4,818 results match your criteria Cortex [Journal]


Unraveling the asymmetry of Mona Lisa smile.

Cortex 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

The Mona Lisa portrait, by Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most famous paintings in the world. Over the years, there have been a number of debated topics on the painting, including the valence of the emotion expressed on her face. Nevertheless, the most recent interpretations agree that Mona Lisa expression is happiness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.020DOI Listing

The effect of frontoparietal paired associative stimulation on decision-making and working memory.

Cortex 2019 Mar 28;117:266-276. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

Previous single-site neurostimulation experiments have unsuccessfully attempted to shift decision-making away from habitual control, a fast, inflexible cognitive strategy, towards goal-directed control, a flexible, though computationally expensive strategy. We employed a dual-target neurostimulation approach in 30 healthy participants, using cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) to target two key nodes: lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), to test whether decision-making can be artificially shifted from habitual toward goal-directed control. Participants received three active stimulations, delivered at least six days apart (each involving 100 paired pulses over the IPS and LPFC, varying the interstimulus interval): two interventional, time-relevant ccPAS (10 msec interval) and one control, non-time-relevant ccPAS (100 msec interval). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.015DOI Listing

Episodic memory and learning rates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis without dementia.

Cortex 2019 Mar 19;117:257-265. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Research in Neurology, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Lecce, Italy; Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), memory deficits may be primary or secondary to executive dysfunction. We assessed episodic memory and executive function of nondemented ALS patients, comparing episodic memory profiles and learning rates of ALS patients with those of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and cognitively healthy controls (HC). In a multidisciplinary tertiary centre for motor neuron disease, 72 nondemented ALS patients, 57 amnestic MCI (aMCI), 89 single non amnestic MCI with compromised executive functions (dysexecutive MCI), and 190 HC were enrolled. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019
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No evidence for altered up- and downregulation of brain activity in visual cortex during illusory shape perception in autism.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:247-256. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be marked by an altered balance between sensory input and prior expectations. Because many illusions rely on integrating sensory input with prior information such as spatial context, individuals with ASD may therefore be less susceptible to visual illusions than typically developing (TD) individuals. Yet empirical evidence on the matter is rather divergent, varying depending on the type of illusion, study procedure, and population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Neural organization of speech production: A lesion-based study of error patterns in connected speech.

Cortex 2019 Mar 7;117:228-246. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

University of South Carolina, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, United States.

While numerous studies have explored single-word naming, few have evaluated the behavioral and neural correlates of more naturalistic language, like connected speech, which we produce every day. Here, in a retrospective analysis of 120 participants at least six months following left hemisphere stroke, we evaluated the distribution of word errors (paraphasias) and associated brain damage during connected speech (picture description) and object naming. While paraphasias in connected speech and naming shared underlying neural substrates, analysis of the distribution of paraphasias suggested that lexical-semantic load is likely reduced during connected speech. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.029DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Emotional capture during emotion-induced blindness is not automatic.

Cortex 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

San Diego State University, CA, USA.

The present research used behavioral and event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures to determine whether emotional capture is automatic in the emotion-induced blindness (EIB) paradigm. The first experiment varied the priority of performing two concurrent tasks: identifying a negative or neutral picture appearing in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of pictures and multiple object tracking (MOT). Results showed that increased attention to the MOT task resulted in decreased accuracy for identifying both negative and neutral target pictures accompanied by decreases in the amplitude of the P3b component. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.013DOI Listing
March 2019
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Number cognition.

Cortex 2019 May;114:1-4

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.04.001DOI Listing
May 2019
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Steady-state visual evoked potentials reveal enhanced neural responses to illusory surfaces during a concurrent visual attention task.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:217-227. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; The University of Queensland, School of Psychology, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Toronto, Canada.

Under natural viewing conditions, visual stimuli are often obscured by occluding surfaces. To aid object recognition, the visual system actively reconstructs the missing information, as exemplified in the classic Kanizsa illusion, a phenomenon termed "modal completion". Single-cell recordings in monkeys have shown that neurons in early visual cortex respond to illusory contours, but it has proven difficult to measure the neural correlates of modal completion in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Emotional disturbances in multiple sclerosis: A neuropsychological and fMRI study.

