625,839 results match your criteria Cortical Basal Ganglionic Degeneration


Vestibular dysfunction as cortical damage with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5;397:4-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Fluoxetine increases analgesic effects of morphine, prevents development of morphine tolerance and dependence through the modulation of L-type calcium channels expression in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Neuroanesthesia Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of fluoxetine on morphine-induced analgesia, as well as preventive effects of it on morphine induced tolerance and dependence in mice. We also elucidate the involvement of L-type Ca channels in these phenomena. To induce morphine tolerance, mice were treated with morphine (50 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Read More

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December 2018

The protective effect of zeranol in cerebral ischemia reperfusion via p-CREB overexpression.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ein Helwan, Cairo 11795, Egypt. Electronic address:

Aims: Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is a neurovascular disease leading to cerebral damage. It was found that postmenopausal women are liable to more dangerous effects than men at same age in stroke. The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of zeranol against cerebral ischemia reperfusion in ovariectomized rats. Read More

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December 2018

Osteocytes reflect a pro-inflammatory state following spinal cord injury in a rodent model.

Bone 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States of America.

Profound bone loss occurs following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a high incidence of fractures. While likely caused in part by loss of weight-bearing, there is greater bone loss following SCI when compared to that observed in other disuse animal models. Patients with SCI have a protracted inflammatory response, with elevated circulating levels of pro-inflammatory markers. Read More

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December 2018

Combined Raman- and AFM-based detection of biochemical and nanomechanical features of endothelial dysfunction in aorta isolated from ApoE/LDLR-/- mice.

Nanomedicine 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Physiology II, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; Institute of Physiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as a critical condition in the development of cardiovascular disorders. This multifactorial process involves changes in the biochemical and mechanical properties of endothelial cells leading to disturbed release of vasoprotective mediators. Hypercholesterolemia and increased stiffness of the endothelial cortex are independently shown to result in reduced release of nitric oxide and thus endothelial dysfunction. Read More

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December 2018

Rehabilitation-induced brain changes detected through magnetic resonance imaging in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Sunny Hill Health Centre for Children, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Aim: The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence about rehabilitation-induced neuroplasticity measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Method: The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers screened articles according to inclusion criteria: (1) peer-review study published in a scientific journal; (2) studies that evaluated a rehabilitation-based intervention; (3) participants aged less than 19 years with a neurodevelopmental disorder; (4) studies that used at least one MRI modality as an outcome measure. Read More

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December 2018

Polyamine analogue QMA attenuated ischemic injury in MCAO rats via ERK and Akt activated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immune Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Previous research showed N-(quinolin-2-ylmethy) butane-1, 4-diamine (QMA), a polyamine analogue, was efficacious in the prevention of oxidative injury in models of cerebral ischemia. The present study manifested that pretreatment with QMA attenuated ischemic damage accompanying up regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor (Nrf2), Heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1), p-ERK and p-Akt in cerebral cortex tissues of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated PC12 cells. Further more, treatment with LY294002 (specific PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (specific ERK inhibitor), brusatol (specific Nrf2 inhibitor) and SnPP (specific HO-1 inhibitor) deprived almost all the effects of QMA in MCAO rats and OGD-treated PC12 cells. Read More

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December 2018

Optogenetic control of iPS cell-derived neurons in 2D and 3D culture systems using channelrhodopsin-2 expressed by the SYN1 and CaMKII promoters.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, UK.

Development of optogenetically controllable human neural network model in three-dimensional (3D) can provide an investigative system that is physiologically relevant or mimic to the human brain. Light-sensitive neurons were generated by transducing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitor cells (Axol) using lentiviruses and cell-type specific promoters. A mixed population of human iPSC-derived cortical neurons, astrocytes and progenitor cells was obtained (Axol-ChR2) upon neural differentiation. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode-Based Retinal Prosthesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5885-5892

Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States.

Purpose: For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina. Read More

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December 2018
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Systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging in the era of fetal neurosonography: mild and moderate ventriculomegaly.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Women´s Health and Perinatology Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: To report the rate of additional anomalies detected exclusively on prenatal MRI in fetuses affected by isolated mild or moderate ventriculomegaly (VM) according to the type of ultrasound protocol adopted (dedicated neurosonography vs standard assessment of fetal brain) and to explore whether the diagnostic performance of fetal MRI in detecting such anomalies is affected by gestational age at scan and laterality of ventricular dilatation.

