9,299 results match your criteria Conversion Disorders


Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA.

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative disorder usually characterized by an increase tendency towards thromboembolic events. Spontaneous hemorrhage/bleeding in PV patients is seldom reported in Neurosurgical literature. We report the case of a 76 year-old male with PV who developed a spontaneous subdural hematoma requiring surgical evacuation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.258DOI Listing
February 2019

The Early Psychosis Screener for Internet (EPSI)-SR: Predicting 12 month psychotic conversion using machine learning.

Schizophr Res 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0810, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: A faster and more accurate self-report screener for early psychosis is needed to promote early identification and intervention.

Methods: Self-report Likert-scale survey items were administered to individuals being screened with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) and followed at eight early psychosis clinics. An a priori analytic plan included Spectral Clustering Analysis to reduce the item pool, followed by development of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.015DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

CD200-CD200R1 inhibitory signaling prevents spontaneous bacterial infection and promotes resolution of neuroinflammation and recovery after stroke.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Feb 18;16(1):40. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77370, USA.

Background: Ischemic stroke results in a robust inflammatory response within the central nervous system. As the immune-inhibitory CD200-CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) signaling axis is a known regulator of immune homeostasis, we hypothesized that it may play a role in post-stroke immune suppression after stroke.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the role of CD200R1-mediated signaling in stroke using CD200 receptor 1-deficient mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1426-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Characteristics of patients with motor functional neurological disorder in a large UK mental health service: a case-control study.

Psychol Med 2019 Feb 18:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

UCL Institute of Mental Health Studies, University College London,London,UK.

Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND), previously known as conversion disorder, is common and often results in substantial distress and disability. Previous research lacks large sample sizes and clinical surveys are most commonly derived from neurological settings, limiting our understanding of the disorder and its associations in other contexts. We sought to address this by analysing a large anonymised electronic psychiatric health record dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000266DOI Listing
February 2019

Quantification of Alpha-Synuclein in Biological Fluids by Electrochemiluminescence-Based Detection.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:59-68

Paracelsus-Elena-Klinik, Kassel, Germany.

Several potential marker candidates for Parkinson's disease (PD) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been identified. These include α-synuclein, a major constituent of the intracellular aggregates Lewy bodies, a neuropathological hallmark of PD, and others. The extracellular presence of α-synuclein in blood, CSF, saliva, and conditioned media motivated the hypothesis that the quantification of CSF α-synuclein is a biomarker for α-synuclein-related disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_6DOI Listing
January 2019

Stereotaxic Targeting of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Mouse Brain Using Preformed Fibrils.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:45-57

Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Institute on Aging, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The accumulation of intraneuronal inclusions containing misfolded alpha-synuclein (aSyn) within the central nervous system (CNS) is a common feature found in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates that aSyn amyloid fibrils, a configuration that is present within these characteristic inclusions, are capable of self-replicating by templating the conversion of endogenously expressed aSyn in neurons. Stereotaxic administration of synthetic α-synuclein preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the mouse brain has been shown to seed the formation of intracellular aSyn pathology reminiscent of Lewy body (LB) inclusions present in human PD and related synucleinopathies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_5DOI Listing
January 2019

Abatacept as rescue immunosuppression after calcineurin inhibitor treatment failure in renal transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Emory Transplant Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

A majority of kidney transplant recipients receive calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. However, some do not tolerate CNIs and require other immunosuppressive strategies. Until recently, alternative approaches have been associated with inferior outcomes, but recent methods have effectively utilized belatacept in CNI intolerant patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15319DOI Listing
February 2019

Structural, biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant human fumarate hydratase.

FEBS J 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Laboratório de Cristalografia de Proteínas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.

Fumarate hydratases (FHs, fumarases) catalyze the reversible conversion of fumarate into L-malate. FHs are distributed over all organisms and play important roles in energy production, DNA repair and as tumor suppressors. They are very important targets both in the study of human metabolic disorders and as potential therapeutic targets in neglected tropical diseases and tuberculosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14782DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Clinical characteristics of bullous pemphigoid in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The association with the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2019 ;56(1):43-50

Department of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital.

