61,860 results match your criteria Contemporary Issues in the Treatment of Schizophrenia[Journal]


The Regulatory Challenge of Mobile Health: Lessons for Canada.

Healthc Policy 2019 Feb;14(3):19-28

Women's College Hospital Institute for Health System Solutions and Virtual CareWomen's College HospitalDivision of General Internal Medicine, St. Michael's HospitalToronto, ON.

Mobile health (mHealth) is the provision of health or medical services enabled by portable devices. This field is rapidly expanding as the global market for mobile devices grows. mHealth "apps" pose benefits and risks to their users that governments have attempted to address through regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2019.25795DOI Listing
February 2019

National Cancer Institute (NCI) state of the science: Targeted radiosensitizers in colorectal cancer.

Cancer 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Radiation Research Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a major public health problem as the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Of an estimated 140,000 newly diagnosed CRC cases in 2018, roughly one-third of these patients will have a primary tumor located in the distal large bowel or rectum. The current standard-of-care approach includes curative-intent surgery, often after preoperative (neoadjuvant) radiotherapy (RT), to increase rates of tumor down-staging, clinical and pathologic response, as well as improving surgical resection quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32150DOI Listing

Using informatics to improve healthcare quality.

Authors:
Ahmed Otokiti

Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2019 Mar;32(2):425-430

Harlem Hospital Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into contemporary challenges associated with applying informatics and big data to healthcare quality improvement.

Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a narrative literature review.

Findings: Informatics serve as a bridge between big data and its applications, which include artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and point-of-care clinical decision making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-03-2018-0062DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: Predictive value of multidimensional immunomarker detection for the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in Chinese patients.

Thorac Cancer 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

According to multiple studies, the objective response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in the second-line treatment of unscreened non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is only approximately 20%. Predictive biomarkers of treatment efficacies are still under investigation. In selected NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, the response rate of pembrolizumab in first-line treatment can reach 44. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13078DOI Listing

Measuring the impact of European colonization on Native American populations in Southern Brazil and Uruguay: Evidence from mtDNA.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 23:e23243. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objectives: The major aim of this article was to estimate the demographic impact of European arrival and colonization over Native American populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay. We also compared the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Native American lineages present in current indigenous (Natives) and nonindigenous admixed (Admixed) populations to estimate the effective population size (N ) of contemporary and ancestral (pre-Columbian) Native American populations.

Methods: We retrieved published mtDNA sequences from Native (n = 396) and Admixed (n = 309) populations from southern Brazil, Uruguay, and surrounding areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23243DOI Listing

Clinical significance of nutritional status in patients with chronic heart failure-a systematic review.

Heart Fail Rev 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Vascular and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.

Chronic heart failure (CHF) and nutritional disorders are recognized as major challenges for contemporary medicine. This study aims to estimate the role of nutritional disorders as risk factors for CHF development and prognostic factors for CHF patients and the outcome of nutritional intervention in CHF. Full-text English articles published between January 2013 and February 2019 available in the PubMed and Scopus databases were considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-019-09793-2DOI Listing

Large, stable, contemporary interspecies recombination events in circulating human herpes simplex viruses.

J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The ubiquitous human pathogens, HSV-1 and HSV-2, are distinct viral species that diverged about six million years ago. At least four small, ancient HSV-1 x HSV-2 interspecies recombination events have affected the HSV-2 genome, with recombinants and non-recombinants at each locus circulating today. However, it is unknown if interspecies recombination can affect other loci and if new recombinants continue to be generated. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz199DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Disentangling drivers of the abundance of coral reef fishes in the Western Indian Ocean.

Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 21;9(7):4149-4167. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

CORDIO East Africa Mombasa Kenya.

Aim: Understanding the drivers of the structure of coral reef fish assemblages is vital for their future conservation. Quantifying the separate roles of natural drivers from the increasing influence of anthropogenic factors, such as fishing and climate change, is a key component of this understanding. It follows that the intrinsic role of historical biogeographical and geomorphological factors must be accounted for when trying to understand the effects of contemporary disturbances such as fishing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468081PMC

Seasonal climate effects on the survival of a hibernating mammal.

Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 27;9(7):3756-3769. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins Colorado.

