1,173,683 results match your criteria Controlled Clinical Trials[Journal]


A 9-months multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocol based on early post-operative mobilization following a chronic-degenerative patellar tendon rupture in a professional soccer player: a case report.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Background: Isolated patellar tendon rupture (PTR) is the final stage of a long-standing tendon chronic degeneration. PTR requires immediate repair in order to avoid important muscle retraction and tendon fibrosis. The aim was to describe the effects of a rehabilitation protocol after chronic-degenerative PTR on subjective functional outcomes, knee range of motion (ROM), size, and strength in a professional football player. Read More

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December 2018

[Introduction: In 2014, a symposium focusing on access to healthcare was organized with input from socially excluded people, using the ATD Fourth World Guidelines for the Merging of Knowledge and Practices as the ethical framework. Can this approach be transferred to other settingsMethods: Prospective assessment of a participatory approach in the context of a symposium.Results: Strict conditions are required to ensure effective participation of extremely vulnerable people. Support, temporality and a strictly defined agenda are key factors.Conclusion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):99-104

Introduction: In 2014, a symposium focusing on access to healthcare was organized with input from socially excluded people, using the ATD Fourth World Guidelines for the Merging of Knowledge and Practices as the ethical framework. Can this approach be transferred to other settings?

Methods: Prospective assessment of a participatory approach in the context of a symposium.

Results: Strict conditions are required to ensure effective participation of extremely vulnerable people. Read More

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September 2018

[Introduction: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme.Methods: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional “Health Literacy Questionnaire”, and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015.Results: The results highlight the existence of 8 constitutive variables in the management of type 2 diabetes in an ordinary context: diet, physical activity, treatment and monitoring of disease (disease management), access to knowledge and skills (health knowledge), relationships with health professionals and social support (expertise, support and social network). They also emphasize the differentiated relationships of individuals to each of these variables, ranging from functional to interactive or critical “levels”.Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):145-156

Introduction: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme.

Methods: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional ?Health Literacy Questionnaire?, and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015. Read More

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September 2018

A Machine-Learning-Based Drug Repurposing Approach Using Baseline Regularization.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:255-267

The University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

We present the baseline regularization model for computational drug repurposing using electronic health records (EHRs). In EHRs, drug prescriptions of various drugs are recorded throughout time for various patients. In the same time, numeric physical measurements (e. Read More

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January 2019

Randomized-controlled trial of parent-led exposure to anesthetic mask to prevent child preoperative anxiety.

Can J Anaesth 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Purpose: To examine the efficacy of parent-directed anesthetic mask exposure and shaping practice to prevent child preoperative anxiety, with a specific focus on timing of exposure.

Methods: This randomized-controlled trial included 110 children ages four to seven years undergoing day surgery dental procedures and their parents. Families were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) parent-directed mask exposure/shaping practice at least three times in the week prior to surgery (Group 1); 2) parent-directed mask exposure/shaping practice at least once on the day of surgery (Group 2); 3) no exposure prior to induction (Group 3). Read More

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December 2018

Pembrolizumab for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Cancer Where Cisplatin is Unsuitable: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

Pharmacoeconomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

As part of its Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Merck Sharp & Dohme) of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer where cisplatin is unsuitable. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a detailed review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based on the company's submission (CS) to NICE. Read More

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December 2018

Anaerobic treatment of residuals from tanks transporting food and fodder.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059, Rostock, Germany.

The anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the cleaning of tank cars transporting food and fodder was investigated in both bench and pilot scales with a single-stage, mesophilic (39 °C), completely mixed process. The promising results lead to the planning and building of a 1200-m full-scale biogas plant at TS-Clean cleaning station in Fahrbinde, Germany. Due to softened water used in the cleaning of the car tanks, the alkalinity in the digester decreased as predicted by the physicochemical model developed for this treatment process. Read More

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December 2018
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Inhibitory Control and Information Processing in ADHD: Comparing the Dual Task and Performance Adjustment Hypotheses.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Advancement of Youth, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Inhibition is a key neurocognitive domain in ADHD that is commonly assessed with the stop-signal task. The stop-signal involves both "go" and "stop" trials; previous research indicates that response times are reliably slower to "go" trials during tasks with vs. without intermittent "stop" trials. Read More

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December 2018
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The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave. Suite 2175, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Read More

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December 2018

Psychometric validation of the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire in ulcerative colitis: results from a systematic literature review.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2018 Dec 13;2(1):62. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pfizer, 235 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA.

Patients with ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease, report negative impacts of disease symptoms on work-related outcomes, including absenteeism and presenteeism. As a way to better understand the impact of this disease and its treatment on work-related outcomes, the current review examines the use of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), a patient-reported outcomes measure of absenteeism, presenteeism, and impairment in other activities, in studies of patients with ulcerative colitis. This review assesses the measurement properties of the WPAI in this patient population: its reliability, construct validity, ability to detect change, and responsiveness to effective treatments. Read More

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December 2018
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Lower follicular n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with a better response to ovarian stimulation.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress (FROS) Research Group of the Department of Physiology, Medicine and Nursing School, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

Objectives: To analyze in detail the fatty acid (FA) composition of follicular fluid (FF) from two-sized follicles at oocyte retrieval and to determine associations of the FAs from large follicles with the woman's age and the response to ovarian stimulation.

Design: Observational study.

Setting: University and fertility clinic. Read More

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December 2018

Follow-up efficacy of physical exercise interventions on fall incidence and fall risk in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sports Med Open 2018 Dec 13;4(1):56. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Training and Movement Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philippstr. 13, Haus 11, 10115, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The risk of falling and associated injuries increases with age. Therefore, the prevention of falls is a key priority in geriatrics and is particularly based on physical exercising, aiming to improve the age-related decline in motor performance, which is crucial in response to postural threats. Although the benefits and specifications of effective exercise programs have been well documented in pre-post design studies, that is during the treatment, the definitive retention and transfer of these fall-related exercise benefits to the daily life fall risk during follow-up periods remains largely unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Correction to: Cardiovascular, muscular, and skeletal adaptations to recreational team handball training: a randomized controlled trial with young adult untrained men.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Sport and Health Sciences Cluster (SHSC), University of Southern Denmark, 3450, Odense, Denmark.

The author would like to correct the errors in the publication of the original article. The corrected details are given below for your reading. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy versus microendoscopic discectomy for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis.

Int Orthop 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spine Surgery Center, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and to clarify whether PELD is more superior to MED.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane database, CNKI, and Wanfang Data to acquire all relevant studies up to July 2018. The searched literatures were then screened according to the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Quality of life following ostomy reversal with purse-string vs linear skin closure: a systematic review.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of General Surgery, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Health, University of Milan Medical School, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy.

Background: The importance of the defunctioning stoma on minimizing anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery is well established. However, a defunctioning stoma can substantially impact on quality of life (QoL). Circumferential purse-string approximation (PSA) and linear skin closure (LSC) are the most commonly performed surgical technique for reversal of stoma. Read More

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December 2018

Fabrication of composite microfluidic devices for local control of oxygen tension in cell cultures.

Lab Chip 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Oxygen tension is a central component of the cellular microenvironment and can serve as a trigger for changes in cell phenotype and function. There is a strong need to precisely control and modulate oxygen tension in cell culture systems in order to more accurately model the physiology and pathophysiology observed in vivo. The objective of this paper was to develop a simple, yet effective strategy for local control of oxygen tension in microfluidic cell cultures. Read More

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December 2018

Early term effects of rhBMP-2 on pedicle screw fixation in a sheep model: histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses.

J Spine Surg 2018 Sep;4(3):534-545

Orthopaedic & Rehabilitation Engineering Center and Graduate Program in Dental Biomaterials, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: The effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on pedicle screw pullout force and its potential to improve spinal fixation have not previously been investigated. rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier was delivered in and around cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws in a sheep lumbar spine instability model. Two control groups (empty screw and ACS with buffer) were also evaluated. Read More

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September 2018

Mesoporous silica-based nanoplatforms for the delivery of photodynamic therapy agents.