Methods: The primary aim was to report the rate of additional anomalies detected exclusively on prenatal MRI in fetuses affected by isolated mild and moderate VM (ventricular dilatation between 10-15 mm) undergoing compared to those not undergoing dedicated neurosonography, defined as a detail assessment of fetal brain according to the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology guidelines. Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018

Collagen proton fraction from ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) MRI modelling correlates significantly with cortical bone porosity measured with micro-computed tomography (μCT).

NMR Biomed 2018 Dec 14:e4045. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Intracortical bone porosity is a key microstructural parameter that determines bone mechanical properties. While clinical MRI visualizes the cortical bone with a signal void, ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI can acquire high signal from cortical bone, thus enabling quantitative assessments. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging combined with UTE-MRI can indirectly assess protons in the bone collagenous matrix, which are inversely related to porosity. Read More

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December 2018

Stronger Responses to Darks Along the Ventral Pathway of the Cat Visual Cortex.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, CP 6128 succursale centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Light increments (brights) and decrements (darks) are differently processed throughout the early visual system. It is well known that a bias towards faster and stronger responses to darks is present in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex. In humans, psychophysical and neurophysiological data indicate that darks are better detected than brights, suggesting that the dark bias found in early visual areas is transmitted across the cortical hierarchy. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of Aβ and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More

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December 2018

Regional multimodal relationships between tau, hypometabolism, atrophy, and fractional anisotropy in atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [ F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Neural gain control measured through cortical gamma oscillations is associated with sensory sensitivity.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre (GNC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Gamma oscillations facilitate information processing by shaping the excitatory input/output of neuronal populations. Recent studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that strong excitatory drive to the visual cortex leads to suppression of induced gamma oscillations, which may reflect inhibitory-based gain control of network excitation. The efficiency of the gain control measured through gamma oscillations may in turn affect sensory sensitivity in everyday life. Read More

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December 2018

MP2RAGEME: T , T , and QSM mapping in one sequence at 7 tesla.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging generates images of meaningful physical or chemical variables measured in physical units that allow quantitative comparisons between tissue regions and among subjects scanned at the same or different sites. Here, we show that we can acquire quantitative T , T , and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) information in a single acquisition, using a multi-echo (ME) extension of the second gradient-echo image of the MP2RAGE sequence. This combination is called MP2RAGE ME, or MP2RAGEME. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of antiepileptic drugs on cortical excitability in humans: A TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG study.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology & Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are emergent noninvasive markers of neuronal excitability and effective connectivity in humans. However, the underlying physiology of these TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) is still heavily underexplored, impeding a broad application of TEPs to study pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the effects of a single oral dose of three antiepileptic drugs with specific modes of action (carbamazepine, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker; brivaracetam, a ligand to the presynaptic vesicle protein VSA2; tiagabine, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake inhibitor) on TEP amplitudes in 15 healthy adults in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled crossover design. Read More

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December 2018

Whole Mouse Brain Reconstruction and Registration to a Reference Atlas with Standard Histochemical Processing of Coronal Sections.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14:e24602. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section on Neuroanatomy, NIMH, Bethesda, MD.

Advances in molecular neuroanatomical tools have expanded the ability to map in detail connections of specific neuron subtypes in the context of behaviorally driven patterns of neuronal activity. Analysis of such data across the whole mouse brain, registered to a reference atlas, aids in understanding the functional organization of brain circuits related to behavior. A process is described to image mouse brain sections labeled with standard histochemical techniques, reconstruct those images into a whole brain image volume and register those images to the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework. Read More

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December 2018

Sublaminar organization of the human subplate: developmental changes in the distribution of neurons, glia, growing axons and extracellular matrix.

J Anat 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

The objective of this paper was to collect normative data essential for analyzing the subplate (SP) role in pathogenesis of developmental disorders, characterized by abnormal circuitry, such as hypoxic-ischemic lesions, autism and schizophrenia. The main cytological features of the SP, such as low cell density, early differentiation of neurons and glia, plexiform arrangement of axons and dendrites, presence of synapses and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) distinguish this compartment from the cell-dense cortical plate (CP; towards pia) and large fiber bundles of external axonal strata of fetal white matter (towards ventricle). For SP delineation from these adjacent layers based on combined cytological criteria, we analyzed the sublaminar distribution of different microstructural elements and the associated maturational gradients throughout development, using immunocytochemical and histological techniques on postmortem brain material (Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection). Read More

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December 2018

Renal Chloride Channels in Relation to Sodium Chloride Transport.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):301-342. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, Equipe Métabolisme et Physiologie Rénale, Paris, France.

