448,603 results match your criteria Cortex [Journal]


Brain activity in struggling readers before intervention relates to future reading gains.

Cortex 2018 Nov 16;111:286-302. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; Biomedical Imaging Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Neural markers for reading-related changes in response to intervention could inform intervention plans by serving as a potential index of the malleability of the reading network in struggling readers. Of particular interest is the role of brain activation outside the reading network, especially in executive control networks important for reading comprehension. However, it is unclear whether any intervention-related executive control changes in the brain are specific to reading tasks or reflect more domain general changes. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on histaminergic neurons, histidine decarboxylase levels and histamine H receptors in adult rat offspring.

Alcohol 2018 Jul 22;76:47-57. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, United States. Electronic address:

We have reported that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) elevates histamine H receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG), and that the H receptor antagonist ABT-239 ameliorates PAE-induced deficits in DG long-term potentiation. Here, we investigated whether PAE alters other markers of histaminergic neurotransmission. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or a 5% ethanol solution 4 h each day throughout gestation. Read More

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Impairment in complex activities of daily living is related to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease-specific regions.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 26;75:109-116. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is an early clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neurobiology underlying IADL disruptions is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between IADL functioning and cortical atrophy across the AD spectrum. Read More

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November 2018

Experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism causes decreased functional connectivity of the cuneus: A resting state fMRI study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 12;102:158-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Department of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate the effects of subclinical mild hypothyroidism on brain network connectivity as determined by resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) which serves as a proxy for global changes in brain function.

Methods: Fifteen otherwise healthy patients with complete hypothyroidism under stable, long term levothyroxine substitution volunteered for the study. They reduced their pretest levothyroxine dosage by 30% for 52-56 days. Read More

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December 2018

Resting state functional connectivity and neural correlates of face-name encoding in patients with ischemic vascular lesions with and without the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Cortex 2018 Nov 26;113:15-28. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Face-name association is a relevant ability for social interactions and involves the ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, particularly in the left hemisphere, bilateral hippocampal, fusiform gyrus and occipital regions. Previous studies demonstrated the primary role of the hippocampus for this ability in healthy subjects. However, no study has examined the participation of the left inferior frontal area, specially the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in patients with ischemic vascular lesions. Read More

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November 2018

Mapping whole brain connectivity changes: The potential impact of different surgical resection approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17;113:1-14. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK; MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

In neurosurgery there are several situations that require transgression of the temporal cortex. For example, a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy require surgical resection (most typically, en-bloc anterior temporal lobectomy). This procedure is the gold standard to alleviate seizures but is associated with chronic cognitive deficits. Read More

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November 2018
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Increased activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal pole during tonality change in music.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

In human music, the tonality (key) may change to punctuate sectional structures and to produce emotional effects. A tonality change would sound "smoother" when it is supported by appropriate harmony. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural substrates of the processing of tonality change. Read More

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December 2018

Vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema: optical coherence tomography criteria and pathology of the vitreomacular interface.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To correlate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) criteria and clinical data with pathology of the vitreomacular interface (VMI) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study and laboratory investigation.

Methods: We included specimens of 27 eyes of 26 patients with center-involved DME that underwent vitrectomy with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Read More

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December 2018

Small-molecule induction of Aβ-42 peptide production in human cerebral organoids to model Alzheimer's disease associated phenotypes.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209150. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Service d'Etude des Prions et Infections Atypiques (SEPIA), Institut François Jacob, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and pathological roles and interactions with other proteins are not well established in humans. Here, we demonstrate that neuroectodermal organoids can be used to study the Aβ accumulation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

Multiscale dynamics of interstimulus interval integration in visual cortex.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208822. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Bioengineering Institute, Miguel Hernández University (UMH), Alicante, Spain.