J Pharm Investig 2018 9;48(1):3-17. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Biomarker Branch, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10408 Republic of Korea.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established method for the treatment of cancer which utilizes light, a photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen. Unfavourable characteristics of most PSs, such as low solubility and tumour specificity have led many researchers to adopt nanoscale drug delivery platforms for use in PDT. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) form a significant part of that effort, due to their ease and controllability of synthesis, ease of loading, availability of diverse surface functionalization, and biocompatibility. Read More

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September 2017

Field evaluation of a ready-to-use combined type 2 and vaccine in Denmark - a historical comparison of productivity parameters in 20 nursery and 23 finishing herds.

Porcine Health Manag 2018 7;4:29. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Merck Animal Health, 2 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ 07940 USA.

Background: In practice, field evaluation of vaccine efficacy in individual herds is often based on a historical comparison of productivity data following initiation of vaccination. Being biased by time, this study design highly contrasts the more controlled, parallel-group design used for most initial vaccine efficacy studies but offers the possibility of including a larger number of animals and herds. As an important add-on to previous findings in controlled studies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the field efficacy of the ready-to-use combination vaccine Porcilis® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health) by an observational historical study design using routinely generated herd productivity data. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of several biological therapies for treating moderate to severe psoriasis: A network meta-analysis.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 15;16(6):5085-5095. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Liaocheng, Linqing, Shandong 252601, P.R. China.

The aim of the present meta-analysis was to systematically assess the efficacy of the various treatments available for moderate to severe psoriasis. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to select relevant studies up to February 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as effect estimates. Read More

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December 2018

Non-operative management of blunt hepatic and splenic injuries-practical aspects and value of radiological scoring systems.

Eur Surg 2018 20;50(6):285-298. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

1Department of Visceral, Transplantation and Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic and splenic injuries has become popular in haemodynamically stable adult patients, despite uncertainty about efficacy, patient selection, and details of management. Up-to-date strategies and practical recommendations are presented.

Methods: A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (1989-2016). Read More

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Morbidity in open versus minimally invasive hybrid esophagectomy (MIOMIE): Long-term results of a randomized controlled clinical study.

Eur Surg 2018 7;50(6):249-255. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

1Department of Surgery, Upper-GI-Service Comprehensive Cancer Center, GET-Unit Medical, University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: The minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for esophageal cancer was introduced assuming a reduction of morbidity and operation time. After implementation of MIE at our institution, a randomized controlled trial was designed.

Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled study comparing open (OE) and laparoscopic gastric tube (MIE) formation in Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Read More

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Injectable Biomimetic Hydrogels as Tools for Efficient T Cell Expansion and Delivery.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2798. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Tumor Immunology, Oncode Institute, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Biomaterial-based scaffolds are promising tools for controlled immunomodulation. They can be applied as three dimensional (3D) culture systems , whereas they may be used to dictate cellular localization and exert spatiotemporal control over cues presented to the immune system. As such, scaffolds can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies such as adoptive T cell transfer, in which localization and persistence of tumor-specific T cells dictates treatment outcome. Read More

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November 2018

Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Induces Acute Bacterial Dysbiosis Within the Fecal Microbiome.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States.

The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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November 2018
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The Effects of Chromium Supplementation on Gene Expression of Insulin, Lipid, and Inflammatory Markers in Infertile Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Candidate for Fertilization: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 28;9:726. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study was performed to determine the effects of chromium supplementation on the gene expression of insulin, lipid, and inflammatory markers in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were candidate for fertilization (IVF). Forty women, aged 18-40 years, who had been selected for IVF were recruited in this randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. They ( = 20/group) were randomly assigned into intervention groups to take either 200 μg/day of chromium or placebo for 8 weeks. Read More

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November 2018

Severe Recurrent Necrotizing Myopathy in Pregnancy: A Case Report.

Front Neurol 2018 28;9:1028. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pregnancy in patients with necrotizing autoimmune myopathy without identified antibodies is rarely reported. We report a case involving a 26-year-old woman with antibody-negative autoimmune necrotizing myopathy who experienced a relapse during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, the patient's myopathy symptoms and elevated serum creatine kinase levels had been successfully controlled with oral prednisone and tacrolimus for 1 year. Read More

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November 2018

extract EGb 761 in the symptomatic treatment of mild-to-moderate dementia: a profile of its use.

Drugs Ther Perspect 2018 11;34(8):358-366. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754 New Zealand.

EGb 761 (Tanakan) is a standardized extract of leaves that has demonstrated protective properties against neuronal and vascular damage. Overall, in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses in adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, EGb 761 displayed positive effects, with changes from baseline in outcomes related to cognition, behaviour and global change that are generally better than those shown with placebo. EGb 761 is generally well tolerated, with no safety issues being identified during its many years of widespread use. Read More

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A Review of Treatments for Young Black Males Experiencing Depression.

Res Soc Work Pract 2018 Mar 7;28(3):320-329. Epub 2017 May 7.

George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The objective was to qualitatively examine the treatment effects of depression interventions on young, Black males (YBM) across treatment providers and settings via a review. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) seeking to ameliorate depressive symptomology in Black males ages 12-29 were eligible for inclusion. After review of 627 abstracts and 212 full-text articles, 12 studies were selected. Read More

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Captive to the Clinic: Phase I Clinical Trials as Temporal Total Institutions.

Sociol Inq 2018 Nov 20;88(4):724-748. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

This article develops the concept of to describe how and why individuals voluntarily submit to highly-controlled and often dehumanizing environments. We focus empirically on Phase I clinical trials, which offer compensation to healthy people in exchange for testing investigational pharmaceuticals. Analyzing the experiences of 67 U. Read More

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November 2018

Constructing treatment decision rules based on scalar and functional predictors when moderators of treatment effect are unknown.

J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2018 Nov 16;67(5):1331-1356. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Wright State University, Dayton, U. S. A.

Treatment response heterogeneity poses serious challenges for selecting treatment for many diseases. To better understand this heterogeneity and to help in determining the best patient-specific treatments for a given disease, many clinical trials are collecting large amounts of patient-level data prior to administering treatment in the hope that some of these data can be used to identify moderators of treatment effect. These data can range from simple scalar values to complex functional data such as curves or images. Read More

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November 2018

A Novel Soft Contact Piezo-Controlled Liquid Cell for Probing Polymer Films under Confinement using Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17804. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, 5095, Australia.

Soft polymer films, such as polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs), are useful coatings in materials science. The properties of PEMs often rely on the degree of hydration, and therefore the study of these films in a hydrated state is critical to allow links to be drawn between their characteristics and performance in a particular application. In this work, we detail the development of a novel soft contact cell for studying hydrated PEMs (poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) using FTIR microspectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Physician-pharmacist collaborative practice and telehealth may transform hypertension management.

J Hum Hypertens 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Clinical Research Unit, Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, Italy.

Community pharmacists play a crucial role in hypertension management and their intervention, mainly including education, medication monitoring, and reviewing, blood pressure (BP) measurement and cardiovascular risk factors tracking, have proved to enhance BP control and adherence to antihypertensive treatment. A multidisciplinary collaborative approach with the referring physician and a patient-centered model of care have been proved to be particularly effective for improving control of hypertension and promoting patients' health. The inclusion of telehealth in such model (the so-called telepharmacy) may expand the reach of the pharmacist's intervention and provide pharmacy operations and patient care at a distance with further benefits for hypertensive patients and their managing physicians. Read More

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December 2018

Susceptible and mCry3A resistant corn rootworm larvae killed by a non-hemolytic Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt1Aa mutant.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17805. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Apdo. Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca, 62250, Morelos, Mexico.

The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera causes substantial damage in corn. Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing some Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry proteins efficiently controlled this pest. However, changes in WCR susceptibility to these Bt traits have evolved and identification of insecticidal proteins with different modes of action against WCR is necessary. Read More

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December 2018

Control of T cell homeostasis and immune equilibrium by Lkb1 in dendritic cells.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 13;9(1):5298. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300020, China.

To balance immunity and tolerance, the endogenous pool of Foxp3 regulatory T (T) cells is tightly controlled, but the underlying mechanisms of this control remain poorly understood. Here we show that the number of T cells is negatively regulated by the kinase Lkb1 in dendritic cells (DCs). Conditional knockout of the Lkb1 gene in DCs leads to excessive T cell expansion in multiple organs and dampens antigen-specific T cell immunity. Read More

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December 2018
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Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma when jumping from aircraft: randomized controlled trial.

BMJ 2018 Dec 13;363:k5094. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Michigan Integrated Center for Health Analytics and Medical Prediction, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objective: To determine if using a parachute prevents death or major traumatic injury when jumping from an aircraft.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Private or commercial aircraft between September 2017 and August 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Repeat variants for the SbMATE transporter protect sorghum roots from aluminum toxicity by transcriptional interplay in and .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Embrapa Maize and Sorghum, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil;

Acidic soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major agricultural constraint, are globally widespread and are prevalent in developing countries. In sorghum, the root citrate transporter SbMATE confers Al tolerance by protecting root apices from toxic Al, but can exhibit reduced expression when introgressed into different lines. We show that allele-specific transactivation occurs and is caused by factors located away from Using expression-QTL mapping and expression genome-wide association mapping, we establish that transcription is controlled in a bipartite fashion, primarily in but also in Multiallelic promoter transactivation and ChIP analyses demonstrated that intermolecular effects on expression arise from a WRKY and a zinc finger-DHHC transcription factor (TF) that bind to and -activate the promoter. Read More

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December 2018

3D nanofabrication by volumetric deposition and controlled shrinkage of patterned scaffolds.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420):1281-1285

MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Lithographic nanofabrication is often limited to successive fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) layers. We present a strategy for the direct assembly of 3D nanomaterials consisting of metals, semiconductors, and biomolecules arranged in virtually any 3D geometry. We used hydrogels as scaffolds for volumetric deposition of materials at defined points in space. Read More

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December 2018
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Using Psychological Artificial Intelligence (Tess) to Relieve Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Ment Health 2018 Dec 13;5(4):e64. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

X2AI Inc, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: Students in need of mental health care face many barriers including cost, location, availability, and stigma. Studies show that computer-assisted therapy and 1 conversational chatbot delivering cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offer a less-intensive and more cost-effective alternative for treating depression and anxiety. Although CBT is one of the most effective treatment methods, applying an integrative approach has been linked to equally effective posttreatment improvement. Read More

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December 2018
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Developing Typologies of User Engagement With the BRANCH Alcohol-Harm Reduction Smartphone App: Qualitative Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018 Dec 13;6(12):e11692. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Addictions Department, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Understanding how users engage with electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is a critical research objective to improve effectiveness of app-based interventions to reduce harmful alcohol consumption. Although quantitative measures of engagement provide a strong indicator of how the user engages with an app at the group level, they do not elucidate finer-grained details of how apps function from an individual, experiential perspective and why, or how, users engage with an intervention in a particular manner.

Objective: The aim of this study was to (1) understand why and how participants engaged with the BRANCH app, (2) explore facilitators and barriers to engagement with app features, (3) explore how the BRANCH app impacted drinking behavior, (4) use these data to identify typologies of users of the BRANCH app in terms of engagement behaviors, and (5) identify future eSBI app design implications. Read More

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December 2018
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HbA screening in the community: Lessons for safety and quality management of a point of care programme.

Prim Care Diabetes 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Aim: To describe quality management processes and appropriate interpretation with respect to HbA point-of-care (POC) testing in a national diabetes and cardiovascular risk screening programme.

Methods: We compared HbA results from capillary blood, measured by the cobas b 101 (Roche Diagnostics) POC testing system, with results from venous blood measured by accredited laboratory analysers to inform national screening practice and a (separately-reported) randomised controlled trial. Difference plots and regressions were used to aid interpretation around 40 and 50mmol/mol, the cut-offs used to identify "pre-diabetes" and diabetes in New Zealand. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between quality of work features in primary health care and glycaemic control in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nationwide survey.