Global climate change and associated regional climate variability is impacting the phenology of many species, ultimately altering individual fitness and population dynamics. Yet, few studies have considered the effects of pertinent seasonal climate variability on phenology and fitness. Hibernators may be particularly susceptible to changes in seasonal climate since they have a relatively short active season in which to reproduce and gain enough mass to survive the following winter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468137PMC

Primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty using contemporary implants is associated with very low reoperation rates.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The early results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) were influenced to some extent by the use of first-generation implants and surgeons' learning curves, resulting in relatively high reoperation rates. The purpose of this study was to quantify the burden of and identify the indications for reoperation after primary RSA using contemporary implants and techniques.

Methods: A retrospective review of 1649 primary RSAs implanted consecutively between 2009 and 2015 at a single institution was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.01.026DOI Listing

Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally: a rapid review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Apr 24;19(1):239. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, UNSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.

Background: Health systems are complex and continually changing across a variety of contexts and health service levels. The capacities needed by health managers and leaders to respond to current and emerging issues are not yet well understood. Studies to date have been country-specific and have not integrated different international and multi-level insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4080-7DOI Listing

Pairing pedagogical and genomic advances to prepare advanced practice nurses for the era of precision health.

BMC Med Educ 2019 Apr 23;19(1):112. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, 2 Koret Way, #605L, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0610, USA.

Background: Broadly accessible curriculum that equips Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) with knowledge and skills to apply genomics in practice in the era of precision health is needed. Increased accessibility of genomics courses and updated curriculum will prepare APNs to be leaders in the precision health initiative.

Methods: Courses on genomics were redesigned using contemporary pedagogical approaches to online teaching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1542-xDOI Listing

Stress Management Interventions for Nurses: Critical Literature Review.

J Holist Nurs 2019 Apr 23:898010119842693. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Mayo Clinic.

Background: The nursing literature contains numerous studies on stress management interventions for nurses, but their overall levels of evidence remain unclear. Holistic nurses use best-available evidence to guide practice with self-care interventions. Ongoing discovery of knowledge, dissemination of research findings, and evidence-based practice are the foundation of specialized practice in holistic nursing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898010119842693DOI Listing

Baseline fasting plasma insulin levels predict risk for major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes and high-risk vascular disease: Insights from the ACCELERATE trial.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 Mar;16(2):171-177

1 Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Despite optimal treatment, type II diabetes mellitus remains associated with an increased risk for future cardiovascular events. We sought to determine the association between baseline fasting plasma insulin levels and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and high-risk vascular disease enrolled in the ACCELERATE (Assessment of Clinical Effects of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition with Evacetrapib in Patients at a High Risk for Vascular Outcomes) trial.

Methods: We included all patients with type II diabetes mellitus who had a central laboratory measured fasting plasma insulin level drawn at baseline as part of the study protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164119827604DOI Listing
March 2019
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Contemporary Use of Embolic Protection Devices During Saphenous Vein Graft Intervention.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 May;12(5):e007636

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, Aurora, CO (J.A.V., T.J.G., E.J.A., S.W.W.).

Background: Guidelines recommend use of embolic protection devices during percutaneous coronary intervention of saphenous vein grafts, but the use of these devices in contemporary practice is unclear. We thus sought to evaluate the patient characteristics and clinical outcomes associated with embolic protection device use during contemporary saphenous vein graft percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods And Results: We identified patients undergoing isolated saphenous vein graft percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System from January 2008 to June 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007636DOI Listing

Narrow pollen diets are associated with declining Midwestern bumble bee species.

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02697. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Many species of bumble bee (Bombus) have declined in range and abundance across Europe, the Americas, and Asia, whereas other species have persisted and remain common and widespread. One explanation as to why some species have declined, based primarily on studies of the European bumble bee fauna, is that declining species have relatively narrow pollen-foraging niches and are less able to use alternative host plants in the absence of their preferred hosts. Though extensively explored in Europe, this hypothesis has not been investigated in North America, in part due to incomplete information on the foraging niche of many species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2697DOI Listing

Thermionic Cooling of the Target Plasma to a Sub-eV Temperature.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Jan;122(1):015003

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551, USA.