Aim: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune skin disorder characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Several recent reports have described the occurrence of BP in diabetic patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. However, the clinical features of BP in diabetic patients, particularly in those treated with DPP-4 inhibitors, have not yet been examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3143/geriatrics.56.43DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuroimaging in Functional Movement Disorders.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 Feb 12;19(3):12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Neuroscience Research Centre, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Sciences, St George's University of London;, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0QT, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Functional movement disorders are common and disabling causes of abnormal movement control. Here, we review the current state of the evidence on the use of neuroimaging in Functional movement disorders, particularly its role in helping to unravel the pathophysiology of this enigmatic condition.

Recent Findings: In recent years, there has been a shift in thinking about functional movement disorder, away from a focus on high-level psychological precipitants as in Freudian conversion theories, or even an implicit belief they are 'put-on' for secondary gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0926-yDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Autophagy in Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target for Intervention in Obesity.

Front Physiol 2019 28;10:22. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States.

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy through targeted deletion of autophagy genes in mice improved anti-obesity phenotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360992PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Clinical Profile of Androgenic Alopecia and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

Indian J Dermatol 2019 Jan-Feb;64(1):19-22

Department of Skin and VD, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Context: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is a hereditary androgen-dependent disorder, characterized by gradual conversion of terminal hair into miniaturized hair and defined by various patterns. Common age group affected is between 30 and 50 years. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijd.IJD_526_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340244PMC
February 2019
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Severe cardiovascular morbidity in women with hypertensive diseases during delivery hospitalization.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

New Haven CT, Yale School of Medicine.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the United States. (1) Identification of short-term indicators of cardiovascular morbidity has the potential to alter the course of this devastating disease among women. It has been established that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease 10-30 years after delivery; however, little is known about the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity during the delivery hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Safety and accuracy of robot-assisted versus fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle screw insertion in thoracolumbar spinal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Feb 8:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

1Department of Spine Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital; and.

OBJECTIVEThe object of this study was to compare the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement using the TiRobot system versus conventional fluoroscopy in thoracolumbar spinal surgery.METHODSPatients with degenerative or traumatic thoracolumbar spinal disorders requiring spinal instrumentation were randomly assigned to either the TiRobot-assisted group (RG) or the freehand fluoroscopy-assisted group (FG) at a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was the accuracy of screw placement according to the Gertzbein-Robbins scale; grades A and B (pedicle breach < 2 mm) were considered clinically acceptable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.10.SPINE18487DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Functional neuroimaging in patients presenting with somatoform disorders: A model for investigating persisting symptoms after tick bites and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome?

Med Mal Infect 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Institut de neurosciences de la Timone UMR7289, campus santé, Aix-Marseille université, 13005 Marseille, France; Pôle de psychiatrie, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 13005 Marseille, France; Fondation FondaMental, 13005 Créteil, France.

Approximately 10% of patients presenting with Lyme disease experience fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, concentration disorders, or short-term memory deficits in the six months following treatment. This entity has been defined as post-Lyme disease syndrome or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is unknown, but neither persistence of the bacterium nor effectiveness of antibiotics are currently reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019
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Heller Myotomy for Epiphrenic Diverticula Compared to Nondiverticula Esophageal Motility Disorders, A Single Institution Experience and Appraisal of Patient Characteristics, High-Resolution Manometry and Outcomes.

Dig Surg 2019 Feb 5:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of General Surgery, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida,

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare demographics, symptoms, prior interventions, operation, and outcomes of patients who underwent Heller myotomy for esophageal motility disorders and epiphrenic diverticulectomy with Heller myotomy.

Methods: We identified all patients who underwent Heller myotomy for esophageal motility disorders with and without esophageal diverticulectomy over an 80-month period. Primary data points included patient demographics, presenting symptoms, prior intervention, high-resolution manometry, surgery performed with rate of laparoscopic, conversion to open, and open procedures; postoperative complications, and symptom resolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496804DOI Listing
February 2019
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Corn waste valorization to generate activated hydrochar to recover ammonium nitrogen from compost leachate by hydrothermal assisted pretreatment.

J Environ Manage 2019 Feb 1;236:108-117. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute of Rural Energy and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026, China.

Valorization of corn waste involves synthesis of hydrochar for use as a sorbent for ammonium nitrogen recovery from swine manure compost leachate. However, the inability to directly capture organic nitrogen and insoluble nitrogen, and the low sorption ability of hydrochar remain key issues. To overcome these issues, we used hydrothermal assisted pretreatment of compost leachate to promote the solubilization of nitrogen contained in feces, and the conversion of organic nitrogen into ammonium nitrogen in the compost leachate. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03014797193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.018DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Disorder-to-helix conformational conversion of the human immunomodulatory peptide LL-37 induced by antiinflammatory drugs, food dyes and some metabolites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Feb 1;129:50-60. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Biomolecular Self-Assembly Group, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 286, H-1519 Budapest, Hungary.