Cortex 2019 Mar 1;117:205-216. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

University of Strasbourg and CNRS, ICube Laboratory UMR 7357 and FMTS (Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg), Team IMIS/Neurocrypto, Strasbourg, France; University Hospitals of Strasbourg, CMRR (Memory Resources and Research Centre), Geriatric Day Hospital, Geriatrics Department, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Emotional disturbances in multiple sclerosis (MS) are often explored in terms of affect recognition, with controversial results that likely reflect the high lesional heterogeneity. Patients' emotional experience, however, has seldom been studied and has never been explored using fMRI.

Objectives: To explore the emotional experience in MS and compare these data with fMRI measurements using for the first time real-life emotional scenes differing in valence and arousal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.017DOI Listing
March 2019
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Real-world size coding of solid objects, but not 2-D or 3-D images, in visual agnosia patients with bilateral ventral lesions.

Cortex 2019 Mar 9. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with visual agnosia show severe deficits in recognizing two-dimensional (2-D) images of objects, despite the fact that early visual processes such as figure-ground segmentation, and stereopsis, are largely intact. Strikingly, however, these patients can nevertheless show a preservation in their ability to recognize real-world objects -a phenomenon known as the 'real-object advantage' (ROA) in agnosia. To uncover the mechanisms that support the ROA, patients were asked to identify objects whose size was congruent or incongruent with typical real-world size, presented in different display formats (real objects, 2-D and 3-D images). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.030DOI Listing

Primates are living links to our past: The contribution of comparative studies with wild vervet monkeys to the field of social cognition.

Cortex 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Inkawu Vervet Project, Mawana Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Conservation Biology Institute, Washington DC, USA.

By studying the behavior of nonhuman primates, particularly in wild settings, researchers have been able to investigate a range of cognitive abilities, shedding light on the evolution of certain aspects of cognition and revealing potential evolutionary precursors of many capacities considered uniquely human. Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) have been widely investigated due to their prevalence and their suitability for experimental testing in the wild with an ecologically valid approach that is not possible with many other primates, especially apes. Here we review advances in the understanding of a number of cognitive and behavioral processes that have been gleaned from studies conducted with wild vervet monkeys over the past half century, primarily focusing on social cognitive abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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Laterality for recognizing written words and faces in the fusiform gyrus covaries with language dominance.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:196-204. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium; Ghent Institute for Functional and Metabolic Imaging (GIfMI), Ghent University, Belgium.

Recognizing words and faces engages highly specialized sites within the middle fusiform gyrus, known as the visual word form area (VWFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) respectively. The VWFA and FFA have clear but opposite population-level asymmetries, with the VWFA typically being lateralized to the left and the FFA to the right hemisphere. The present study investigates how language dominance may relate to these asymmetries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
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The importance of stimulus variability when studying face processing using fast periodic visual stimulation: A novel 'mixed-emotions' paradigm.

Cortex 2019 Mar 19;117:182-195. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK. Electronic address:

Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) with oddball stimuli has been used to investigate discrimination of facial identity and emotion, with studies concluding that oddball responses indicate discrimination of faces at the conceptual level (i.e., discrimination of identity and emotion), rather than low-level perceptual (visual, image-based) discrimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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Both dorsal and ventral attention network nodes are implicated in exogenously driven visuospatial anticipation.

Cortex 2019 Mar 13;117:168-181. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have implicated a dorsal fronto-parietal network in endogenous attention control and a more ventral set of areas in exogenous attention shifts. However, the extent and circumstances under which these cortical networks overlap and/or interact remain unclear. Crucially, whereas previous studies employed experimental designs that tend to confound exogenous with endogenous attentional engagement, we used a cued target discrimination paradigm that behaviourally dissociates exogenous from endogenous attention processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.031DOI Listing

Action at a distance on object-related ventral temporal representations.

Cortex 2019 Mar 4;117:157-167. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Proaction Laboratory, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

The representation of objects in ventral temporal cortex is relatively resilient to transformations in the stimuli. There is emerging recognition that ventral temporal object representations are forged via interactions among a broader network of regions that receive independent inputs about a stimulus. Here we test whether ventral temporal representations are causally modulated by disrupting processing in distal associative areas. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.018DOI Listing
March 2019
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The comparative anatomy of frontal eye fields in primates.