Although the visual cortex receives information at multiple temporal patterns, much of the research in the field has focused only on intervals shorter than 1 second. Consequently, there is almost no information on what happens at longer temporal intervals. We have tried to address this question recording neuronal populations of the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with repetitive grating stimuli and intervals ranging from 1 to 7 seconds. Read More

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December 2018

Indomethacin blocks the increased conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209291. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode. Read More

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December 2018

Immature electrophysiological properties of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons transplanted into the mouse cortex for 7 weeks.

Neuroreport 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo.

The transplantation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cells has emerged as a potential clinical approach for the treatment of brain diseases. Recent studies with animal disease models have shown that hiPSC-derived neurons transplanted into the brain, especially the nigrostriatal area, could restore degenerated brain functions. Further works are required to test whether hiPSC-derived neurons can also gain functional properties for other cortical areas. Read More

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December 2018

Effective connectivity in subjects with mild cognitive impairment as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing, 100176.

Objective: This study aimed to reveal the physiological mechanism in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on effective connectivity (EC) method.

Methods: EC was assessed by dynamic Bayesian inference (DBI) of the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) signals measured through functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The Δ[HbO2] signals were recorded from the left prefrontal cortex (LPFC), right prefrontal cortex (RPFC), left motor cortex (LMC), right motor cortex (RMC), left occipital lobe (LOL) and right occipital lobe (ROL) of 26 subjects with MCI (MCI group) and 28 healthy elderly subjects (control group) at resting state. Read More

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December 2018

Elucidating the Effect of a Brief Drinking Intervention Using Neuroimaging: A Preliminary Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095.

Background: Brief interventions have empirical support for acutely reducing alcohol use among non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers. Neuroimaging techniques allow for the examination of the neurobiological effect of behavioral interventions, probing brain systems putatively involved in clinical response to treatment. Few studies have prospectively evaluated whether psychosocial interventions attenuate neural cue-reactivity that in turn reduces drinking in the same population. Read More

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December 2018
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Gender-related differences in cue-elicited cravings in Internet gaming disorder: The effects of deprivation.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 17:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

5 Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Online gaming has become a popular leisure activity, in which males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) compared to females. However, gender-related neurocognitive differences have largely not been systematically investigated in IGD.

Methods: Cue-elicited-craving tasks were performed before game playing and immediately after deprivation operationalized as a forced break from gaming when the Internet was disconnected. Read More

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December 2018

Nutrient biomarkers shape individual differences in functional brain connectivity: Evidence from omega-3 PUFAs.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.

A wealth of neuroscience evidence demonstrates that diet and nutrition play an important role in structural brain plasticity, promoting the development of gray matter volume and maintenance of white matter integrity across the lifespan. However, the role of nutrition in shaping individual differences in the functional brain connectome remains to be well established. We therefore investigated whether nutrient biomarkers known to have beneficial effects on brain structure (i. Read More

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December 2018

Prefrontal high gamma during a magnetoencephalographic working memory task.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

MEG Core Facility, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

In human electrophysiology research, the high gamma part of the power spectrum (~>60 Hz) is a relatively new area of investigation. Despite a low signal-to-noise ratio, evidence exists that it contains significant information about activity in local cortical networks. Here, using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found high gamma activity when comparing data from an n-back working memory task to resting data in a large sample of normal volunteers. Read More

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December 2018

Visual processing in migraineurs depends on the migraine cycle.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Dept of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

We investigated changes of afterimage-duration in migraineurs and healthy controls (HC) and throughout the migraine cycle to depict changes in the excitatory/inhibitory equilibrium within the visual cortex. 47 episodic (EM) and 39 chronic migraineurs (CM) (interictal) were compared to 34 HC for visual after-image duration. Additionally, seven EM were investigated every consecutive day over 20-32 days using the identical paradigm throughout the migraine cycle. Read More

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December 2018

Auditory and speech function after cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children with white matter lesions.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To explore how auditory and speech function developed post-cochlear implantation (pCI) in prelingually deaf children with white matter lesions (WML).