The human antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptide LL-37 is ubiquitously expressed and secreted by epithelial cells of mucosal surfaces including the gastrointestinal tract, the primary absorption site of orally administered drugs and food components. Besides antimicrobial properties, LL-37 also contributes to the pathophysiology of various diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and cancer. Non-covalent association of antiinflammatory drugs, porphyrin pigments, bile salts and food dyes to the peptide was uncovered and evaluated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.209DOI Listing
February 2019
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Serum biotin and zinc in male androgenetic alopecia.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

Background: Male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA) is caused by the conversion of the terminal to vellus hair. Zinc is one of the most studied trace elements in hair disorders and biotin is one of the most prescribed supplement for its treatment.

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate serum zinc and biotin levels in MAGA patients to answer the question if there is a value to add zinc or biotin as a supplements in the MAGA treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12865DOI Listing
February 2019
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Imaging in prodromal dementia with lewy bodies: Where do we stand?

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the literature on imaging in prodromal Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Design: Systematic PubMed search and literature review.

Results: Diagnostic classification of the prodromal DLB stage remains to be established but is likely to require imaging biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/gps.5071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5071DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Prions Strongly Reduce NMDA Receptor S-Nitrosylation Levels at Pre-symptomatic and Terminal Stages of Prion Diseases.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Laboratory of Prion Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the cellular prion protein (PrP) conversion into a misfolded and infectious isoform termed prion or PrP. The neuropathological mechanism underlying prion toxicity is still unclear, and the debate on prion protein gain- or loss-of-function is still open. PrP participates to a plethora of physiological mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1505-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Steroid Biomarkers in Human Adrenal Disease.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

Adrenal steroidogenesis is a robust process, involving a series of enzymatic reactions that facilitate conversion of cholesterol into biologically active steroid hormones under the stimulation of angiotensin II, adrenocorticotropic hormone and other regulators. The biosynthesis of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal-derived androgens occur in separate adrenocortical zones as a result of the segregated expression of steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors. This mini review provides the principles of adrenal steroidogenesis, including the classic and under-appreciated 11-oxygenated androgen pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.01.018DOI Listing
January 2019
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The impact of body mass index on perioperative outcomes after robotic liver resection.

J Robot Surg 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Southeastern Center for Digestive Disorder and Hepatopancreatobiliary Cancer, Advanced Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery, Florida Hospital Tampa, 3000 Medical Park Dr, Suite #500, Tampa, USA.

High body mass index (BMI) is associated with other multiple comorbidities such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and cardiopulmonary diseases, which can impact the perioperative outcomes following liver resection. We aimed to study the impact of BMI on perioperative outcomes after robotic liver resection. All the patients undergoing robotic liver resection between 2013 and 2017 were prospectively followed. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11701-019-00923-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11701-019-00923-4DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Ultrasensitive Detection of Aggregated α-Synuclein in Glial Cells, Human Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Tissue Using the RT-QuIC Assay: New High-Throughput Neuroimmune Biomarker Assay for Parkinsonian Disorders.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Parkinson's Disorder Research Program, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders, like Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), that share the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (αSyn) as their hallmark molecular pathology are collectively known as α-synucleinopathies. Diagnosing α-synucleinopathies requires the post-mortem detection of αSyn in various brain regions. Recent efforts to measure αSyn in living patients include quantifying αSyn in different biofluids as a biomarker for PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-019-09835-4DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Laparoscopic Conversion to Sleeve Gastrectomy After Gastric Clipping for Morbid Obesity-Video Presentation.

Obes Surg 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital/Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung City, 80756, Taiwan.

Purpose: Laparoscopic gastric clipping is a relatively novel bariatric surgical procedure, which can yield significant weight loss via a restriction of gastric expansion. Medical literature regarding the postoperative complications of this procedure is currently scarce. To this end, we submit here a video presentation of a corrective laparoscopic gastric sleeve procedure performed after an initial gastric clipping that failed to provide adequate weight loss and led to intractable belching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-03709-7DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Lorazepam-Assisted Interview in a Resistant Case of Functional Dysphonia.