Cortex 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM), UMRS 975 INSERM, CNRS 7225, UMPC, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The frontal eye filed (FEF) is a relatively small frontal region that has been intensely studied. It received multiple definitions that help to locate it with some discrepancies between non-human primates and humans. The goal of this review is to provide an inter-species comparison of the location, extent, and boundaries of the FEF through the multiple anatomical and functional methodologies that has been used for its description as an oculomotor-associated area. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.023DOI Listing
March 2019
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Checking and washing rituals are reflected in altered cortical thickness in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:147-156. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Psychiatric Brain & Body Research Group Jena, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

There is growing evidence for structural brain alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The overall picture is however rather heterogeneous. To detect meaningful associations between clinical symptom profiles and structural alterations, we applied a classification approach, the k-means cluster analysis on clinical data, i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.012DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Working memory representation of empty sets in the primate parietal and prefrontal cortices.

Cortex 2019 May 19;114:102-114. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Animal Physiology, Institute of Neurobiology, University Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

For the brain, representing empty sets as a precursor to zero is a challenge because it requires the active coding of a quantitative category that, by definition, contains no items. Recent neurophysiological recordings show that empty sets are distinctively encoded by neurons in the primate ventral intraparietal area (VIP) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, how empty sets are represented in working memory is unknown. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.028DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Motor preparation for compensatory reach-to-grasp responses when viewing a wall-mounted safety handle.

Cortex 2019 Mar 21;117:135-146. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, Utah State University, United States.

The present study explored how motor cortical activity was influenced by visual perception of complex environments that either afforded or obstructed arm and leg reactions in young, healthy adults. Most importantly, we focused on compensatory balance reactions where the arms were required to regain stability following unexpected postural perturbation. Our first question was if motor cortical activity from the hand area automatically corresponds to the visual environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.001DOI Listing
March 2019
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Intonation guides sentence processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Cortex 2019 Feb 27;117:122-134. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; Lise Meitner Research Group "Cognition and Plasticity", Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Speech prosody, the variation in sentence melody and rhythm, plays a crucial role in sentence comprehension. Specifically, changes in intonational pitch along a sentence can affect our understanding of who did what to whom. To date, it remains unclear how the brain processes this particular use of intonation and which brain regions are involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019
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The architecture of mammalian cortical connectomes in light of the theory of the dual origin of the cerebral cortex.

Cortex 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Computational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Uncovering organizational principles of the cerebral cortex is essential for proper understanding of this prominent structure of the mammalian brain. The theory of the dual origin of the cerebral cortex offers such organizational principle. Here, we demonstrate that a duality pertains to the connectional architecture of the cerebral cortex of different mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.002DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Developmental frontal brain activation differences in overcoming heuristic bias.

Cortex 2019 Mar 21;117:111-121. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Laboratory for the Psychology of Child Development and Education, Sorbonne, CNRS UMR, 8240, Paris, France; Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; CNRS, France. Electronic address:

Since reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics, the development of sound reasoning has long been postulated to depend on successful bias monitoring and inhibition. The present fMRI study aimed to identify neural correlates of developmental changes in these processes. A group of adults and young adolescents were presented with ratio-bias problems in which an intuitively cued heuristic response could be incongruent (conflict item) or congruent (no-conflict item) with the correct response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Oscillatory neural networks underlying resting-state, attentional control and social cognition task conditions in children with ASD, ADHD and ASD+ADHD.

Cortex 2019 Mar 19;117:96-110. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The neurobiological mechanisms involved in ASD and ADHD are not fully understood. However, alterations in large-scale neural networks have been proposed as core deficits in both ASD and ADHD and may help to disentangle the neurobiological basis of these disorders and their co-occurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.005DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Double-blind study of visual imagery in grapheme-color synesthesia.

Cortex 2019 Mar 6;117:89-95. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

University of Michigan, USA.