The many mechanisms governing NaCl absorption in the diverse parts of the renal tubule have been largely elucidated, although some of them, as neutral NaCl absorption across the cortical collecting duct or regulation through with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases have emerged only recently. Chloride channels, which are important players in these processes, at least in the distal nephron, are the focus of this review. Over the last 20-year period, experimental studies using molecular, electrophysiological, and physiological/functional approaches have deepened and renewed our views on chloride channels and their role in renal function. Read More

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December 2018
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Influence of reduced tip-apex distance on helical blade fixation - a biomechanical study.

J Orthop Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, 7270 Davos Platz, Switzerland.

Migration profile of helical blades differs from conventional screw design. Tip-apex distance (TAD) greater than 25mm is associated with early failure in hip screws. This study investigates the effect of a reduced TAD on helical blade fixation. Read More

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December 2018

Sensory coding is impaired in rat absence epilepsy.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, GIN, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

Key Points: Absence epilepsy is characterized by the occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges concomitant with an alteration of consciousness and associated with cognitive comorbidities. In a genetic model of absence epilepsy in the rat, the GAERS, we showed that spike-and-wave discharges are initiated in the barrel field primary somatosensory cortex that codes whisker-related information therefore playing an essential role in rodents' interactions with their environment. Sensory-information processing is impaired in the epileptic barrel field primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS with a delayed sensory-evoked potential and a duplicated neuronal response to whisker-stimulation in in vivo extracellular recordings. Read More

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December 2018

Threat-conditioned contexts modulate the late positive potential to faces-A mobile EEG/virtual reality study.

Psychophysiology 2018 Dec 13:e13308. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

In everyday life, the motivational value of faces is bound to the contexts in which faces are perceived. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that inherent negatively valent contexts modulate cortical face processing as assessed with ERP components. However, it is not well understood whether learned (rather than inherent) and three-dimensional aversive contexts similarly modulate the neural processing of faces. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroanatomical correlates of sensory deficits in children with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aim: Our aim was to characterize the sensory processing outcome following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and identify neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal sensory processing.

Method: We evaluated children with NAIS longitudinally at 12 months, 18 months, and/or 30 months in areas of cognitive, motor, and language development. We gathered sensory processing data using the Sensory Profile-2 Caregiver Questionnaire. Read More

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December 2018

Multidelay multiparametric arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI and mild cognitive impairment in early stage Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a well-defined nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), greatly impairs functioning and quality of life. However, the contribution of cerebral perfusion, quantified by arterial spin labeling (ASL), to MCI in PD remains poorly understood. The selection of an optimal delay time is difficult for single-delay ASL, a problem which is avoided by multidelay ASL. Read More

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December 2018

Symmetry Breaking in Wrinkling Patterns: Gyri Are Universally Thicker than Sulci.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Nov;121(22):228002

Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Wrinkling instabilities appear in soft materials when a flat elastic layer on an elastic substrate is sufficiently stressed that it buckles with a wavy pattern to minimize the energy of the system. This instability is known to play an important role in engineering, but it also appears in many biological systems. In these systems, the stresses responsible for the wrinkling instability are often created through differential growth of the two layers. Read More

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November 2018

6-Phenylpyrimidin-4-ones as Positive Allosteric Modulators at the M1 mAChR: The Determinants of Allosteric Activity.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Targeting allosteric sites of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is an enticing approach to overcome the lack of receptor subtype selectivity observed with orthosteric ligands. This is a promising strategy for obtaining novel therapeutics to treat cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, while reducing the peripheral side effects such as seen in the current treatment regimes, which are non-subtype selective. We previously described compound 2, the first positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M1 mAChR based on a 6-phenylpyrimidin-4-one scaffold, which has been further developed in this study. Read More

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December 2018

A GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CORTICAL THICKNESS IN 372 TWINS.

Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging 2010 Apr 21;2010:101-104. Epub 2010 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Imaging genetics is a new field of neuroscience that blends methods from computational anatomy and quantitative genetics to identify genetic influences on brain structure and function. Here we analyzed brain MRI data from 372 young adult twins to identify cortical regions in which gray matter volume is influenced by genetic differences across subjects. Thickness maps, reconstructed from surface models of the cortical gray/white and gray/CSF interfaces, were smoothed with a 25 mm FWHM kernel and automatically parcellated into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere. Read More

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Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Opening-wedge osteotomies of the distal femur: minor advantages for a biplanar compared to a uniplanar technique.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Biomechanics, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: Valgus malalignment of the distal femur may be treated with corrective osteotomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the primary stability of a lateral opening-wedge osteotomy (LOWO) using a uniplanar compared to a biplanar technique. A study was carried out to test both surgeries, with both an intact medial cortex and with a deliberate attached cut of the medial cortex simulating a fracture. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral and electrophysiological brain effects of aspartame on well-nourished and malnourished rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50670-901, Brazil.

The non-caloric sweetener aspartame can be potentially harmful to the developing brain, as some studies suggest an association between aspartame intake and adverse neural effects. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of aspartame, with or without associated early nutritional deficiency, on behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and electrophysiological features of the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Newborn Wistar rats (n = 80) were suckled under favorable (L; n = 40) or unfavorable lactation conditions (L; n = 40), consisting of litters with 9 or 15 pups, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Subregional Hippocampal Thickness Abnormalities in Older Adults with a History of Heavy Cannabis Use.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 10;3(1):242-251. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A visual rating study.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):388-393

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by frontostriatal grey matter changes similar to those in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, these changes are usually detected at a group level, and simple visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical atrophy scales may further elucidate frontostriatal changes in ALS.

Objective: To investigate whether frontostriatal changes are detectable using simple visual MRI atrophy rating scales applied at an individual patient level in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Surgical strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology and incomplete evidence from EEG and neuroimaging.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4886-4892. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Read More

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December 2018

Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Induces Acute Bacterial Dysbiosis Within the Fecal Microbiome.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States.

The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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November 2018
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Increased Excitability Induced in the Primary Motor Cortex by Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation.

Front Neurol 2018 28;9:1007. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Psychology Clinical Neuroscience Center, Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation (tUS) is an emerging technique that uses ultrasonic waves to noninvasively modulate brain activity. As with other forms of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), tUS may be useful for altering cortical excitability and neuroplasticity for a variety of research and clinical applications. The effects of tUS on cortical excitability are still unclear, and further complications arise from the wide parameter space offered by various types of devices, transducer arrangements, and stimulation protocols. Read More

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November 2018

Subclinical Agoraphobia Symptoms and Regional Brain Volumes in Non-clinical Subjects: Between Compensation and Resilience?

Front Psychiatry 2018 28;9:541. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Symptoms of anxiety are present not only in panic disorder or other anxiety disorders, but are highly prevalent in the general population. Despite increasing biological research on anxiety disorders, there is little research on understanding subclinical or sub-threshold symptoms relating to anxiety in non-clinical community samples, which could give clues to factors relating to resilience or compensatory changes. This study focused on brain structural correlates of subclinical anxiety/agoraphobia symptoms from a multi-center imaging study. Read More

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November 2018

The Hippocampal Engram as a Memory Index.

J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518815942. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Laboratory for Circuit and Behavioral Physiology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako, Japan.

The hippocampus encodes memories for past events, but the nature of the hippocampal code subserving this function remains unclear. A prevailing idea, strongly supported by hippocampal physiology, is the Cognitive Map Theory. In this view, episodic memories are anchored to spatial domains, or allocentric frameworks, of experiences, with the hippocampus providing a stable representation of external space. Read More

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December 2018
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Anchorage possibilities in case of a unilateral maxillary defect using the concept of Strategic Implant.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jul-Dec;9(2):235-239

Reg-Med Dental Clinic, Rzeszowska, Zary, Poland.

The aim of this article was to present the treatment method applied to a patient who suffered from a multiple fracture of the right maxilla, as a result of an accident that happened to him at an early age. The main consequence of this injury was an inhibited growth of the maxillary bone segment due to the lack of functional stimulus. The treatment consisted of four phases: the removal of all the teeth in the upper right maxilla, the immediate restoration with bicortical implants, the immediate prosthetic rehabilitation, and closing the oroantral communication. Read More

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December 2018
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Genetic drivers of cerebral blood flow dysfunction in TBI: a speculative synthesis.