J Voice 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Background: Functional neurological symptom disorder presents with varied neurological signs often as a result of stress. It is usually treated with supportive psychotherapy and occasionally antidepressants. Literature regarding treatment for resistant cases is scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

In silico and functional studies reveal novel loss-of-function variants of SRD5A2, but no variants explaining excess 5α-reductase activity.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Inselspital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland; Department of BioMedical Research, University Hospital Inselspital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Androgens are steroid hormones essential for human male and female development. Steroid reductases 5α (SRD5As) are key enzymes in androgen biosynthesis. Mutations in the human SRD5A2 are known to cause loss-of-function and severe 46,XY undervirilization. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09600760183058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.01.017DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Basic clinical features do not predict dopamine transporter binding in idiopathic REM behavior disorder.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2019 29;5. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

15Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany.

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is strongly associated with development of Parkinson's Disease and other α-synuclein-related disorders. Dopamine transporter (DAT) binding deficit predicts conversion to α-synuclein-related disorders in individuals with RBD. In turn, identifying which individuals with RBD have the highest likelihood of having abnormal DAT binding would be useful. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41531-018-0073-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351563PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES): A Case Report and Literature Review.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2019 Jan 29;9(2). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, OK 73071, USA.

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes of seizures during hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs9020015DOI Listing
January 2019
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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with increased aquaporin-4 microparticles prior to autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2019 Jan 30;13(1):27. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-112 81, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are severe autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system associated with the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the water channel protein aquaporin-4. During exacerbation, specific aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G may be produced intrathecally. We measured extracellular aquaporin-4 microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who later developed the typical symptoms and signs of a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1929-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352324PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Progranulin Stimulates the In Vitro Maturation of Pro-Cathepsin D at Acidic pH.

J Mol Biol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Single-copy loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN) underlie the neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal lobar degeneration, while homozygous loss-of-function of PGRN results in the lysosomal storage disorder neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Despite evidence that normal PGRN levels are critical for neuronal health, the function of this protein is not yet understood. Here, we show that PGRN stimulates the in vitro maturation of the lysosomal aspartyl protease cathepsin D (CTSD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.01.027DOI Listing
January 2019
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A Novel F-Labeled Radioligand for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1): Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation in Nonhuman Primates.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

PET Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging , Yale University School of Medicine , 801 Howard Ave , New Haven , Connecticut 06520-8048 , United States.

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol and controls a key pathway in the regulation of stress. Studies have implicated 11β-HSD1 in metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity, as well as stress-related disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, such as depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously developed [C]AS2471907 as a PET radiotracer to image 11β-HSD1 in the brain of nonhuman primates and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00715DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Prediction of Conversion From Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Based on the Brain Structural Connectome.

Front Neurol 2018 10;9:1178. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Neurology, XuanWu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Early prediction of disease progression in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is important for early diagnosis and intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous brain network studies have suggested topological disruptions of the brain connectome in aMCI patients. However, whether brain connectome markers at baseline can predict longitudinal conversion from aMCI to AD remains largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.01178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335339PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Upper extremity conversion disorder in children.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Conversion disorder in children presents a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. The condition is frequently associated with unnecessary diagnostic tests, treatments, and cost. The purpose of this study was to report a series of children with upper extremity conversion disorder to raise awareness for this uncommon condition and to assist with its diagnosis and management. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10582746183078
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.10.027DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Longterm outcome of cognition, affective state, and quality of life following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Normal cognition is an established selection criteria for subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), while concern has been raised as to aggravated cognitive decline in PD patients following STN-DBS. The present longterm study investigates cognitive status in all patients (n = 104) suffering from PD, who were treated via continuous bilateral STN-DBS between 1997 and 2006 in a single institution. Preoperative neuropsychological results were available in 79/104 of the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-019-01972-7DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Light- and bias-induced structural variations in metal halide perovskites.

Nat Commun 2019 01 25;10(1):444. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have gained considerable attention for next-generation photovoltaic cells due to rapid improvement in power conversion efficiencies. However, fundamental understanding of underlying mechanisms related to light- and bias-induced effects at the nanoscale is still required. Here, structural variations of the perovskites induced by light and bias are systematically investigated using scanning probe microscopy techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08364-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347646PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in brain transcriptomes of Amami spiny rats (Tokudaia osimensis): a rodent species where males lack the Y chromosome.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jan 25;20(1):87. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Background: Brain sexual differentiation is sculpted by precise coordination of steroid hormones during development. Programming of several brain regions in males depends upon aromatase conversion of testosterone to estrogen. However, it is not clear the direct contribution that Y chromosome associated genes, especially sex-determining region Y (Sry), might exert on brain sexual differentiation in therian mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5426-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347839PMC
January 2019
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Belatacept in kidney transplantation and its limitations.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 24:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

a Service de Néphrologie, Hémodialyse , Aphérèses et Transplantation Rénale, CHU Grenoble-Alpes , Grenoble , France.