Synesthesia is an atypical perceptual phenomenon that has been associated with generalized differences in other cognitive and perceptual domains. Given similarities in the qualitative nature of synesthetic experiences to visual imagery perceptions, several studies have sought to examine whether synesthetes demonstrate increased visual imagery abilities. Using subjective imagery questionnaires, some studies have identified superior imaging abilities in synesthetes, while others have not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.025DOI Listing
March 2019
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A pericallosal lipoma case with evidence of surface dyslexia.

Cortex 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Cognitive Science and Macquarie University Centre for Reading, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.027DOI Listing
March 2019
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5.128 Impact Factor

The battle for reproducibility over storytelling.

Cortex 2019 Apr;113:A1-A2

Cardiff University, Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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Neural mechanisms of internal distraction suppression in visual attention.

Cortex 2019 Mar 6;117:77-88. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

When performing a demanding cognitive task, internal distraction in the form of task-irrelevant thoughts and mind wandering can shift our attention away from the task, negatively affecting task performance. Behaviorally, individuals with higher executive function indexed by higher working memory capacity (WMC) exhibit less mind wandering during cognitive tasks, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. To address this problem, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from subjects performing a cued visual attention task, and assessed their WMC in a separate experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.026DOI Listing

Suppressing movements with phantom limbs and existing limbs evokes comparable electrophysiological inhibitory responses.

Cortex 2019 Mar 5;117:64-76. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

MANIBUS Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; NIT, Neuroscience Institute of Turin, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Phantom limb is a common sensation in amputees, who often report vivid experiences of voluntarily moving their phantom. Previous studies showed that phantom movement can be functionally disentangled from imagined movement comparable to the actual movement of an intact limb. How and to what extent phantom movement and real movement share similar physiological mechanisms? Here, we focused on a specific aspect of motor control, the motor inhibition, and we asked whether inhibitory physiological responses are implemented when a phantom movement has to be suppressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.024DOI Listing
March 2019
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Altered relationship between prefrontal glutamate and activation during cognitive control in people with high trait anxiety.

Cortex 2019 Mar 7;117:53-63. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton, London, UK; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Combined Universities Brain Imaging Centre, London, UK.

Trait anxiety can affect cognitive control resulting in ineffective and/or inefficient task performance. Moreover, previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have reported altered dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in anxious cohorts, particularly when executive control is required. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cortical glutamate levels can predict both functional activation during cognitive control, and anxiety levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.021DOI Listing
March 2019
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Cognitive slowing and its underlying neurobiology in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Cortex 2019 Mar 5;117:41-52. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Neurology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive slowing is a known but comparatively under-investigated neuropsychological complication of the epilepsies in relation to other known cognitive comorbidities such as memory, executive function and language. Here we focus on a novel metric of processing speed, characterize its relative salience compared to other cognitive difficulties in epilepsy, and explore its underlying neurobiological correlates. Research participants included 55 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 58 healthy controls from the Epilepsy Connectome Project (ECP) who were administered a battery of tests yielding 14 neuropsychological measures, including selected tests from the NIH Toolbox-Cognitive Battery, and underwent 3T MRI and resting state fMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.022DOI Listing
March 2019
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Unraveling corticobasal syndrome and alien limb syndrome with structural brain imaging.

Cortex 2019 Feb 25;117:33-40. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; Clinic of Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig, Germany; FTLD Consortium Germany, Germany.

Alien limb phenomenon is a rare syndrome associated with a feeling of non-belonging and disowning toward one's limb. In contrast, anarchic limb phenomenon leads to involuntary but goal-directed movements. Alien/anarchic limb phenomena are frequent in corticobasal syndrome (CBS), an atypical parkinsonian syndrome characterized by rigidity, akinesia, dystonia, cortical sensory deficit, and apraxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads
5.128 Impact Factor

Brain activation in highly superior autobiographical memory: The role of the praecuneus in the autobiographical memory retrieval network.

Cortex 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, UK.

This is the first study to examine functional brain activation in a single case of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) who shows no sign of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). While previous work has documented the existence of HSAM, information about brain areas involved in this exceptional form of memory for personal events relies on structural and resting state connectivity data, with mixed results so far. In this first task-based functional magnetic resonance Imaging (fMRI) study of a normal individual with HSAM, dates were presented as cues and two phases were assessed during memory retrieval, initial access and later elaboration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.020DOI Listing
March 2019
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Sustaining attention for a prolonged period of time increases temporal variability in cortical responses.

Cortex 2019 Mar 1;117:16-32. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition (ABC), University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Our ability to stay focused is limited: prolonged performance of a task typically results in mental fatigue and decrements in performance over time. This so-called vigilance decrement has been attributed to depletion of attentional resources, though other factors such as reductions in motivation likely also play a role. In this study, we examined three electroencephalography (EEG) markers of attentional control, to elucidate which stage of attentional processing is most affected by time-on-task and motivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.016DOI Listing
March 2019
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Auditory-visual integration during nonconscious perception.

Cortex 2019 Mar 1;117:1-15. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

The MARCS Institute, Western Sydney University, Australia.

Our study proposes a test of a key assumption of the most prominent model of consciousness - the global workspace (GWS) model (e.g., Baars, 2002, 2005, 2007; Dehaene & Naccache, 2001; Mudrik, Faivre, & Koch, 2014). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.014DOI Listing

Let's share our perspectives, but only if our body postures match.

Cortex 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.019DOI Listing

Organization of extrastriate and temporal cortex in chimpanzees compared to humans and macaques.

Cortex 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Center for Translational Social Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

There is evidence for enlargement of association cortex in humans compared to other primate species. Expansion of temporal association cortex appears to have displaced extrastriate cortex posteriorly and inferiorly in humans compared to macaques. However, the details of the organization of these recently expanded areas are still being uncovered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Perturbation-driven paradoxical facilitation of visuo-spatial function: Revisiting the 'Sprague effect'.

Cortex 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Laboratory for Cerebral Dynamics, Plasticity & Rehabilitation, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The 'Sprague Effect' described in the seminal paper of James Sprague (Science 153:1544-1547, 1966a) is an unexpected paradoxical effect in which a second brain lesion reversed functional deficits induced by an earlier lesion. It was observed initially in the cat where severe and permanent contralateral visually guided attentional deficits generated by the ablation of large areas of the visual cortex were reversed by the subsequent removal of the superior colliculus (SC) opposite to the cortical lesion or by the splitting of the collicular commissure. Physiologically, this effect has been explained in several ways-most notably by the reduction of the functional inhibition of the ipsilateral SC by the contralateral SC, and the restoration of normal interactions between cortical and midbrain structures after ablation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.031DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Accounting for individual differences in the response to tDCS with baseline levels of neurochemical excitability.

Cortex 2019 Mar 1;115:324-334. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

There is now considerable evidence that applying a small electrical current to the cerebral cortex can have wide ranging effects on cognition and performance, and may provide substantial benefit as a treatment for conditions such as depression. However, there is variability across subjects in the extent to which stimulation modulates behaviour, providing a challenge for the development of applications. Here, we employed an individual differences approach to test if baseline concentrations of the neurochemicals GABA and glutamate are associated with an individual's response to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.012DOI Listing

Investigating the perceived timing of sensory events triggering actions in patients with Parkinson's disease and the effects of dopaminergic therapy.

Cortex 2019 Feb 23;115:309-323. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

The Brain and Mind Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Western Interdisciplinary Research Building, London, Ontario, Canada; Clinical Neurological Sciences, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Few studies have investigated if Parkinson's disease (PD), advancing age, or exogenous dopamine therapy affect the perceived timing of past events. Here we show a phenomenon of 'temporal repulsion' of a sensory event relative to an action decision in patients with PD. In these patients, the timing of a sensory event triggering an action was perceived to have occurred earlier in time than it really did. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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The language profile of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Cortex 2019 Feb 22;115:294-308. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

NEtS Center, School of Advanced Studies IUSS Pavia, Pavia, Italy; IRCCS San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:

A progressive speech/language disorder, such as the non fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech, can be due to neuropathologically verified Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). The prevalence of linguistic deficits and the linguistic profile in PSP patients who present primarily with a movement disorder is unknown. In the present study, we investigated speech and language performance in a sample of clinically diagnosed PSP patients using a comprehensive language battery, including, besides traditional language tests, a detailed analysis of connected speech (picture description task assessing 26 linguistic features). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.013DOI Listing
February 2019
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Everyday taxi drivers: Do better navigators have larger hippocampi?

