal CPXV infections, which were confirmed by testing of tissue and serum samples. As CPXV-infection has been described in South American camelids (SACs) only three times, all four herds were investigated to gain a deeper understanding of CPXV epidemiology in alpacas. Read More

View Article
November 2017
9 Reads

Equination (inoculation of horsepox): An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine.

Vaccine 2017 12 11;35(52):7222-7230. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens 1 - Highly Pathogenic Viruses & German Consultant Laboratory for Poxviruses & WHO Collaborating Centre for Emerging Infections and Biological Threats, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the "Inquiry" in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different from the cowpox virus. In the absence of a known natural host, vaccinia has been considered to be a laboratory virus that may have originated from mutational or recombinational events involving cowpox virus, variola viruses or some unknown ancestral Orthopoxvirus. Read More

View Article
December 2017
11 Reads

Combined Proteomics/Genomics Approach Reveals Proteomic Changes of Mature Virions as a Novel Poxvirus Adaptation Mechanism.

Viruses 2017 11 10;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

DNA viruses, like poxviruses, possess a highly stable genome, suggesting that adaptation of virus particles to specific cell types is not restricted to genomic changes. Cowpox viruses are zoonotic poxviruses with an extraordinarily broad host range, demonstrating their adaptive potential in vivo. To elucidate adaptation mechanisms of poxviruses, we isolated cowpox virus particles from a rat and passaged them five times in a human and a rat cell line. Read More

View Article
November 2017
2 Reads

Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0187089. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Read More

View Article
November 2017
11 Reads

Ontology-Based Vaccine Adverse Event Representation and Analysis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1028:89-103

University of Michigan Medical School, 1301 Medical School Research Building III, 1150 W, Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Vaccine is the one of the greatest inventions of modern medicine that has contributed most to the relief of human misery and the exciting increase in life expectancy. In 1796, an English country physician, Edward Jenner, discovered that inoculating mankind with cowpox can protect them from smallpox (Riedel S, Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Proceedings (Baylor University. Read More

View Article
March 2018
1 Read

A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions.

Viruses 2017 10 13;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of and , but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the family, namely Cowpox virus. Read More

View Article
October 2017
8 Reads

Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus, Italy, January 2015 .

Emerg Infect Dis 2017 12 17;23(12):1941-1949. Epub 2017 Dec 17.

In January 2015, during a 3-week period, 12 captive Tonkean macacques at a sanctuary in Italy died. An orthopoxvirus infection was suspected because of negative-staining electron microscopy results. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology, virus isolation, and molecular analysis performed on different organs from all animals. Read More

View Article
December 2017
20 Reads

Re-Assembly and Analysis of an Ancient Variola Virus Genome.

Viruses 2017 09 8;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada.

We report a major improvement to the assembly of published short read sequencing data from an ancient variola virus (VARV) genome by the removal of contig-capping sequencing tags and manual searches for gap-spanning reads. The new assembly, together with camelpox and taterapox genomes, permitted new dates to be calculated for the last common ancestor of all VARV genomes. The analysis of recently sequenced VARV-like cowpox virus genomes showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and amino acid changes in the vaccinia virus (VACV)-Cop-O1L ortholog, predicted to be associated with VARV host specificity and virulence, were introduced into the lineage before the divergence of these viruses. Read More

View Article
September 2017
2 Reads

Novel characteristics identified in two cases of feline cowpox virus infection.

JFMS Open Rep 2017 Jul-Dec;3(2):2055116917717191. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Case Series Summary: This case series discusses novel characteristics identified in two cases of cowpox. One presented with upper airway signs, and was identified to have a focal laryngeal lesion. The other had central neurological signs at the terminal stages, with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identified within the cerebral hemispheres on histopathology. Read More

View Article
July 2017
6 Reads

Revisiting Jenner's mysteries, the role of the Beaugency lymph in the evolutionary path of ancient smallpox vaccines.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Feb 18;18(2):e55-e63. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine consisting of pustular material obtained from lesions on cows affected by so-called cow-pox. The disease, caused by cowpox virus, confers crossprotection against smallpox. However, historical evidence suggests that Jenner might have used vaccinia virus or even horsepox virus instead of cowpox virus. Read More

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection.

J Virol 2017 10 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 10 PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. Read More

View Article
October 2017
17 Reads

Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.

MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

View Article
September 2017
35 Reads

Generalised cowpox virus infection.

Lancet 2017 Oct 29;390(10104):1769. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Lower Saxony Institute of Occupational Dermatology, University Medical Centre Göttingen and University of Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address:

View Article
October 2017
7 Reads

Cutting Edge: The Aging Immune System Reveals the Biological Impact of Direct Antigen Presentation on CD8 T Cell Responses.

J Immunol 2017 07 14;199(2):403-407. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724;

The vertebrate immune system uses multiple, sometimes redundant, mechanisms to contain pathogenic microorganisms that are always evolving to evade host defenses. Thus, the cowpox virus (CPXV) uses genes encoding CPXV12 and CPXV203 to prevent direct MHC class I presentation of viral peptides by infected cells. However, CD8 T cells are effectively primed against CPXV by cross-presentation of viral Ags in young mice. Read More

View Article
July 2017
1 Read

Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage.

Viruses 2017 06 10;9(6). Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Read More

View Article
June 2017
4 Reads

ZMPSTE24 Is Downstream Effector of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Antiviral Activity.

DNA Cell Biol 2017 Jul 8;36(7):513-517. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts.

The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed host restriction factor that is responsible for limiting infection by a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, including influenza A, vesicular stomatitis, zika, ebola, Sindbis, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. Antiviral function is independent of ZMPSTE24 enzymatic activity. Protein interaction and genetic complementation studies indicate that ZMPSTE24 is a component of a common antiviral pathway that is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane proteins. Read More

View Article
July 2017
25 Reads

Cowpox virus: What's in a Name?

Viruses 2017 05 9;9(5). Epub 2017 May 9.

Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstr 11, 80937 Munich, Germany.

Traditionally, virus taxonomy relied on phenotypic properties; however, a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. The species has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species. Read More

View Article
May 2017
6 Reads

Review of poxvirus: emergence of monkeypox.

Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):29-39

Service de dermatologie, HIA Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France.

This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Read More

View Article
February 2017
9 Reads

Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus.

Biotechniques 2017 04 1;62(4):183-187. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute and Sansom Institute, Adelaide, Australia.

Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Read More

View Article
April 2017
3 Reads

Cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.

New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):148-150. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. Read More

View Article
April 2017
8 Reads

ZMPSTE24 defends against influenza and other pathogenic viruses.

J Exp Med 2017 04 28;214(4):919-929. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115

Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity. Read More

View Article
April 2017
19 Reads

A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.

Sci Rep 2017 02 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

View Article
February 2017
12 Reads