109,465 results match your criteria Corneal Graft Rejection


Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements with standard ultrasonic pachymetry and optical devices.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

Background: To compare the repeatability and agreements of central corneal thickness measurements of healthy individuals obtained by Scheimpflug-Placido topographer (Sirius), anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis) (AS-OCT), optical biometry (AL-Scan) and ultrasonic pachymetry.

Methods: Sixty-four eyes of 32 subjects with no ocular or systemic diseases were included in this study. Central corneal thickness measurements performed with Sirius, AS-OCT, optical biometry AL-Scan and ultrasonic pachymetry were compared. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of the proteoforms of surface localized Rod A of Aspergillus flavus and determination of the mechanism of proteoform generation.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Proteomics, Aravind Medical Research Foundation, Aravind Eye Care System, Dr. G. Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, No:1 Anna Nagar, Madurai, TN, India. Electronic address:

Fungal keratitis is a serious, potentially sight-threatening corneal infection that is more prevalent in the tropical parts of the world including India, and A. flavus and Fusarium solani are the predominant etiological agents. The surface of fungal conidia is covered by hydrophobin family proteins, effectively masking the conidial antigens from immune cells. Read More

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December 2018

Corneal regeneration by conditioned medium of human uterine cervical stem cells is mediated by TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of A Coruña, Spain. Electronic address:

The aim off the present study was to evaluate the effect and the mechanism of action of the conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESC) on corneal wound healing in a rabbit dry eye model. To do this, dry eye and corneal epithelial injuries were induced in rabbits by topical administration of atropine sulfate and NaOH. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Ki-67 immunostaining were carried out to evaluate corneal damage and cell proliferation, and real-time PCR was used to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines in the cornea. Read More

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December 2018

R125H, W240S, C386R, and V507I SLC4A11 mutations associated with corneal endothelial dystrophy affect the transporter function but not trafficking in PS120 cells.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA. Electronic address:

SLC4A11 mutations are associated with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Harboyan syndrome (endothelial dystrophy with auditory deficiency). Mice with genetically ablated Slc4a11 recapitulate CHED, exhibiting significant corneal edema and altered endothelial morphology. We recently demonstrated that SLC4A11 functions as an NH sensitive, electrogenic H transporter. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Wavefront-Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy in the Treatment of High Astigmatism Following Keratoplasty.

Cornea 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: To report the outcome of wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (WG-PRK) in the treatment of high astigmatism following keratoplasty.

Methods: A retrospective, interventional analysis including patients with high astigmatism following either penetrating keratoplasty or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, who underwent WG-PRK.

Results: Thirteen eyes (7 right eyes) of 12 patients (10 male) aged 35. Read More

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December 2018

Sensory Restoration of the Facial Region.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Normal sensitivity of the face is very important for preserving its integrity and function as an efferent source of information for the brain. The trigeminal nerve, which is the largest cranial nerve, conducts most of facial sensory function through its 3 branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The trigeminal nerve may be damaged by a variety of etiologies including inflammatory disorders, brain tumor resection, trauma, iatrogenic injury, or congenital anomalies. Read More

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December 2018

NLRP12 promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis inflammatory responses through the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec;22(23):8063-8075

Department of Laboratory, Longhua District Central Hospital, Longhua District, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of NLRP12 in regulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) keratitis.

Materials And Methods: Real-Time-PCR and Western blot were performed to measure the NLRP12 level in corneas and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Read More

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December 2018

Modified No-Touch Technique for Removal of a Dexamethasone Implant that has Migrated to the Anterior Chamber.

Authors:
Jay M Stewart

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Dec 17:1-2. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Department of Ophthalmology , University of California , San Francisco , California , USA.

The dexamethasone intravitreal implant poses a risk to the cornea if it migrates into the anterior chamber. Because it tends to fracture if grasped with surgical instruments, no-touch techniques represent the most successful means of removing the device from the eye. The present report describes a new approach in which the implant is aspirated into the lumen of a needle, providing the surgeon with greater control in accessing the device within the anterior chamber. Read More

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December 2018

Ocular Involvement in Muckle-Wells Syndrome.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Dec 17:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology , Uludag University School of Medicine , Bursa , Turkey.