Cortex 2019 Feb 7;115:280-293. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Work with non-human animals and human navigation experts (London taxi drivers) suggests that the size of the hippocampus, particularly the right posterior hippocampus in humans, relates to navigation expertise. Similar observations, sometimes implicating other sections of the hippocampus, have been made for aging populations and for people with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal volume relates to navigation ability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.12.024DOI Listing
February 2019
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Impairments in action and perception after right intraparietal damage.

Cortex 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, United States.

We examined visually-guided reaching and perception in an individual who underwent resection of a small tumor in right intraparietal sulcus (pIPS). In the first experiment, she reached to targets presented on a touch screen. Vision was occluded from reach onset on half of the trials, whereas on the other half she had vision during the entire reach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Prominent auditory deficits in primary progressive aphasia: A case study.

Cortex 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Aphasia typically is associated with comparable difficulties in written and spoken modalities of language expression and comprehension. In contrast, auditory verbal agnosia is the disproportionate difficulty comprehending spoken compared to written language, also typically greater than difficulties with spoken and written language expression, in the absence of a primary sensory deficit. The terms pure word deafness and auditory verbal agnosia are often used synonymously. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.021DOI Listing
February 2019
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Morphological processing without semantics: An ERP study with spoken words.

Cortex 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (LPC), Aix-Marseille University, and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Marseille, France.

The time-course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition was investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in an auditory lexical decision task. We compared three different types of French words: truly suffixed (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Early prediction of long-term tactile object recognition performance after sensorimotor stroke.

Cortex 2019 Feb 7;115:264-279. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Support Centre for Advanced Neuroimaging (SCAN), Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Until now tactile agnosia has been reported only in small, but detailed cross-sectional case studies. Here we show that multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of early diffusion-weighted lesion maps can be used to accurately predict long-term recovery of tactile object recognition (TOR) in 35 subjects with varying hand skill impairment and associated specific daily activity limitation after cortical sensori-motor stroke. Multiple regression analysis revealed the essentially dysfunctional subprocesses for object recognition in the specifically impaired subjects, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.018DOI Listing
February 2019
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The effect of prism adaptation on state estimates of eye position in the orbit.

Cortex 2019 Feb 16;115:246-263. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK. Electronic address:

Prism adaptation (PA) after-effects are assessed using tests that measure changes in sensorimotor systems. After-effects on pointing without feedback to a visual target (open loop pointing - OLP) are traditionally described as being larger than those measured by straight ahead pointing (SAP) with eyes closed, and the difference between them is attributed to a shift in visual localisation. However, neither differences between OLP and SAP, nor shifts in perceptual judgement of visual straight ahead (VSA), are consistently reported. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019
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Punishment-related memory-guided attention: Neural dynamics of perceptual modulation.

Cortex 2019 Feb 10;115:231-245. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:

Remembering the outcomes of past experiences allows us to generate future expectations and shape selection in the long-term. A growing number of studies has shown that learned positive reward values impact spatial memory-based attentional biases on perception. However, whether memory-driven attentional biases extend to punishment-related values has received comparatively less attention. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00109452193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.029DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the modulation of cognitive control by simultaneous conflicts.

Cortex 2019 Feb 21;115:216-230. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Acting adequately in a given situation is complicated by the presence of ambiguous information. Being able to overcome such conflicts is a necessary prerequisite in everyday life, because it enables goal-directed behavior. On a conceptual level, different kinds of conflict can be distinguished: conflicts at a stimulus level (S-S conflicts) can be dissociated from stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Visuomotor adaptation in the absence of input from early visual cortex.

Cortex 2019 Feb 7;115:201-215. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Prism adaptation is a time-honored tool for studying how the motor system adapts to sensory perturbations. Past research on the neural substrates of prism adaptation has implicated the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the cerebellum, under the assumption that these structures gain their visual input from the dominant retinogeniculate pathway to V1. Here we question whether this pathway is even required for visuomotor adaptation to occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.022DOI Listing
February 2019