Method: Patients (41 males, 29 females; mean age at implantation 2y 11mo [SD 7.5mo], range 1y 8mo-5y) were divided into the following groups according to preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging evaluation: mild WML, moderate WML, severe WML, and control. Read More

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December 2018

The Extracellular Matrix of Ovarian Cortical Inclusion Cysts Modulates Invasion of Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells.

APL Bioeng 2018 11;2(3). Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

A growing body of research supports the idea that the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) is the precursor for most high-grade serous ovarian canacers (HGSOC) but that the ovary plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. Cortical inclusion cysts (CICs) in the ovarian cortex have been hypothesized to create a niche environment that plays a role in HGSOC progression. Through histological analysis of pathology samples from human ovaries, we determined that collagen I and III were elevated near CICs and that the collagen fibers in this dense region were oriented parallel to the cyst boundary. Read More

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Evaluation of the Leaf Essential Oil from and Its Larvicidal and Repellent Activity against Dengue Fever Vector -An Experimental and Molecular Docking Investigation.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 16;3(11):15657-15665. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Botany and Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Laboratory, School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu, India.

is a mosquito vector that spreads dengue fever and yellow fever worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries. Essential oil isolated from is found to have larvicidal and repellent action against this vector. The dried leaves were subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h. Read More

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November 2018

The Association Between Ascorbate and the Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Requires a Functional Von Hippel-Lindau Protein.

Front Oncol 2018 30;8:574. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Mackenzie Cancer Research Group, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) drive angiogenesis and cancer cell growth, contributing to an aggressive tumor phenotype. HIF-α protein levels and activity are controlled at the post-translational level by HIF hydroxylases. Hydroxylated HIF-α is recognized by the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor and targeted for degradation. Read More

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November 2018

A case series on the conservative management of the bony skull in patients with aggressive skin carcinomas of the scalp.

J Surg Case Rep 2018 Dec 11;2018(12):rjy326. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Head and Neck Department, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.

Few studies examine techniques of surgical resection for scalp malignancies to ensure clear margins. We present a case series utilizing outer cortex removal in patients without evidence of bony or pericranial invasion. A retrospective casenote review is presented of three cases treated in a tertiary Head and Neck Cancer Centre. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring Potential Biomarkers Underlying Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease by Differential Co-expression Analysis.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):233-241

Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Due to the facts that biological causes of AD are complex in addition to increasing rates of AD worldwide, a deeper understanding of AD etiology is required for AD treatment and diagnosis.

Methods: To identify molecular pathological alterations in AD brains, GSE36980 series containing microarray data samples from temporal cortex, frontal cortex and hippocampus were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and valid gene symbols were subjected to building a gene co-expression network by a bioinformatics tool known as differential regulation from differential co-expression (DCGL) software package. Read More

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December 2018

Functional Connectivity of Anterior Insula Predicts Recovery of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness.

Front Neurol 2018 30;9:1024. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology and Brain Medical Centre, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

We hypothesize that the anterior insula is important for maintenance of awareness. Here, we explored the functional connectivity alterations of the anterior insula with changes in the consciousness level or over time in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and determined potential correlation with clinical outcomes. We examined 20 participants (9 patients with DOC and 11 healthy controls). Read More

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November 2018

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Counteract Cognitive Fatigue, but Induces Sleepiness and an Inter-Hemispheric Shift in Brain Oxygenation.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:2351. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

UR2NF, Neuropsychology and Functional Neuroimaging Research Unit, Centre de Recherches en Cognition et Neurosciences and UNI - ULB Neurosciences Institute, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Sustained cognitive demands may result in cognitive fatigue (CF), eventually leading to decreased behavioral performance and compromised brain resources. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would counteract the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of CF. Twenty young healthy participants were tested in a within-subject counterbalanced order across two different days. Read More

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November 2018

A Longitudinal Multimodal Neuroimaging Study to Examine Relationships Between Resting State Glutamate and Task Related BOLD Response in Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2018 29;9:632. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Previous studies have observed impairments in both brain function and neurometabolite levels in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between brain activity and neurochemistry in off-medication patients with schizophrenia and if this relationship is altered following antipsychotic medication by combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used single voxel MRS acquired in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task in 22 patients with schizophrenia (SZ), initially off-medication and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) twice, 6 weeks apart. Read More

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November 2018

Altered Gray Matter Volume and Its Correlation With PTSD Severity in Chinese Earthquake Survivors.