Purpose: To present the ocular findings of the members of a family that has the diagnosis of Muckle Wells syndrome, a form of cryopyrin associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).

Materials And Methods: Nine patients with MWS were included in this study. Each study participant underwent a systemic evaluation, comprehensive ophthalmic examination, and auxillary testings. Read More

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December 2018

Intraocular pressure changes in eyes with small incision lenticules and laser in situ keratomileusis.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Measuring intraocular pressure after refractive surgery is a challenge in the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of glaucoma. Intraocular pressure characteristics after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are well known. However, intraocular pressure measurement and characteristics after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) are still unknown, providing an interesting point of comparison in terms of biomechanical differences from LASIK. Read More

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December 2018

Autoimmune keratitis in mycobacterium tuberculosis.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 18;30(4):381-383. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Purpose: To report a case of autoimmune keratitis in a patient with mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT).

Methods: An 84-year-old male with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was admitted with chronic, non-healing bilateral ulcerations of the inferior peripheral cornea associated with stromal and subconjunctival nodules.

Results: Clinical examination revealed circumscribed peripheral corneal ulceration with whitish nodules in adjacent stromal and subconjunctival tissue. Read More

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December 2018

Total necrosis of cornea, iris and crystalline lens with exposure of vitreous hyaloid face in the context of recalcitrant acanthamoeba keratitis.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 19;30(4):377-380. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Optometry, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To report a rare and complicated case of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) presented with total necrosis and dislodgment of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens with exposure of vitreous hyaloids face.

Methods: Case report of 28-year-old female referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital with a history of known left eye AK since 4 months earlier. She also had a history of soft contact lens wear for two years and topical steroid use before proper diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of standard corneal cross-linking in keratoconus patients on macular profile.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 29;30(4):330-336. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Nikookari Eye Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: To determine the effect of corneal cross-linking (CXL) on retinal structure and function.

Methods: The current study was conducted on 42 eyes of 21 patients with keratoconus (KCN) who were candidates for CXL due to disease progression. The Optovue optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Optovue Inc. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of the effects of isotretinoin for treatment of acne on corneal sensitivity.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 6;30(4):326-329. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Optometry, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To determine the effect of isotretinoin on corneal sensitivity in acne patients.

Methods: Fifty patients (13 men and 37 women) with a mean age of 23.24 ± 3. Read More

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December 2018

Association between dry eye symptoms and signs.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 28;30(4):321-325. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Optometry and Vision Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between subjective dry eye symptoms and the results of the clinical examinations.

Methods: The study was a clinical-based survey involving 215 first-year students selected consecutively during a regular ocular health examination at the University of Cape Coast Optometry Clinic. The data collection process spanned for a period of four months. Read More

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December 2018

Outcome of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in advanced infectious keratitis.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 26;30(4):315-320. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, India.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the anatomical, therapeutic, and functional outcome of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) in terms of success and failure.

Methods: In this retrospective study 57 eyes of 57 patients were reviewed. They had undergone TPK from December 2012 to June 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: A surgeon's guide.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 10;30(4):297-310. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To review and highlight important practical aspects of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery and provide some useful tips for surgeons wishing to convert to this procedure from the conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PK) technique.

Methods: In this narrative review, the procedure of DALK is described in detail. Important pre, intra, and postoperative considerations are discussed with illustrative examples for better understanding. Read More

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December 2018

Visualizing the Contribution of Keratin-14 Limbal Epithelial Precursors in Corneal Wound Healing.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mechanisms of Disease and Translational Research, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

It is thought that corneal epithelial injuries resolve by leading-edge cells "sliding" or "rolling" into the wound bed. Here, we challenge this notion and show by real-time imaging that corneal wounds initially heal by "basal cell migration." The K14CreER-Confetti multi-colored reporter mouse was employed to spatially and temporally fate-map cellular behavior during corneal wound healing. Read More

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December 2018

Haab striae: Optical coherence tomographic analysis.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Servicio de Oftalmología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: To study Haab striae in adults with primary congenital glaucoma and describe them by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, as well as analyze their evolution over the patient's lifetime.