Introduction: Since the approval of belatacept in 2011 for use in the setting of de novo kidney transplantation, this CD80/86 - CD28 co-stimulation blocker has been shown to be a valuable treatment option for maintenance immunosuppression. Areas covered: In this setting, belatacept has been associated with superior glomerular filtration rate as compared to calcineurin inhibitor-based treatments because of the absence of nephrotoxicity. Additionally, belatacept avoids the cardiovascular side effects (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2019.1574570DOI Listing
January 2019
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Deficiency of apoptosis-stimulating protein two of p53 ameliorates acute kidney injury induced by ischemia reperfusion in mice through upregulation of autophagy.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has become a common disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality, which remains major medical problem without reliable and effective therapeutic intervention. Apoptosis-stimulating protein two of p53 (ASPP2) is a proapoptotic member that belongs to p53 binding protein family, which plays a key role in regulating apoptosis and cell growth. However, the role of ASPP2 in AKI has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14094DOI Listing
January 2019
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A qualitative study of the experiences and perceptions of patients with functional motor disorder.

Disabil Rehabil 2019 Jan 22:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

c Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health , UCL , London , UK.

Background: Patients with functional motor disorder are perceived as difficult by health care professionals, but we know very little about the patients' perspective. Understanding the experiences and perceptions of patients could help to improve clinical services and patient outcomes.

Purpose: To explore the experiences and perspectives of patients with functional motor disorder using qualitative research methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1550685DOI Listing
January 2019
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Effects of Betaine on LPS-Stimulated Activation of Microglial M1/M2 Phenotypes by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Pathways in N9 Cells.

Molecules 2019 Jan 21;24(2). Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.

Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation. They can be phenotypically divided into a classical phenotype (pro-inflammatory, M1) or an alternative phenotype (anti-inflammatory, M2) with different physiological characteristics and biological functions in the inflammatory process. Betaine has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359206PMC
January 2019
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Benzodiazepine withdrawal in pregnant women with opioid use disorders: An observational study of current clinical practices at a tertiary obstetrical hospital.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11;57:29-33. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of British Columbia, Department of Psychiatry, 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver V6H 3N1, Canada.

Background: As more patients are admitted for medical complications related to opioid use disorders, physicians are called upon to manage withdrawal from co-occurring substance use disorders. We present an observational study of pregnant women with comorbid opioid and sedative-hypnotic use disorders hospitalized for benzodiazepine withdrawal.

Objectives: Our primary aims were to assess current practices in withdrawal management in the perinatal period in patients admitted to an antepartum unit at a tertiary care setting with comorbid opioid and sedative-hypnotic use disorders; specifically, to identify patterns of withdrawal management, including the type of withdrawal protocol utilized, the total dosage of benzodiazepine used during that protocol, to assess patient variables associated with higher dosing, and to analyze neonatal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018
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A mitochondria-targeted organic arsenical accelerates mitochondrial metabolic disorder and function injury.

Bioorg Med Chem 2019 Mar 16;27(5):760-768. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, PR China; Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, PR China. Electronic address:

Considering the vital role of mitochondria in the anti-cancer mechanism of organic arsenical, the mitochondria-targeted precursor PDT-PAO-TPP was designed and synthesized. PDT-PAO-TPP, as a delocalization lipophilic cation (DLCs) which mainly accumulated in mitochondria, contributed to improve anti-cancer efficacy and selectivity towards NB4 cells. In detail, PDT-PAO-TPP inhibited the activity of PDHC resulting in the suppression of ATP synthesis and thermogenesis disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.01.008DOI Listing
March 2019
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Patient safety, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life: reduction of delirium risk and postoperative cognitive dysfunction after elective procedures in older adults-study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (PAWEL Study).

Trials 2019 Jan 21;20(1):71. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, 14469, Potsdam, Germany.