Front Psychiatry 2018 30;9:629. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

To detect the changes of gray matter volume (GMV) and their correlation with severity of symptom in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were defined with updated DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. 71 participants were assigned into PTSD group ( = 35) or trauma-exposed control (TEC) group ( = 36) with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to detect alterations in GMV in the PTSD group. Read More

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November 2018

Multifractal Dynamic Functional Connectivity in the Resting-State Brain.

Front Physiol 2018 30;9:1704. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Assessing the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain has proven valuable in enhancing our understanding of brain function. Recent developments in the field demonstrated that FC fluctuates even in the resting state, which has not been taken into account by the widely applied static approaches introduced earlier. In a recent study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) global dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) has also been found to fluctuate according to scale-free i. Read More

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November 2018

Enhanced Plasticity of Human Evoked Potentials by Visual Noise During the Intervention of Steady-State Stimulation Based Brain-Computer Interface.

Front Neurorobot 2018 29;12:82. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity, is an inclusive term that covers the permanent changes in the brain during the course of an individual's life, and neuroplasticity can be broadly defined as the changes in function or structure of the brain in response to the external and/or internal influences. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a well-characterized form of functional synaptic plasticity, could be influenced by rapid-frequency stimulation (or "tetanus") within human sensory pathways. Also, stochastic resonance (SR) has brought new insight into the field of visual processing for the study of neuroplasticity. Read More

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November 2018

TRH Analog, Taltirelin Improves Motor Function of Hemi-PD Rats Without Inducing Dyskinesia via Sustained Dopamine Stimulating Effect.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 13;12:417. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and its analogs are able to stimulate the release of the endogenic dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system. However, this effect has not been tested in the Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by the DA deficiency due to the dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Taltirelin, a long-acting TRH analog on 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. Read More

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November 2018

Invasive and Non-invasive Stimulation of the Obese Human Brain.

Authors:
Burkhard Pleger

Front Neurosci 2018 29;12:884. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, BG University Clinic Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Accumulating evidence suggests that non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation may reduce food craving and calorie consumption rendering these techniques potential treatment options for obesity. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or repetitive transcranial magnet stimulation (rTMS) are used to modulate activity in superficially located executive control regions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Modulation of the DLPFC's activity may alter executive functioning and food reward processing in interconnected dopamine-rich regions such as the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex. Read More

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November 2018

Low-Frequency rTMS of the Primary Motor Area Does Not Modify the Response of the Cerebral Cortex to Phasic Nociceptive Stimuli.

Front Neurosci 2018 29;12:878. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique of cortical stimulation. Although the exact mechanism of action is not clearly understood, it has been postulated that rTMS action on pain depends most on stimulation sites and stimulation parameters. Most studies concern high-frequency rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1). Read More

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November 2018

Quantification of Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Cerebral Cortex Recordings Using Flexible MEAs With Co-localized Platinum Black, Carbon Nanotubes, and Gold Electrodes.

Front Neurosci 2018 29;12:862. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Systems Neuroscience, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

Developing new standardized tools to characterize brain recording devices is critical to evaluate neural probes and for translation to clinical use. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement is the gold standard for quantifying the performance of brain recording devices. Given the drawbacks with the SNR measure, our first objective was to devise a new method to calculate the SNR of neural signals to distinguish signal from noise. Read More

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November 2018

Wiring the depressed brain: optogenetic and chemogenetic circuit interrogation in animal models of depression.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The advent of optogenetics and chemogenetics has revolutionized the study of neural circuit mechanisms of behavioral dysregulation in psychiatric disease. These powerful technologies allow manipulation of specific neurons to determine causal relationships between neuronal activity and behavior. Optogenetic tools have been key to mapping the circuitry underlying depression-like behavior in animal models, clarifying the contribution of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral hippocampus, and other limbic areas, to stress susceptibility. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrastructural studies and molecular characterization of root-associated fungi, of (D.Don) Szlach.: a threatened and medicinally important taxon.

J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1139-1146

Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.

(Orchidaceae) is a threatened medicinal orchid that grows under shady and moist forest floor where light remains for a very short period of time. Mycorrhizal association is known to be essential for seed germination and seedling establishment in amajority of orchids. Identification of fungi that form mycorrhizae with orchids is of crucial importance for orchid conservation. Read More

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December 2018

Insular Resting State Functional Connectivity is Associated with Gut Microbiota Diversity.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

The gut microbiota has recently gained attention as a possible modulator of brain activity. A number of reports suggest that the microbiota may be associated with neuropsychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder, autism, and anxiety. The gut microbiota is thought to influence the brain via vagus nerve signaling, among other possible mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018
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Fucoxanthin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice via AMPK- NF-κB pathway.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of toxicology and pharmacology, Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 315000, China.

Fucoxanthin (FX), a natural carotenoid abundant in edible brown seaweeds, has been shown the great anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects in vivo and in vitro. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced behavioral defects in mice. In depressive behavior tests, the increased immobility time of forced swimming test and tail suspension test by LPS treatment in mice, which were significantly reversed by FX treatment (200 mg/kg, i. Read More

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December 2018

Clinically applicable delineation of the pallidal sensorimotor region in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: study of probabilistic and deterministic tractography.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec 14:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVEDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective procedure in improving motor symptoms for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) through the use of high-frequency stimulation. Although one of the most commonly used target sites for DBS, sensorimotor regions of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) have yet to be thoroughly described with advanced neuroimaging analysis in vivo for human subjects. Furthermore, many imaging studies to date have been performed in a research setting and bring into question the feasibility of their applications in a clinical setting, such as for surgical planning. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a more ventral starting point for thoracic pedicle screws: higher maximal insertional arc and more medial and safer screw angulation.

Authors:

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 Dec 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that a more ventral starting point for thoracic pedicle screw insertion, produced by aggressively removing the dorsal transverse process bone down to the superior articular facet (SAF), results in a larger margin for error and more medial screw angulation compared to the traditional dorsal starting point (DSP). The margin for error will be quantified by the maximal insertional arc (MIA).METHODSThe study population included 10 consecutive operative patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis who underwent primary surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Time course of microglia activation and brain and blood cytokine/chemokine levels following chronic ethanol exposure and protracted withdrawal in rats.

Alcohol 2018 Jul 17;76:37-45. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States; Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States; Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States.

Alcohol produces complex effects on the immune system. Moderate alcohol use (1-2 drinks per day) has been shown to produce anti-inflammatory responses in human blood monocytes, whereas, the post mortem brains of severe alcoholics show increased immune gene expression and activated microglial markers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the time course of alcohol effects during exposure and after withdrawal, and to determine the relationship between microglial and cytokine responses in brain and blood. Read More

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Melatonin receptor activation provides cerebral protection after traumatic brain injury by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation via the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide. Melatonin, a hormone made by the pineal gland, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, using a weight-drop model of TBI, we investigated the protective effects of ramelteon, a melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, and its underlying mechanisms of action. Read More

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December 2018

Low frequency pulse stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in Trpm4 knockout rats differently affects baseline BOLD signals in target regions of the right hippocampus but not BOLD responses at the site of stimulation.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Functional Neuroimaging Group, Deutsches Zentrum für neurodegenerative Erkrankungen (DZNE), Magdeburg, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology (LIN), Magdeburg, Germany; Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Electrical stimulation of right Schaffer collateral in Trpm4 knockout and wild type rats were used to study the role of Trpm4 channels for signal processing in the hippocampal formation. Stimulation induced neuronal activity was simultaneously monitored in the CA1 region by in vivo extracellular field recordings and in the entire brain by BOLD fMRI measurements. In wild type and Trpm4 knockout rats, consecutive 5 Hz pulse trains elicited similar neuronal responses in the CA1 region and similar BOLD responses in the stimulated right hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

Menthol-induced facilitation of cerebrocortical excitatory propagation induced by air puff stimulation of the nasal cavity in the rat: An optical imaging study.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8310, Japan; Division of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Research, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8310, Japan; Molecular Dynamics Imaging Unit, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan.

Temperature plays a critical role in the sensation of airflow in the nasal mucosa. Neural activities of the ethmoidal nerve, a trigeminal afferent, responding to airflow are suppressed by warm airflow, whereas cold airflow enhances the ethmoidal nerve activities, which is mimicked by application of menthol, a cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptor agonist. However, it has been an open issue how menthol modulates the spatiotemporal profiles of neural activities of somatosensory cortical neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of acute transcranial direct current stimulation on non-motor and motor symptoms in Parkinson´s disease.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State University of Londrina, Robert Koch Av., 60, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an appropriate treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). It offers promising results and is known to improve symptoms. Nevertheless, consistent parameters need to be established for research purposes. Read More

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December 2018

Out of control? Acting out anger is associated with deficient prefrontal emotional action control in male patients with borderline personality disorder.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Difficulty in anger control and anger-related aggressive outbursts against others are frequently reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although male sex is a known predictor for aggression, hardly any study has addressed the neural correlates of deficient anger control in male patients with BPD. Building on previous reports in female BPD, we investigated the involvement of lateral antero- and dorsal prefrontal cortex in the control of fast emotional actions and its relation to self-reported tendencies to act out anger. Read More

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December 2018

Locomotor and anti-immobility effects of buprenorphine in combination with the opioid receptor modulator samidorphan in rats.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NCBES Galway Neuroscience Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

Modulation of the opioid system has re-emerged as a potential therapeutic avenue for treating depression, with efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of buprenorphine (BUP), a partial μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, and samidorphan (SAM), a potent MOR antagonist, as an adjuvant treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). To advance understanding of the mechanism of action underlying this combination, we examined BUP, SAM and their combination in a series of rat behavioural assays. We examined effects on locomotor activity in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats over an extended period of time in a home-cage tracking system, and behavioural despair (immobility) in the forced swim test (FST), a commonly-used test to study antidepressants, in SD and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Read More

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December 2018

Age-related changes in neural coding of envelope cues: peripheral declines and central compensation.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, and Eaton-Peabody Laboratories, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Aging listeners often experience difficulties in perceiving temporally complex acoustic cues in noisy environments. These difficulties likely have neurophysiological contributors from various levels of auditory processing. Cochlear synapses between inner hair cells and auditory nerve fibers exhibit a progressive decline with age which is not reflected in the threshold audiogram. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in cerebral perfusion changes after mild traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal investigation and correlation with outcome.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is known to have marked developmental sex differences. We investigated whether gender differences exert modulatory effect on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from both neuropsychological testing and brain CBF changes using a longitudinal design from acute stage to subacute 1 month post-injury. Our results supported that cognitive information processing speed (IPS), as one of core cognitive impairments following mTBI, were at least partially independent from other self-reported syndromes, such as post concussive symptom and posttraumatic stress disorder, and that it can be selectively impaired in specific male mTBI individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Prognosis of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia by voxel-wise Cox regression based on FDG PET data.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 10:101637. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany; Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Freiburg, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.

Aim: The value of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prognosis of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is controversial. In the present work, the identification of cerebral metabolic patterns with significant prognostic value for conversion of MCI patients to AD is investigated with voxel-based Cox regression, which in contrast to common categorical comparisons also utilizes time information.

Methods: FDG PET data of 544 MCI patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were randomly split into two equally-sized datasets (training and test). Read More

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December 2018