Prim Care Diabetes 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Clinical Research Västmanland, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.

Aims: To describe and analyse the associations between primary health care centres' (PHCCs') quality of work (QOW) and individual HbA1c levels in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This cross-sectional study invited all 1152 Swedish PHCCs to answer a questionnaire addressing QOW conditions. Clinical, socio-economic and comorbidity data for 230,958 people with T2DM were linked to data on QOW conditions for 846 (73. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of an Ultrasound Protocol to Measure Intervertebral Axial Twist during Functional Twisting Movements in Isolated Functional Spinal Units.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Ultrasound has potential for use in evaluation of bone and joint movement during axial twist of the lumbar spine both in vivo and in vitro. Such segmental rotations could then be measured under controlled external thoracic axial twist conditions and in response to mechanical loading. The purpose of this study was to measure vertebral segmental rotations in a porcine model of the human lumbar spine using an ultrasound imaging protocol and to validate use of this imaging technique with an optical motion capture system. Read More

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December 2018
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Local infiltration analgesia versus interscalene nerve block for postoperative pain control after shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, comparative noninferiority study involving 99 patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Ile-de-France Ouest, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Boulogne-Billancourt, France; Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) and interscalene nerve block (ISB) for early postoperative pain control after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The hypothesis was that LIA is not inferior to ISB.

Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed in 2014-2016. Read More

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December 2018

Oral ixazomib maintenance following autologous stem cell transplantation (TOURMALINE-MM3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Maintenance therapy following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can delay disease progression and prolong survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Ixazomib is ideally suited for maintenance therapy given its convenient once-weekly oral dosing and low toxicity profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of ixazomib as maintenance therapy following ASCT. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-Effectiveness of Second-Line Treatments for Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Oncology, Mater Salutis Hospital, Legnago, Italy.

Purpose: To assess the pharmacologic costs of second-line treatments for metastatic renal-cell cancer (mRCC).

Methods: The present evaluation was restricted to pivotal phase 3 randomized controlled trials in second-line for mRCC. We calculated the pharmacologic costs necessary to get the benefit in progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) for each trial. Read More

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November 2018

Use of Closed Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy After Revision Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in Patients at High Risk for Infection: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Arthroplasty 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, FL.

Background: Continuous wound drainage after arthroplasty can lead to the development of a periprosthetic joint infection. Closed incisional negative pressure wound therapy (ciNPWT) has been reported to help alleviate drainage and other wound complications. The purpose of this prospective randomized controlled trial is to compare the use of ciNPWT with our standard of care dressing in revision arthroplasty patients who were at high risk to develop wound complications. Read More

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November 2018

A randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a self-administered psycho-educational intervention for patients with cancer.

Patient Educ Couns 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Louise Granofsky Psychosocial Oncology Program, Segal Cancer Center, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Departments of Psychology, Oncology and Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Objective: Bibliotherapy refers to psychological self-help interventions that utilize treatment books to improve psychological well-being. Research supports bibliotherapy as an efficacious intervention for a variety of mental health problems. Yet, few studies have investigated bibliotherapy in psychosocial oncology. Read More

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December 2018

Randomized sham-controlled trial of the 6-month swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system for weight loss.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2018 Dec 29;14(12):1876-1889. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, New York.

Background: Obesity is a significant health problem and additional therapies are needed to improve obesity treatment.

Objective: Determine the efficacy and safety of a 6-month swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system for weight loss.

Setting: Fifteen academic and private practice centers in the United States. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra-low loading of Pd nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes as bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and the ethanol oxidation reaction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin, China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Electronic address:

How to reduce the usage of precious metals in electrocatalysts is a big challenge for the development of fuel cells. Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are highly desirable as active catalysts, but palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs) have been less well developed than other metal clusters, such as gold, silver and copper, owing partly to the difficulties in size-controlled synthesis. Here, based on N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediation and ligand-exchange reaction, atomically precise Pd(CHS) nanoclusters are successfully synthesized. Read More

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December 2018
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