Background: Postoperative delirium is a common disorder in older adults that is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, prolonged cognitive impairment, development of dementia, higher institutionalization rates, and rising healthcare costs. The probability of delirium after surgery increases with patients' age, with pre-existing cognitive impairment, and with comorbidities, and its diagnosis and treatment is dependent on the knowledge of diagnostic criteria, risk factors, and treatment options of the medical staff. In this study, we will investigate whether a cross-sectoral and multimodal intervention for preventing delirium can reduce the prevalence of delirium and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) in patients older than 70 years undergoing elective surgery. Read More

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https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-3148-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341754PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Direct and selective lineage conversion of human fibroblasts to dopaminergic precursors.

Neurosci Lett 2019 Jan 18;699:16-23. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, 68198, United States; Center for Translational Neurodegeneration and Regenerative Therapy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Transplantation of dopaminergic precursors (DPs) is a promising therapeutic strategy of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, limited cell source for dopaminergic precursors has become a major obstacle for transplantation therapy. Our group demonstrated previously that mouse fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into induced dopaminergic precursors (iDPs) with high differentiation efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2019.01.033DOI Listing
January 2019
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Going beyond the mean: Intraindividual variability of cognitive performance in prodromal and early neurodegenerative disorders.

Clin Neuropsychol 2019 Jan 21:1-21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

b Department of Neurology , RWTH Aachen University , Aachen , Germany.

Objective: Intraindividual variability (IIV), generally defined as short-term variations in behavior, has been proposed as a sign of subtle early impairment in neurodegenerative disorders, presumably associated with the disintegration of neuronal network connectivity. We aim to provide a review of IIV as a sensitive cognitive marker in prodromal neurodegenerative disorders.

Method: A narrative review focusing not only on theoretical and methodological definitions, including an overview on the neural correlates of IIV, but mainly on results from population-based and clinical-based studies on the role of IIV as a reliable predictor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and conversion to dementia in neurodegenerative disorders, mostly Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2018.1533587DOI Listing
January 2019
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In Vitro Functional Characterization of Human Neurons and Astrocytes Using Calcium Imaging and Electrophysiology.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1919:73-88

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund Stem Cell Center, Laboratory of Stem Cells and Restorative Neurology, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Recent progress in stem cell biology and epigenetic reprogramming has opened up previously unimaginable possibilities to study and develop regenerative approaches for neurological disorders. Human neurons and glial cells can be generated by differentiation of embryonic and neural stem cells and from somatic cells through reprogramming to pluripotency (followed by differentiation) as well as by direct conversion. All of these cells have the potential to be used for studying and treating neurological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9007-8_6DOI Listing
January 2019
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A parameter-efficient deep learning approach to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

Neuroimage 2019 Jan 14;189:276-287. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via Cracovia, 00133, Roma, RM, Italy; A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Some forms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are the clinical precursors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), while other MCI types tend to remain stable over-time and do not progress to AD. To identify and choose effective and personalized strategies to prevent or slow the progression of AD, we need to develop objective measures that are able to discriminate the MCI patients who are at risk of AD from those MCI patients who have less risk to develop AD. Here, we present a novel deep learning architecture, based on dual learning and an ad hoc layer for 3D separable convolutions, which aims at identifying MCI patients who have a high likelihood of developing AD within 3 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.01.031DOI Listing
January 2019
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Risk of Parkinson's disease dementia related to level I MDS PD-MCI.

Mov Disord 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD need validation. The objectives of this present study were to evaluate prognostic validity of level I (abbreviated) International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society mild cognitive impairment in PD criteria for development of PD dementia and compared them with level II (comprehensive) criteria.

Methods: We analyzed data from 8 international studies (1045 patients) from our consortium that included baseline data on demographics, motor signs, depression, detailed neuropsychological testing, and longitudinal follow-up for conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27617DOI Listing
January 2019
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Benefit-Risk Assessment of Plecanatide in the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation.

Authors:
Philip B Miner

Drug Saf 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Oklahoma Foundation for Digestive Research, 1813 Coventry Lane, Oklahoma City, OK, 73120, USA.

Plecanatide, a uroguanylin analog, activates the guanylate cyclase C receptors in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract in a pH-dependent fashion initiating (1) the conversion of intracellular guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which increases the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretion into the intestinal lumen and (2) a decrease in activity of the sodium-hydrogen ion exchanger. The resulting ionic shifts cause an increase in lumenal fluid to facilitate digestion. Plecanatide has been approved by the FDA for use in chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40264-018-0781-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-018-0781-9DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads