60,017 results match your criteria Contemporary Pediatrics[Journal]


The legacy of colonial fire management policies on traditional livelihoods and ecological sustainability in savannas: Impacts, consequences, new directions.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:600-606. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Darwin Centre for Bushfire Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia. Electronic address:

Land occupation and management systems have defined fire regimes and landscapes for millennia. The savanna biome is responsible for 86% of all fire events, contributes to 10% of the total carbon emissions annually and is home to 10% of the human population. European colonization has been associated with the implementation of fire suppression policies in many tropical savanna regions, markedly disrupting traditional fire management practices and transforming ecosystems. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Challenges of Differential Placebo Effects in Contemporary Medicine: The Example of Brain Stimulation.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

'Differential placebo effects' is the concept that different types of placebos (e.g. inert pill versus sham device) may yield different magnitudes of placebo effects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Living Messages from Chemistry Icons: Legacies with Contemporary Relevance.

Chem Rec 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

International Organization for Chemical Sciences in Development, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000, Namur, Belgium.

Beyond individual scientific virtuosity and creativity that leading figures in chemistry have displayed, they have sometimes conveyed wider messages of significance beyond their own professional specialization. They include insights into broader aspects of science, society or the ways of the world. On the other hand, the words, attitudes and actions of eminent chemists from former times have not always presented good models for others to follow, whether judged by their own contemporary or our present standards. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pretest probability for patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease: re-evaluating Diamond-Forrester for the contemporary era and clinical implications: insights from the PROMISE trial.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, USA.

Aims: To update pretest probabilities (PTP) for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD ≥ 50%) across age, sex, and clinical symptom strata, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in a large contemporary population of patients with stable chest pain referred to non-invasive testing.

Methods And Results: We included patients enrolled in the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial and randomized to CTA. Exclusively level III-certified readers, blinded to demographic and clinical data, assessed the prevalence of CAD ≥ 50% in a central core lab. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Contemporary practice and short-term outcomes after liver resections in a complete national cohort.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Clinical Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh and University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Improved outcome after liver resections have been reported in several series, but outcomes from national cohorts are scarce. Our aim was to evaluate nationwide practice and short-term outcomes after liver surgery in a universal healthcare system.

Methods: A complete 5-year cohort of all liver resections from the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The Conference of the Birds: An Old Artistic Concept Making Sense in Modern Sciences.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):297-305. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this article, we will discuss scientific aspects of an old Persian story, Simorgh, in the book of . The story is fulfilled with artistic and philosophical metaphors that make sense in two hot topics of the contemporary modern sciences i.e. Read More

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Personal Branding: Interdisciplinary Systematic Review and Research Agenda.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2238. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Management and Organization, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Personal branding has become an important concept in management literature in recent years. Yet, with more than 100 scholarly papers published on the concept to date, it has developed into a fragmented area of research with a diversity of definitions and conceptual boundaries. This paper posits that this heterogeneity of extant research impedes theoretical and empirical advancement. Read More

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November 2018

Can contemporary trials of chemotherapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer detect overall survival benefit?

Cancer Manag Res 2018 8;10:5423-5431. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Although several trials have demonstrated improved progression-free survival (PFS) with first-line regimens for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC), overall survival (OS) benefit is elusive. We calculated required sample sizes to power for OS using published data from recent mBC trials.

Patients And Methods: Randomized superiority trials of first-line chemotherapy/targeted therapy for HER2-negative mBC including >150 patients, meeting the primary efficacy objective, and published in 2000-2018 were identified. Read More

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November 2018

White coat syndrome and its variations: differences and clinical impact.

Integr Blood Press Control 2018 8;11:73-79. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil,

Hypertension is closely linked to increased cardiovascular risk and development of target organ damage (TOD). Therefore, proper clinical follow-up and treatment of hypertensive subjects are mandatory. A great number of individuals present a variation on blood pressure (BP) levels when they are assessed either in the office or in the out-of-office settings. Read More

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November 2018

Disruption in time projection and non-adherence to long-term therapies.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2018 9;12:2363-2375. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Clinical Research Unit and Clinical Research Center, Avicenne Hospital, APHP, Bobigny, France.

Objective: Patients' non-adherence to medical prescriptions is a crucial issue in contemporary medicine because it can jeopardize care efficacy. Non-adherence is especially frequent in patients with chronic diseases. In this article, we propose that a particular condition, which we call disruption in time projection, is a cause of non-adherence to medication therapies in chronic diseases. Read More

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November 2018
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Prisoners of war - host adaptation and its constraints on virus evolution.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Recent discoveries of contemporary genotypes of hepatitis B virus and parvovirus B19 in ancient human remains demonstrate that little genetic change has occurred in these viruses over 4,500-6,000 years. Endogenous viral elements in host genomes provide separate evidence that viruses similar to many major contemporary groups circulated 100 million years ago or earlier. In this Opinion article, we argue that the extraordinary conservation of virus genome sequences is best explained by a niche-filling model in which fitness optimization is rapidly achieved in their specific hosts. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence-Based Medicine: Can We Trust the Evidence Informing Clinical Practice?

Authors:
Simone Gambazza

J Allied Health 2018 ;47(4):296-299

Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via della Commenda 9, 20121 Milan, Italy. Tel +390255032460.

An attempt to distinguish science from folklore in medical practice was made in 1991, when a new paradigm called evidence-based medicine (EBM) officially appeared. Although this approach was meant to avoid clinical entropy, it might constitute a barrier for contemporary health enhancement, generating results that could be selectively chosen or obtained through misapplication of frequent statistics. At worst, only few health professions can take advantage from this supposed demarcation criterion, lacking the infrastructure and institutional support to carry on research and thus offering a risky disservice to patients. Read More

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January 2018

Developing Affective Domain Learning in Health Professions Education.

Authors:
Pamela Donlan

J Allied Health 2018 ;47(4):289-295

Dep. of Physical Therapy, Movement, and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 407D Robinson Hall, Boston MA 02115, USA. Tel 508.250.5271.

The delivery of effective 21st-century multidisciplinary healthcare requires that clinicians focus on patient needs and concerns and are able to communicate compassionately and appropriately so that patient-practitioner trust is engendered. To develop interpersonal skills among healthcare providers, health professions education programs must build student competencies in the affective domain of learning. This paper seeks to investigate the efficacy of some of the contemporary strategies used to present and assess affective domain learning in health professions education, including the think-pair-share technique, reflective journaling, simulation and role play, motivational interviewing, and structured controversy. Read More

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January 2018

The muscular sense in Russia: I. M. Sechenov and materialist realism.

Authors:
Roger Smith

J Hist Behav Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Contemporary Russian sensory physiology and psychology uses the notion of a "dark sense," referring to the background of bodily sensation, especially of the position and movement of the body. The physiologist Ivan Sechenov introduced this language in the 1860s in the context of arguing for a physiological basis for scientific psychology. The muscular sense (the term preceding modern notions of kinaesthesia and proprioception) thereafter featured in the many talks and journal articles he presented to spread scientific enlightenment. Read More

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December 2018

The important versus the exciting: reining contradictions in contemporary biotechnology.

Microb Biotechnol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

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December 2018

Contemporary management of prenatally diagnosed spina bifida aperta - an update.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(11):637-641

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Spina bifida aperta is a relatively common congenital defect that occurs in the general population. Once the disorder has been diagnosed, a discussion, that can be emotionally-charged, ensues about whether to treat it prenatally or to only offer surgery postnatally. Given that there are good arguments for and against both options, it is of paramount importance to gain a good understanding of the major advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical approaches. Read More

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January 2018

iHam & pyHam: visualizing and processing hierarchical orthologous groups.

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Summary: The evolutionary history of gene families can be complex due to duplications and losses. This complexity is compounded by the large number of genomes simultaneously considered in contemporary comparative genomic analyses. As provided by several orthology databases, hierarchical orthologous groups (HOGs) are sets of genes that are inferred to have descended from a common ancestral gene within a species clade. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Contemporary management of juvenile angiofibroma.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Unit of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To illustrate the latest developments and trends in the management of juvenile angiofibroma.

Recent Findings: Endoscopic surgery is currently the primary management strategy for juvenile angiofibroma. Recent reports on the use of multiportal approaches have contributed to further extend its indications. Read More

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November 2018

Batch Mode Query by Committee for Motor Imagery-Based BCI.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Although brain-computer interface (BCI) has potential application in the rehabilitation of neural disease and performance improvement of the human in the loop system, it is restricted in the laboratory environment. One of the hindrances behind this restriction is the requirement of a long training data collection session for the user prior to operation of the system at each time. Several approaches have been proposed including the reduction of training data maintaining the robust performance. Read More

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November 2018

The contribution of PTPN22 to rheumatological disease.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC0656, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0656.

One of the unresolved questions in modern medicine is why certain individuals develop a disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, while others do not. Contemporary science holds genetics partly responsible and blames the remainder on environmental and stochastic factors. Among the many genes that increase the risk of autoimmune conditions, the risk allele encoding the W620 variant of PTPN22 is shared between multiple rheumatologic diseases, suggesting a fundamental role in the development of immune dysfunction. Read More

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December 2018

Distal Biceps Repair With Flexible Instrumentation and Risk of Posterior Interosseous Nerve Injury: A Cadaveric Analysis.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Nov 27;6(11):2325967118810523. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Current repair techniques using cortical button fixation cannot achieve anatomic reconstruction of the distal biceps when performed through a single-incision anterior approach. We recently introduced a single-incision technique that uses flexible guide pins and flexible reamers to allow for an insertion point on the tuberosity that more closely approximates the anatomic footprint of the distal biceps.

Purpose: To investigate the safety of this technique with regard to nerve injury by comparing the guide pin position relative to the posterior interosseous nerve in 16 cadaveric elbows through use of a flexible versus rigid reamer. Read More

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November 2018

How I deploy arterial grafts.

Authors:
David P Taggart

Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Sep;7(5):690-697

John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

There are currently around one million coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures performed worldwide annually and despite two decades of evidence to support the use of a second arterial graft, if not total arterial grafting, the stark reality is that in contemporary practice 80% of all grafts used for CABG are saphenous vein grafts (SVG). The following description of how I deploy arterial grafts has been developed over more than two decades of clinical practice and largely self-taught by a process of "trial and error" and most importantly dictated by "ease of use" rather than personal robust angiographic data of long-term patency (although there is other such existing data in the literature for some of these techniques). The fact that there are numerous potential variants of deploying multiple arterial grafts underpins the fact that there is no single operation that is ideal in every patient-it is not a case of "one size fits all" as would be the situation for the use of a single internal thoracic artery (ITA) and supplemental vein grafts. Read More

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September 2018

Comparison of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass and drug-eluting stents for management of isolated left anterior descending artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 7,710 patients.

Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Sep;7(5):567-576

Department of Cardiac Surgery, St. George's Hospital, London, UK.

Background: In the contemporary era of drug-eluting stents (DES) the issue of optimal revascularization strategy for patients with isolated disease of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery has gained more significance. We aimed to evaluate the current best evidence on the subject by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies comparing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) grafting with DES in patients with isolated LAD disease.

Methods: A literature search was conducted from 1966 through March 2018 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other scientific databases to identify relevant articles. Read More

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September 2018

Interventions to avoid pulmonary complications after lung cancer resection.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Nov;10(Suppl 32):S3781-S3788

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Surgical resection of lung cancer is the preferred treatment for early-stage disease in medically fit patients. The rates of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) such as pneumonia, empyema and atelectasis are as high as 10% in contemporary series. A review of the literature was performed to identify the best evidence supporting interventions to identify, prevent and treat PPCs. Read More

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November 2018
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: status update.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Nov;10(Suppl 30):S3637-S3645

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Galway, Newcastle Road, Galway, Ireland.

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as the gold standard technique for all patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at elevated surgical risk. Much progress has been made to reduce procedural complications and improve patient outcomes. The impressive results of contemporary TAVI can be attributed to a variety of factors, including improving operator experience, pre-operative patient screening, and developments in transcatheter heart valve and delivery system technology. Read More

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November 2018

Pre-implantation balloon-aortic valvuloplasty before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: is this still needed?

J Thorac Dis 2018 Nov;10(Suppl 30):S3599-S3603

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Institute for Applied Clinical Science and Centre for Prognosis Research, Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, University of Keele, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has historically been recommended prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Pre-implantation BAV (pBAV) creates fractures at the level of calcified leaflets, thereby facilitating delivery of the transcatheter valve system across the diseased aortic valve and, enhances prosthesis implantation and expansion within the calcified aortic valve annulus. New device designs, lower profile delivery systems and increasing operator experience have enabled direct-TAVI (without pBAV), and its appeal amongst TAVI operators enhanced the dissemination of a direct TAVI approach across many centres. Read More

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November 2018

A survey of foot orthoses prescription habits amongst podiatrists in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

J Foot Ankle Res 2018 26;11:64. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

8York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.

Background: Foot orthoses are frequently used but little is known about which types are used in contemporary practice. This study aimed to explore the types of foot orthoses currently used by podiatrists and the prescription variations in a range of conditions.

Methods: A web-based, cross-sectional survey was distributed through professional bodies in the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, and New Zealand. Read More

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November 2018

A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy vs. Pharmacotherapy Alone in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychiatry 2018 16;9:571. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Basel Psychiatric Clinics, Basel, Switzerland.

In the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) the importance of psychological interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy is widely accepted in contemporary clinical routine. The natural course of the disorder seems to justify additional psychological interventions because even in patients who are highly compliant to pharmacotherapy full remission is not always achieved. The aim of the present study was to analyze the contribution of psychotherapy to the treatment of adult ADHD patients. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Using genomics to define pediatric blood cancers and inform practice.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):286-300

Department of Pediatrics, Benioff Children's Hospital and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Over the past decade, there has been exponential growth in the number of genome sequencing studies performed across a spectrum of human diseases as sequencing technologies and analytic pipelines improve and costs decline. Pediatric hematologic malignancies have been no exception, with a multitude of next generation sequencing studies conducted on large cohorts of patients in recent years. These efforts have defined the mutational landscape of a number of leukemia subtypes and also identified germ-line genetic variants biologically and clinically relevant to pediatric leukemias. Read More

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November 2018

Richter transformation in the era of novel agents.

Authors:
Wei Ding

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):256-263

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Group, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Recent approvals of several oral targeted agents have revolutionized chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) therapy. However, CLL patients continue to progress; particularly, 4% to 20% of previously treated CLL patients undergo transformation into high-grade lymphoma. Richter transformation is defined as a transformation of CLL into aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Read More

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November 2018

Risk-adapted therapy for advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):200-206

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

More than 80% of patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma are now cured with contemporary treatment approaches. The ongoing challenge is how to further improve outcomes by identifying both high-risk patients who may benefit from more intensive frontline therapy to reduce the risk of relapse as well as lower-risk patients who may do just as well with less intensive therapy. Numerous trials have used an interim positron emission tomography (PET) response-adapted approach to evaluate early escalation or deescalation of therapy for patients with a positive or negative interim PET scan, respectively. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Adolescent angst: enrollment on clinical trials.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):154-160

Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Survival among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 with cancer has not improved to the same extent as that of pediatric and older adult cancer patients, which is thought to relate, in part, to the lower participation of AYAs in clinical trials. Because significant efforts have been made to improve clinical trial enrollment for AYAs, we (1) present contemporary clinical trial enrollment rates by cancer type, sociodemographic characteristics, and treatment setting and (2) discuss provider-, patient-, and system-level barriers to clinical trial participation. Contemporary studies examining clinical trial enrollment among AYAs have continued to find low overall participation relative to pediatric populations, with most studies observing no significant improvements in enrollment over time. Read More

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November 2018

Contemporary medicinal-chemistry strategies for the discovery of selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Drug Discov Today 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, 44 West Culture Road, 250012 Ji'nan, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is considered a promising drug target for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review medicinal-chemistry strategies that are currently available for the discovery of selective BChE inhibitors. Read More

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November 2018

Sensory processing in children with autism spectrum disorder and the mental health of primary caregivers.

Brain Dev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

United Graduate School of Child Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; Research Centre for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Sensory processing difficulties, which commonly occur in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are expected to have negative effects on the primary caregiver's mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the association between sensory processing difficulties in children with ASD and the mental health of primary caregivers.

Methods: A total of 707 primary caregivers (mothers in the present study) and their children with ASD (4-18 years of age) participated in this study. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of the biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting stent with contemporary drug-eluting stents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Cardiology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France.

Aims: Despite similar efficacy and safety profile in pilot studies, bioresorbable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) could have potential benefit over latest generation durable polymer (DP)-DES by facilitating vessel healing, therefore reducing inflammation and neoatherosclerosis leading to enhanced clinical safety. Therefore, we sought to perform a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting BP-DES (BP-EES) to second-generation DP-DES.

Methods And Results: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the safety and efficacy of BP-EES in patients treated for coronary artery disease. Read More

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November 2018

Corneal structure, transparency, thickness and optical density (densitometry), especially as relevant to contact lens wear-a review.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Clinical instruments using Scheimpflug image-based methods to obtain optical sectional images of the cornea have been introduced in recent years along with proposals that it should be possible to routinely and reliably measure the optical density (referred to as the densitometry) of the human cornea in situ. Such a concept is reviewed from the perspective of what might be considered as the basic principles underlying the understanding of corneal transparency (from the 1950's) and the progressive changes in these ideas from subjective slitlamp-based clinical observations from the late 1960's, especially in contact lens wearers. Much more has been learned about the overall macrostructure (including corneal thickness) and the ultrastructure of the cornea from contemporary studies in the 1990's, and these aspects of the cornea will be reviewed alongside consideration of the methods of assessing the optical characteristics of the cornea in the living eye. Read More

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November 2018

High-Resolution Profiling of NMD Targets in Yeast.

Methods Enzymol 2018 9;612:147-181. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Contemporary high-throughput sequencing methods, notably RNA-Seq, permit the systematic identification and characterization of transcripts whose levels change significantly in response to altered biological states. We have described methods for the application of this methodology to a definition of the transcripts regulated by the NMD pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In short, we outline methods for growing cells of wild-type or NMD-deficient yeast, isolating RNA from the different strains, depleting rRNA from each sample, preparing and sequencing the respective RNA-Seq libraries, and employing multiple software packages to characterize the resulting sequence reads meaningfully. Read More

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October 2018
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Red-headed Amazon River Turtles in Venezuela and Colombia: population separation and connection along the famous route of Alexander von Humboldt.

Zoology (Jena) 2018 Oct 17;130:67-78. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Grupo Biodiversidad y Conservación Genética, Instituto de Genética, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 426, Bogotá, Colombia; Museum of Zoology, Senckenberg Natural History Collections of Dresden, Königsbrücker Landstraße 159, D-01109 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Podocnemis erythrocephala, the Red-headed Amazon River Turtle, is distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins where it predominantly inhabits blackwater and has never been found in whitewater. The only permanent river connection between the habitats in the different river basins features considerable whitewater proportions and, therefore, is hypothesised to be a dispersal barrier for this turtle species. By using variable neutral nuclear and mitochondrial markers (microsatellite loci and control region sequences), the present study assessed the genetic structure, genetic diversity, gene flow and historical biogeography of P. Read More

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October 2018

Are coagulase-negative staphylococci virulent?

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Progress in contemporary medicine is associated with an increasing number of immunocompromised individuals. In this vulnerable group, the underlying disease together with long-term hospitalization and the use of medical devices facilitate infections by opportunistic pathogens for which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) represent a prime example.

Objectives: The diversity of CoNS with species- and strain-specific differences concerning virulence and clinical impact is highlighted. Read More

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November 2018

A Longitudinal Population Analysis of Cumulative Risks of Circumcision.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 18;233:111-117. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Pediatric Surgery, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Circumcision is widely accepted for newborns in the United States. However, circumcision carries a risk of complications, the rates of which are not well described in the contemporary era.

Methods: We performed a longitudinal population analysis of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database between 2005 and 2010. Read More

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January 2019

Perioperative blood transfusions for vein resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Identification of clinical targets for optimization.

HPB (Oxford) 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) during resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been linked to worse short-term and oncologic outcomes. However, little is known about contemporary rates of transfusion utilization among patients requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy with vein resection (PDVR). The primary aims of this study were to evaluate rates of PBT and to identify modifiable factors associated with PBT during PDVR. Read More

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November 2018

Imatinib treatment of paediatric Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (EsPhALL2010): a prospective, intergroup, open-label, single-arm clinical trial.

Lancet Haematol 2018 Dec;5(12):e641-e652

EsPhALL Trial Data Center, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Fondazione MBBM, Monza, Italy.

Background: The EsPhALL2004 randomised trial showed a 10% advantage in disease-free survival for short, discontinuous use of imatinib after induction compared with no use of imatinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia receiving Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Other contemporary studies showed an advantage from continuous protracted exposure to imatinib, challenging the indications to transplant. The EsPhALL2010 study was designed to assess whether imatinib given from day 15 of induction and continuously throughout chemotherapy led to a different outcome to that obtained in EsPhALL2004, despite decreasing the number of patients having HSCT. Read More

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December 2018

Phases of physics in J. D. Forbes' Dissertation Sixth for the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1856).

Authors:
Isobel Falconer

Hist Sci 2018 Dec 3:73275318811443. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, UK.

This paper takes James David Forbes' Encyclopaedia Britannica entry, Dissertation Sixth, as a lens to examine physics as a cognitive, practical, and social enterprise. Forbes wrote this survey of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century mathematical and physical sciences between 1852 and 1856, when British "physics" was at a pivotal point in its history, situated between a field identified by its mathematical methods - originating in France - and a discipline identified by its university laboratory institutions. Contemporary encyclopedias provided a nexus for publishers, the book trade, readers, and men of science in the formation of physics as a field. Read More

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December 2018

Adaptation, Rationality, and Manipulation: Insight Into Kidnappers' Modus Operandi in the South Eastern States of Nigeria.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Dec 3:886260518812065. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

2 Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

Kidnappers' modus operandi (MO) is defined as consisting of a summary of strategies used by kidnappers both to get close to the victims and then do the crime. Utilizing a naturalistic methodological approach, we interviewed 86 kidnappers in two prisons. Insight into the MO of systematic kidnapping is gained, discussed, and is briefly compared with earlier work on the systematic MO of armed robbers, both similar but somehow distinct high-profile and common crimes in contemporary Nigeria. Read More

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December 2018

Interpretation of Interfacial Protein Spectra with Enhanced Molecular Simulation Ensembles.

J Chem Theory Comput 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

An atomistically detailed picture of protein folding at interfaces can effectively be obtained by comparing interface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques to molecular simulations. Here, we present an extensive evaluation of the capability of contemporary force fields to model protein folding at air-water interfaces with a general scheme for sampling and reweighting theoretical conformational ensembles of interfacial peptides. Force field combinations of CHARMM22* / TIP3P and AMBER99SB*-ILDN / SPC/E were found to reproduce experimental observations best. Read More

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November 2018

Healthy Design and Urban Planning Strategies, Actions, and Policy to Achieve Salutogenic Cities.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Edile e Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00184 Rome, Italy.

Starting from a previous experience carried out by the working group "Building and Environmental Hygiene" of the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (SItI), the aim of the present work is to define new strategic goals for achieving a "Healthy and Salutogenic City", which will be useful to designers, local governments and public bodies, policy makers, and all professionals working at local health agencies. Ten key points have been formulated: 1. climate change and management of adverse weather events; 2. Read More

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November 2018

Life satisfaction favors reproduction. The universal positive effect of life satisfaction on childbearing in contemporary low fertility countries.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0206202. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Economics, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

Do people with higher life satisfaction have more children? Having children requires considerable energy and investment on the part of parents. However, even in countries where contraceptives are easily available and widely used, where having children is optional and most of time the result of an intended action, parenthood has not gone "out of fashion". This paper tests the hypothesis that higher life satisfaction fosters reproductive behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Management of Sepsis in Patients with Cirrhosis: current evidence and practical approach.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Sepsis in patients with cirrhosis is associated with high mortality. An impaired immune response accounts for the increased infection risk observed in these patients. Hemodynamic and systemic changes suggestive of sepsis may be seen in patients with cirrhosis in the absence of infection, therefore diagnosis and treatment of sepsis may be delayed. Read More

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December 2018