378 results match your criteria Controversies in Prostate Cancer

Experimental Support for the Possibility of Retrograde Genesis of Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate.

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 May 6:10668969221098080. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Historically, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) was postulated to be a retrograde spread of high-grade invasive prostate cancer. There is evidence that IDC-P can primary originate in the prostatic ducts. The retrograde genesis has never been experimentally or clinically confirmed before. Read More

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Postoperative radiotherapy in prostate cancer: When and how? - An update review.

Cancer Radiother 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Instituto do câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Dr. Arnaldo Av, 251, São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been found to be curative in most cases of prostate cancer (PCa); however, 20-40% of patients have a biochemical recurrence (BCR) of the disease. Prostatic specific antigen prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are used to assess patient prognosis after surgery; however, there is no consensus about the optimal PSA level that defines BCR. Detection of very low volume disease and early detection of the disease are very important predictors for clinical outcomes in BCR, as early salvage radiation therapy (SRT) provides a possibility of a cure. Read More

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Adjuvant or Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer after Prostatectomy: Current Status, Controversies and Perspectives.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Mar 26;14(7). Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Radiation Oncology Department, Institute Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Nearly one-third of the patients who undergo prostatectomy for prostate cancer have a biochemical recurrence (BCR) during follow-up. While several randomized trials have shown that adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) improves biochemical control, this strategy has not been widely used because of the risk of toxicity and the fear of overtreating patients who would not have relapsed. In addition, the possibility of close PSA monitoring in the era of ultrasensitive assays enables to anticipate early salvage strategies (sRT). Read More

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Androgen-targeting therapeutics mitigate the adverse effect of GnRH agonist on the risk of neurodegenerative disease in men treated for prostate cancer.

Cancer Med 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer and multiple neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) share an age-associated pattern of onset. Therapy of prostate cancer is known to impact cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of multiple classes of androgen-targeting therapeutics (ATT) on the risk of NDD. Read More

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Active surveillance in favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer: outstanding questions and controversies.

Curr Opin Oncol 2022 05 9;34(3):219-227. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Active surveillance has become the preferred management strategy for patients with low risk prostate cancer, but it is unclear if active surveillance can be safely extended to favorable intermediate risk (FIR) prostate cancer patients. Furthermore, defining a favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer population safe for active surveillance remains elusive due to paucity of high-level data in this population. This article serves to review relevant data, particularly the safety of active surveillance in grade group 2 patients, and what tools are available to aid in selecting a favorable subset of intermediate risk patients. Read More

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Focal therapy: definition and rationale.

Curr Opin Urol 2022 05 25;32(3):218-223. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The role of focal therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is expanding in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to controversies in the use of focal therapy and its rationale.

Recent Findings: There is a growing body of literature regarding the short-term and medium-term cancer control parameters and quality of life outcomes. Read More

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Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Will Magnetic Resonance Imaging Help Us Address the Current Controversies in Traditional Surveillance Approaches?

Eur Urol 2022 04 31;81(4):347-348. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Division of Surgical and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

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Ethnic Pharmacogenomic Differences in the Management of Asian Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jan 14;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Hong Kong Integrated Oncology Centre, Hong Kong.

Progression to metastatic disease occurs in about half of all men who develop prostate cancer (PC), one of the most common cancers in men worldwide. Androgen deprivation therapy has been the mainstay therapy for patients with metastatic PC (mPC) since the 1940s. In the last decade, there has been unprecedented advancement in systemic therapies, e. Read More

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January 2022

Prostate gland as a target organ of thyroid hormones: advances and controversies.

Endocr Connect 2022 02 14;11(2). Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México.

Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development and function of the male reproductive system, but their effects on the prostate have been poorly studied. This work reviews studies related to the interrelationship between the thyroid and the prostate. The information presented here is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed using the following search terms: prostate combined with thyroid hormone or triiodothyronine, thyroxine, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or deiodinase. Read More

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February 2022

Association between APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 polymorphism with prostate cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Nov;100(46):e27630

Department of Urology, Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing, China.

Background: Recently, some studies have suggested that the association of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) gene polymorphism with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but there are still some controversies. Hence, we elaborated the relationship between APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 gene and PCa risk through systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Methods: As of March 2020, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE and CNKI were used for systematic literature retrieval to investigate the correlation between APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 gene polymorphism with PCa risk. Read More

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November 2021

Concomitant High Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophage (AIM) and Low Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Indicates Activated T Cell-Mediated Anticancer Immunity, Enhance Sensitivity to Pembrolizumab, and Elicit Good Prognosis in Prostate Cancer.

Biomedicines 2021 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Urology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City 235, Taiwan.

Background: Despite its widespread use, the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone as a screening biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) leads often to unwarranted prostate biopsy, over-diagnosis, and consequently, over-treatment, because of its limited specificity. There are reports that the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), secreted mainly by macrophages and epithelial cells, is upregulated during inflammation and facilitates immune recognition of cancerous cells by blocking human regulator of complement activation.

Objective: These controversies around the PSA utility necessitate a reexamination of its use as a screening tool. Read More

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September 2021

Effective Organs-at-Risk Dose Sparing in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using a Half-Beam Technique in Whole Pelvic Irradiation.

Front Oncol 2021 18;11:611469. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Background: Although there are some controversies regarding whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) due to its gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities, it is considered for patients with gynecological, rectal, and prostate cancer. To effectively spare organs-at-risk (OAR) doses using multi-leaf collimator (MLC)'s optimal segments, potential dosimetric benefits in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a half-beam technique (HF) were investigated for WPRT.

Methods: While the size of a fully opened field (FF) was decided to entirely include a planning target volume in all beam's eye view across arc angles, the HF was designed to use half the FF from the isocenter for dose optimization. Read More

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Prostate cancer: Molecular imaging and MRI.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Oct 6;143:109893. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

The role of molecular imaging in initial evaluation of men with presumed or established diagnosis of prostate cancer and work up of biochemical recurrence and metastatic disease is rapidly evolving due to superior diagnostic performance compared to anatomic imaging. However, variable tumor biology and expression of transmembrane proteins or metabolic alterations poses a challenge. We review the evidence and controversies with emphasis on emerging PET radiopharmaceuticals and experience on clinical utility of PET/CT and PET/MRI in diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Read More

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October 2021

Metastatic Prostate Cancer Synchronous with Male Breast Papillary Ductal Carcinoma in situ: Management Dilemma and Literature Review.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 May-Aug;14(2):784-791. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Pathology Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

Prostate cancer is common in men, but tumour of the male breast is rare. For these two tumours to be presented synchronously in a male patient is even rarer. The focus of this paper is the case of a 72-year-old man diagnosed with papillary ductal carcinoma in situ after he presented with a unilateral breast mass associated with nipple discharge. Read More

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The past, present, and future of urological quality improvement collaboratives.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2280-2288

Department of Urology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Surgical quality improvement collaboratives (QIC) have been established across the nation in numerous specialties. These QICs have shown efficacy in improving the quality, safety and value of care delivered to patients with a wide range of medical conditions. In recent years, urological QICs have emerged, including regional collaboratives such as the Michigan Urological Surgical Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC) and Pennsylvania Urologic Regional Collaborative (PURC), as well as the national American Urological Association Quality Registry Program (AQUA). Read More

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Contemporary outcomes following robotic prostatectomy for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2178-2187

Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

While radical prostatectomy (RP) plays a prominent role in the management of localized prostate cancer, its role in high risk or metastatic disease is less clear. Due to changes in prostate cancer screening patterns, particularly those made by the United States Preventive Services Task Force, data is suggesting increasing incidences of high risk and metastatic disease, underlying the importance of continued research in this area. While past approaches to management may have discouraged surgical intervention, more contemporary approaches have attempted to evaluate its effectiveness and utility. Read More

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A review of technical progression in the robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2171-2177

Department of Urology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Since the advent of the robotic surgery, its implementation in urology has been both wide and rapid. Particularly in extirpative surgery for prostate cancer, techniques in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy have-and continue to-evolve to maximize functional and oncologic outcomes. In this review, we briefly present a historical perspective of the evolution of various robotic techniques, allowing us to contextualize contemporary robotic approaches to radical prostatectomy. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness of robotic and open radical prostatectomy.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2158-2170

Division of Urology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Radical prostatectomy (RP) has undergone a remarkable transformation from open to minimally-invasive surgery over the last two decades. However, it is important to recognize there is still conflicting evidence regarding key outcomes. We aimed to summarize current literature on comparative effectiveness of robotic and open RP for key outcomes including oncologic results, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, safety and postoperative complications, and healthcare costs. Read More

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Testosterone target therapy: focus on immune response, controversies and clinical implications in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2021 22;12:20420188211010105. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Maternal-Infant and Urological Sciences, Prostate Cancer Unit, "Sapienza" Rome University, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome, Italy.

The pandemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) named COVID-19 is causing a severe health emergency, and an individual's hormonal milieu may play an important role in both susceptibility to infection and severity of clinical course. We analyzed the role of testosterone in the immune response, and we hypothesized possible mechanisms to explain the high incidence of COVID-19 infection and a worse clinical course in elderly male patients. Testosterone may impair the immune response, and this effect could explain the greater susceptibility of men to infection. Read More

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Controversies in Testosterone Therapy.

Sex Med Rev 2021 01 9;9(1):149-159. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Urology - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Testosterone prescriptions have increased dramatically in recent years, largely because of changes in expert guidelines. Concerns have been raised that testosterone therapy (TTh) may be associated with an increased incidence of conditions such as cardiovascular (CV) disease, thromboembolic events, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer (PCa) and also may be a beneficial therapy in the management of prediabetes. As such, considerable debate remains regarding which hypogonadal populations are appropriate candidates for TTh. Read More

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January 2021

Newly Diagnosed Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer: Current Controversies and Future Developments.

Eur Urol Oncol 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Sorbonne Université, Urology Department, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

This report presents a 56-yr-old man in good general health status, newly diagnosed with a cT3b, cN1, cM1b, International Society of Urological Pathology grade group 3, low-volume (CHAARTED criteria), low-risk (LATITUDE criteria) metastatic prostate cancer. Staging was performed with conventional imaging: a computed tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of two enlarged lymph nodes on the left, close to the external iliac vessels. In addition, a suspicious 15-mm metastatic lesion was detected in the left pubic bone. Read More

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November 2020

Bisphosphonates in veterinary medicine: The new horizon for use.

Bone 2021 01 24;142:115711. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are characterized by their ability to bind strongly to bone mineral and inhibit bone resorption. However, BPs exert a wide range of pharmacological activities beyond the inhibition of bone resorption, including the inhibition of cancer cell metastases and angiogenesis and the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity, altered cytokine and growth factor expression, as well as reductions in parameters of pain have also been reported. Read More

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January 2021

Monosodium Glutamate Induces Cytotoxicity in Rat Liver via Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2020 Dec 23;78(4):429-437. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major food additive used as a flavor enhancer. A lot of controversies have been generated over the use of MSG. The present study therefore investigated whether MSG would induce cytotoxicity via the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening. Read More

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December 2020

Advances in the diagnostic options for prostate cancer.

Postgrad Med 2020 Dec 18;132(sup4):52-62. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Urology, University of North Carolina Medical Center , Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Over the past decade, despite the controversies surrounding prostate cancer screening, significant refinements have improved its application. PSA screening, although it has been questioned, appears to confer a mortality benefit and remains the most effective way to identify the possible presence of prostate cancer. Methods to improve the specificity of PSA screening and limit overdiagnosis of indolent cancers, including risk-stratified screening regimens, are currently being utilized. Read More

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December 2020

Controversies with testosterone therapy.

Mohit Khera

Can J Urol 2020 08;27(S3):20-23

Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Over the past decade, there have been concerns with safety of testosterone therapy (TTh) in hypogonadal men. Several concerns have centered on the use of TTh and its potential link to cardiovascular (CV) events, prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There has also been controversy in determining which patients are appropriate candidates for TTh and if lifestyle modification has any role in improving serum testosterone values in hypogonadal men. Read More

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A discussion on controversies and ethical dilemmas in prostate cancer screening.

J Med Ethics 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Surgery, WHO Collaboration Centre for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in LMIC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hospital, Mumbai, MH 400094, India

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the the most common cancers in men. A blood test called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has a potential to pick up this cancer very early and is used for screening of this disease. However, screening for prostate cancer is a matter of debate. Read More

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COVID-19 and androgen-targeted therapy for prostate cancer patients.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2020 09;27(9):R281-R292

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Cancer, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The current pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health challenge with active development of antiviral drugs and vaccines seeking to reduce its significant disease burden. Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. Read More

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September 2020

A genetic risk assessment for prostate cancer influences patients' risk perception and use of repeat PSA testing: a cross-sectional study in Danish general practice.

BJGP Open 2020 23;4(2). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Public Health, Research Unit for General Practice Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer among men in the western world. Genetic lifetime risk assessment could alleviate controversies about prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing for early diagnosis.

Aim: To determine how men interpret information about their lifetime risk for PC and how this can affect their choice of having a repeated PSA test. Read More

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Selective androgen receptor modulators: the future of androgen therapy?

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Mar;9(Suppl 2):S135-S148

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are small molecule drugs that function as either androgen receptor (AR) agonists or antagonists. Variability in AR regulatory proteins in target tissues permits SARMs to selectively elicit anabolic benefits while eschewing the pitfalls of traditional androgen therapy. SARMs have few side effects and excellent oral and transdermal bioavailability and may, therefore, represent viable alternatives to current androgen therapies. Read More

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