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Anaesthesia, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Cerebral autoregulatory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly linked to poor global outcome in patients at 6 months after injury. However, our understanding of the drivers of this dysfunction is limited. Genetic variation among individuals within a population gives rise to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have the potential to influence a given patient's cerebrovascular response to an injury. Read More

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December 2018
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Complementary topology of maintenance and manipulation brain networks in working memory.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17827. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Working memory (WM) is assumed to consist of a process that sustains memory representations in an active state (maintenance) and a process that operates on these activated representations (manipulation). We examined evidence for two distinct, concurrent cognitive functions supporting maintenance and manipulation abilities by testing brain activity as participants performed a WM alphabetization task. Maintenance was investigated by varying the number of letters held in WM and manipulation by varying the number of moves required to sort the list alphabetically. Read More

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December 2018
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Transcriptome and epigenome landscape of human cortical development modeled in organoids.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420)

Genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders are active in human fetal brain, yet difficult to study in a longitudinal fashion. We demonstrate that organoids from human pluripotent cells model cerebral cortical development on the molecular level before 16 weeks postconception. A multiomics analysis revealed differentially active genes and enhancers, with the greatest changes occurring at the transition from stem cells to progenitors. Read More

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December 2018
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Clinical Feasibility of Zero TE Skull MRI in Patients with Head Trauma in Comparison with CT: A Single-Center Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MR Applications and Workflow (M.J.H.), GE Healthcare Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: Conventional MR imaging techniques cannot produce optimal images of bone structures because bone has little water and a very short T2 life span. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of skull MR imaging using the zero TE sequence in patients with head trauma by assessing its diagnostic image quality and quantitative measurement compared with CT images.

Materials And Methods: Thirteen enrolled patients with head trauma were assessed using brain CT and skull MR imaging. Read More

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December 2018

Brain β-Amyloid and Atrophy in Individuals at Increased Risk of Cognitive Decline.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background And Purpose: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. Read More

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December 2018
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MRI Abnormalities Predominate in the Bottom Part of the Sulcus with Type II Focal Cortical Dysplasia: A Quantitative Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

From the Departments of Neurosurgery (Z.L., X.W., K.Z., J.Z.)

Background And Purpose: Type II focal cortical dysplasia is a common histopathological substrate in focal epilepsy. This study explored the spatial distribution of abnormal findings on MR imaging across the sulcus with type II focal cortical dysplasia using quantitative MR imaging postprocessing techniques.

Materials And Methods: The morphometric analysis program and normalized FLAIR signal intensity analysis were applied to retrospectively analyze the MR imaging data of 58 patients with histopathologically confirmed type II focal cortical dysplasia. Read More

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December 2018

The cortical face network of the prosopagnosic patient PS with fast periodic stimulation in fMRI.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRAN, Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service de Neurologie, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Read More

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November 2018

A multi-factorial analysis of bone morphology and fracture strength of rat femur in response to ovariectomy.

J Orthop Surg Res 2018 Dec 13;13(1):318. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Bio-Prosthodontics, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis develops due to a deficiency of estrogen that causes a decrease in bone mass and changes in the macro- and micro-architectural structure of the bone, leading to the loss of mechanical strength and an increased risk of fracture. Although the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) has been widely used as a gold standard for diagnostic screening of bone fracture risks, it accounts for only a part of the variation in bone fragility; thus, it is necessary to consider other determinants of bone strength. Therefore, we aimed to comprehensively evaluate the architectural changes of the bone that influence bone fracture strength, together with the different sensitivities of cortical and trabecular bone in response to ovariectomy (OVX). Read More

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December 2018

Structural and metabolic cerebral alterations between elderly bipolar disorder and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia: A combined MRI-PET study.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13:4867418815976. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background:: Elderly bipolar disorder (BD) and behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may exhibit similar symptoms and both disorders are characterized by selective abnormalities in cortical and subcortical regions that are associated with cognitive and emotional impairments. We aimed to investigate common and distinct neural substrates of BD and bvFTD by coupling, for the first time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques.

Methods:: 3-Tesla MRI and 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scans were acquired for 16 elderly BD patients, 23 bvFTD patients with mild cognitive impairments and 68 healthy controls (48 for PET and 20 for MRI analyses). Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of Trauma Intensity during Surgical Bone Procedures Using NF-κB Expression Levels as a Stress Sensor: An Experimental Study in a Wistar Rat Model.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Dec 12;11(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biotechnology, Biotecnos-Technology and Science, Cuareim 1483, Montevideo, Canelones 11100, Uruguay.

It is well known that the transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and functions as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we evaluated the trauma generated (inflammatory reaction) after osteotomy bone surgical procedures and placement of implants in the femoral cortical bone of Wistar rats. Surgical stress was evaluated measuring the release and activation of the NF-κB factor. Read More

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December 2018
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