Material And Methods: Three patients with primary congenital glaucoma were recruited, aged between 17 and 48 years old, with incidentally noted Haab striae on glaucoma consultation. They were studied by: slit lamp; anterior segment optical coherence tomography, Heidelberg Engineering Inc. Read More

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December 2018

[Down-regulation of VEGF expression and up-regulation of PEDF expression in human corneal epithelial cells under hypoxic condition by RNA interference of HIF-1α].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Oct;34(10):880-884

Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Objective To investigate the effect of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) in spontaneously immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (S-ihCECs) under hypoxic condition. Methods Three kinds of shRNAs targeting the sites of HIF-1α mRNA were designed and synthesized, and then transfected into S-ihCECs in vitro. After transfection, the cells were exposed to 1 mmol/L CoCl2 for 6 hours. Read More

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October 2018

Elizabethkingia miricola infection in Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa).

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, 611130, China.

Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative rod which has been incriminated in severe infections in humans. Recently, a serious infectious disease was identified in Chinese spiny frogs (Quasipaa spinosa), in the Sichuan Province of China; the disease was characterized by corneal opacity, the presence of ascites, and neurologic symptoms. A Gram-negative bacillus was isolated from the liver, spleen, and kidney of the diseased frogs. Read More

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December 2018

In-situ forming gels containing fluorometholone-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for ocular inflammatory conditions.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Nov 27;175:365-374. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Thermosensitive gels have been developed and optimized in such a way that they become gels at corneal temperature and with a viscosity that allows the adequate release of the Fluorometholone (FMT)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) in order to improve ocular anti-inflammatory efficacy against a commercial formulation. It has been shown that gels avoid burst release of the drug in the first hours with a slow and increasing profile after administration. NPs have maintained their average size and spherical shape within the gels as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Read More

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November 2018
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A regression model including fetal orbit measurements to predict parturition in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 10;126:153-158. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

In the mare, foaling is a critical unpredictable event due to a wide range of gestational length and the absence of clear signs of impending parturition. To predict foaling, pH, inversion sodium potassium and increase of calcium concentration in mammary secretions are used. The aim of this study was to find how many days are left until parturition knowing mare's age (A) and parity (P) combined with ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal orbit in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy. Read More

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December 2018

Corneal-PAMPA: A novel, non-cell-based assay for prediction of corneal drug permeability.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Chemistry Department, Gedeon Richter Plc, Gyömrői út 19-21, 1107 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

The present study was aimed to develop an in vitro non-cell-based method, for the measurement of corneal permeability. To this avail, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used for studying the effects of composition of the artificial lipid membrane, the DMSO cosolvent content of the donor phase as well as different buffer solutions in the model. Based on experimental corneal permeability values of 25 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), a final model with good predictive ability (R = 0. Read More

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December 2018

Gelatinized core liposomes: A new Trojan horse for the development of a novel timolol maleate glaucoma medication.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Ain Shams University, African Union Street Authority Street, Abbassia, 11566 Cairo, Egypt.

Glaucoma treatment with ocular medications requires overcoming the corneal barrier to drug penetration. Liposomes have a great corneal penetration ability and affinity while suffering from poor stability and low entrapment of hydrophilic drugs accompanied by rapid drug release. This work aims to develop a new, effective and stable glaucoma medication with sustained drug release properties; Timolol maleate gelatinized core liposomes. Read More

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December 2018

Dual 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate - 0.1% disodium EDTA loaded thermosensitive ocular gel for Acanthamoeba keratitis treatment.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Service Pharmaceutique, Plateforme Fripharm, Groupe Hospitalier Centre Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5, Place d'Arsonval, F-69437 Lyon cedex 03, France; Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique Industrielle, UMR-CNRS 5305, Plateforme Fripharm, ISPB-Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 8, avenue Rockefeller, F-69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Electronic address: http://fripharm.com.

Poor bioavailability and low residence time limit the efficiency of conventional biguanide-based eye drops against Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this work was to formulate an original anti-amoebic thermoreversible ocular gel combining biguanide and metalloproteases inhibitor - chelating agent. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (NaEDTA) were compounded in poloxamer 407 saline solution. Read More

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December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018
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Protocol for evaluation of topical ophthalmic drug products in different compartments of fresh eye tissues in a rabbit model.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Office of Translational Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Applied Regulatory Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, White Oak Federal Research Center, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:

Topical ophthalmic drugs are the most commonly used dosage form to treat diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Although this dosage form has the advantages of ease of application, small volume dose, and rapid action and is largely devoid of systemic adverse effects, the bioavailability is low due to pre-corneal anatomical barriers and the nature of the drug formulation itself. Some complex generic formulations (suspensions, ointments, gels) for topical ophthalmic products face impediments to rapid regulatory approval because of the complex nature of the formulations and difficulties in determining bioequivalence with the innovator product. Read More

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December 2018

Tear Inflammatory Cytokines Analysis and Clinical Correlations in Diabetes and Non-diabetes with Dry Eye.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Restoration of Damaged Ocular Nerve, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To enhance the understanding of dry eye (DE) in diabetes by evaluating the ocular surface characteristics and the levels of tear inflammatory cytokines.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Subjects were divided into four groups: 32 patients in diabetes with DE group; 24 patients in diabetes without DE group; 28 patients in non-diabetes with DE group and 29 volunteers in normal group. Read More

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December 2018

Management of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the conjunctiva Treatment of invasive conjunctival carcinoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Teaching Hospital, Nice, France.

Purpose: Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia includes a spectrum of diseases from dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Whether the degree of invasion influences outcomes is debated. We evaluated the outcomes and management of conjunctival carcinomas defined as ≤0. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of botulinum toxin type A on the treatment of dry eye disease and tear cytokines.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To determine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection on dry eye signs, symptoms, and tear cytokine levels in patients with intractable dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In this prospective study, patients with intractable DED were randomized to a BTX-A (group A) or control group (group B). Patients were injected with BTX-A or normal saline in the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Transcription factor TFAP2B up-regulates human corneal endothelial cell-specific genes during corneal development and maintenance.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The corneal endothelium, which originates from the neural crest via the periocular mesenchyme (PM), is crucial for maintaining corneal transparency. The development of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) from the neural crest is accompanied by the expression of several transcription factors, but the contribution of some of these transcriptional regulators to CEC development is incompletely understood. Here, we focused on activating enhancer-binding protein 2 (TFAP2, AP-2), a neural crest-expressed transcription factor. Read More

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December 2018

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) ameliorates corneal neovascularization via regulating cell infiltration into cornea after alkali burn.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1041-1051. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)-medicated inhibition of corneal neovascularization (CNV). Our data showed that TMP could effectively downregulate the expression levels of CXCR4 mRNA and protein, as well as inhibit HUVECs, endothelial cells, tubule formation in vitro. In vivo, alkali burn (1 M NaOH) could remarkably upregulate CXCR4 expression and increase the migration of TNF-α-positive cells to corneal stroma. Read More

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January 2019

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.

Surv Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a chronic, bilateral, seasonal allergic inflammatory disease of the eye, is an important cause of visual debilitation and impairment of quality of life in children and young adults in certain parts of the world such as the Mediterranean areas, Central and West Africa, the Middle East, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, and South America. It usually has a self-limiting course; however, in a few cases the disease is recurrent and leads to long-term visual disabling complications like keratoconus and limbal stem cell deficiency. The main pathogenic mechanism is IgE mediated; however, there may be non-IgE and certain non-specific hypersensitivity mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Extended Duration of Hyperglycemia Result in Human-Like Corneal Nerve Lesions in Mice With Alloxan- and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5868-5875

Laboratory of Pathology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Previous experimental studies assessing corneal nerves as a measure of the severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy have yielded discordant results; this may have been due to the effect of the short duration of the induced diabetes. We investigated whether increases in the duration of hyperglycemia result in the development of corneal lesions in a mouse model of alloxan (AL)- or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes. We further determined whether corneal nerve fiber density, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), and sural nerve morphology can be used as morphologic markers of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rodent models. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode-Based Retinal Prosthesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5885-5892

Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States.

Purpose: For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina. Read More

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December 2018
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Predictive factors for efficacy and safety in refractive surgery for myopia.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208608. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for safety and efficacy in laser refractive surgery for myopia.

Setting: A singular refractive surgery center, at a University-affiliated tertiary medical center.

Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Fourier Analysis of Corneal Irregular Astigmatism Due to the Anterior Corneal Surface in Dry Eye.

Eye Contact Lens 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departments of Innovative Visual Science (S.K., K.M.), and Ophthalmology (S.K., N.M., M.O., S.A., Y.T., K.M., K.N.), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Research and Development Division (Y.T.), Rohto, Kyoto, Japan; and Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (S.D.K.), New York, NY.

Objectives: To evaluate corneal irregular astigmatism due to the anterior corneal surface using Fourier harmonic analysis with a Placido ring-based corneal topographer (Placido-based topographer) and three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eyes.

Methods: Forty-four eyes of 44 subjects with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 normal control subjects were enrolled. Corneal topographic data were obtained using a Placido-based topographer and OCT. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of Tri-folded and Scroll-Based Graft Viability in Preloaded Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

Cornea 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: To compare corneal endothelial damage associated with 2 techniques for preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK): a tri-folded graft stored in a plastic cartridge designed for DMEK and a scrolled graft stored in a modified Jones Tube, at the time of preparation and after shipping.

Methods: DMEK grafts were prepared at the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Bank. The grafts were either tri-folded and loaded in a plastic cartridge or scrolled and loaded into a modified Jones Tube. Read More

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December 2018

Speg. Implicated in Keratomycosis.

Pol J Microbiol 2018 ;67(4):407-416

Department of Plant Pathology and Mycology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin , Lublin , Poland.

The aim of the study was mycological examination of ulcerated corneal tissues from an ophthalmic patient. Tissue fragments were analyzed on potato-glucose agar (PDA) and maltose (MA) (Difco) media using standard laboratory techniques. Cultures were identified using classical and molecular methods. Read More

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January 2018

Dry eye symptoms and associated risk factors among adults aged 50 or more years in Central Mexico.

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):520-527

Departamento de Epidemiología Ocular y Salud Visual, Instituto de Oftalmología Conde de Valenciana. Mexico City, Mexico.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) and associated risk factors among adults in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study that included 1 508 individuals aged ≥50 years who answered the Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ5), with a score ranging between 0 and 22; the following categories were defined: no DES (<6); mild-moderate DES (6 to 11) and severe DES (≥12).

Results: The prevalence of DES was 41. Read More

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Comparison of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Methods Following Myopic Laser Refractive Surgery: New Options Using a Rotating Scheimpflug Camera.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):497-505

Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare published methods of calculating intraocular lens (IOL) power following myopic laser refractive surgery.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 69 patients (69 eyes) who had undergone myopic laser refractive surgery previously and subsequently underwent cataract surgery at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea from January 2010 to June 2016. None of the patients had pre-refractive surgery biometric data available. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

PACAP through EGFR transactivation preserves human corneal endothelial integrity.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The corneal endothelium is composed of a single hexagonal-shaped cells layer adherent to the Descemet's membrane. The primary function of these cells is maintaining of tissue clarity by regulating its hydration. Trauma, aging or other pathologies cause their loss, counterbalanced by enlargement of survived cells unable to guarantee an efficient fluid pumping to and from the stroma. Read More

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December 2018
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SOX2 regulates P63 and stem/progenitor cell state in the corneal epithelium.

Stem Cells 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Mutations in key transcription factors SOX2 and P63 were linked with developmental defects and post-natal abnormalities such as corneal opacification, neovascularization and blindness. The latter phenotypes suggest that SOX2 and P63 may be involved in corneal epithelial regeneration. While P63 has been shown to be a key regulator of limbal stem cells (LSCs), the expression pattern and function of SOX2 in the adult cornea remained unclear. Read More

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December 2018
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An in situ hydrogel based on carboxymethyl chitosan and sodium alginate dialdehyde for corneal wound healing after alkali burn.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory, Department of Urology and Andrology, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266003, China.

There is currently no optimal scaffold for the transplantation of limbal stem cells (LSCs) to induce corneal reconstruction after corneal alkali burns. This study attempts to fabricate a novel in situ Alginate-Chitosan hydrogel (ACH) for LSCs transplantation. Sodium alginate dialdehyde (SAD), a biological cross-linker, was prepared by periodate-mediated sodium alginate oxidization. Read More

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December 2018

Air pollutant particulate matter 2.5 induces dry eye syndrome in mice.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17828. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

In this study, we explored the effects of particulate matter 2.5 (PM) eye drops on the ocular surface structure and tear function in mice and established a novel animal model for dry eye research. We found that, following treatment with PM, the tear volume and, the tear film break-up time showed statistical differences at each time point (P < 0. Read More

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December 2018

The immunosuppressant macrolide tacrolimus activates cold-sensing TRPM8 channels.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Universidad Miguel Hernández-CSIC, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain

TRPM8 is a polymodal, non-selective cation channel activated by cold temperature and cooling agents that plays a critical role in the detection of environmental cold. We found that TRPM8 is a pharmacological target of tacrolimus (FK506), a macrolide immunosuppressant with several clinical uses, including the treatment of organ rejection following transplants, treatment of atopic dermatitis and dry eye disease. Tacrolimus is an inhibitor of the phosphatase calcineurin, an action shared with cyclosporine. Read More

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December 2018
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Lactoferrin-loaded contact lenses counteract cytotoxicity caused in vitro by keratoconic tears.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano - Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, I-20126, Milan, Italy; Optic and Optometry Center of the University of Milano - Bicocca (COMiB), Italy.

Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding protein with antioxidant activity, is significantly reduced in the lacrimal film of patients affected by keratoconus (KC) compared to healthy subjects, and this is supposed to be the cause for tear iron increase and consequent iron deposition and oxygen free radical accumulation in the cornea. We decided to study if LF-loaded contact lenses (LF-CLs) could exert antioxidant activity on epithelial cells incubated in tears collected from two patients affected by keratoconus (KC1 and KC2). Moreover through this model we indirectly estimated iron concentration in the tears of healthy and KC subjects. Read More

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December 2018

Tear dynamics under scleral lenses.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Clinical Research Center, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, United States; Vision Science Graduate Program, University of California, Berkeley, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate post-lens tear dynamics at two different time points during scleral lens wear in two cohorts with 10 neophytes each.

Methods: All subjects wore bilaterally scleral lenses for 5 h on 3 separate visits. Post-lens tear exchange was measured using Out-in method, which required 5 μL of 2% FITC-Dextran instilled on the bulbar conjunctiva during lens wear. Read More

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December 2018

Insulin-like growth factor-1 activates AMPK to augment mitochondrial function and correct neuronal metabolism in sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes.

Mol Metab 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Neurodegenerative Disorders, St Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) affects approximately half of diabetic patients leading to significant morbidity. There is impaired neurotrophic growth factor signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that sub-optimal insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in diabetes drives loss of AMPK activity and mitochondrial function, both contributing to development of DSPN. Read More

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November 2018
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