Contemporary models of bounded plasmas assume that the target plasma electron temperature far exceeds the temperature of the cold electrons emitted from the target, T_{emit}. We show that when the sheath facing a collisional plasma becomes inverted, the target plasma electron temperature has to equal T_{emit} even if the upstream plasma is hotter by orders of magnitude. This extreme cooling effect can alter the plasma properties and the heat transmission to thermionically emitting surfaces in many applications. Read More

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https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.015003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.015003DOI Listing
January 2019
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Russian lesbian mothers: Between "traditional values" and human rights.

Authors:
Alisa Zhabenko

J Lesbian Stud 2019 Apr 23:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Gender Studies, , University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland.

Contemporary Russian state ideology has turned towards instituting "traditional family values," an official turn that increased legal and social discrimination against queer families. The concept of "traditional family values" in the contemporary Russian state discourse refers to the "naturalness" of the heterosexual family, consisting of two parents and their biological offspring. This discourse eliminates the possibility of public lesbian parenting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10894160.2019.1598207DOI Listing

Facilitators and barriers to teaching undergraduate medical students in general practice.

Med Educ 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Medical Education, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Context: Globally, primary health care is facing workforce shortages. Longer and higher-quality placements in primary care increase the likelihood of medical students choosing this specialty. However, the recruitment and retention of community primary care teachers are challenging. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/medu.13882
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.13882DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Procreative consciousness in a global market: gay men's paths to surrogacy in the USA.

Authors:
Marcin Smietana

Reprod Biomed Soc Online 2018 Nov 21;7:101-111. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Reproductive Sociology Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

This article explores one of the contemporary contexts of reproductive decision-making: gay men's paths to surrogacy within the globalised USA fertility industry. The stories collected from qualitative interviews and ethnographic research with 37 gay men from several countries in Europe and the USA, who all had children through surrogacy in the USA, show that the men's understandings of their own reproductive aspirations and opportunities changed over time, as if recovering the fertility that was lost by coming out. This shift in the men's procreative consciousness - i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbms.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465560PMC
November 2018

Comparison of organ donation and transplantation rates between opt-out and opt-in systems.

Kidney Int 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK; Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

Studies comparing opt-out and opt-in approaches to organ donation have generally suggested higher donation and transplantation rates in countries with an opt-out strategy. We compared organ donation and transplantation rates between countries with opt-out versus opt-in systems to investigate possible differences in the contemporary era. Data were analysed for 35 countries registered with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (17 countries classified as opt-out, 18 classified as opt-in) and obtained organ donation and transplantation rates for 2016 from the Global Observatory for Donation and Transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.01.036DOI Listing

The effect of age and comorbidities on early postoperative complications after radical cystectomy: A contemporary population-based analysis.

J Geriatr Oncol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Analyzing the relationship between perioperative outcomes and age in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) in a continuous fashion may provide detailed information on the increased risk of complications in older patients, even after accounting for different comorbidity profiles. Given the limited data available in the literature, we tested these relationships within a large scale, population-based database.

Materials And Methods: Within the NIS database (2003-2015), we identified patients who underwent RC for UCB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Women's Health: Contemporary Management of MS in Pregnancy and Post-Partum.

Biomedicines 2019 Apr 19;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) primarily affects women in childbearing age and is associated with an increased risk of adverse post-partum outcomes. Relapses and now fetal exposure to disease modifying treatments in the early phase of pregnancy and thereafter are of concern. Safe and effective contraception is required for women who wish to delay or avoid pregnancy while on disease-modifying treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020032DOI Listing

Periplasmic Nanobody-APEX2 Fusions Enable Facile Visualization of Ebola, Marburg, and Mĕnglà virus Nucleoproteins, Alluding to Similar Antigenic Landscapes among and .

Viruses 2019 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Disease Intervention and Prevention, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, 8715 W. Military Dr., San Antonio, TX 78227-5302, USA.

We explore evolved soybean ascorbate peroxidase (APEX2) as a reporter when fused to the C-termini of llama nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, sdAb; variable domains of heavy chain-only antibodies, VHH) targeted to the periplasm. Periplasmic expression preserves authentic antibody N-termini, intra-domain disulphide bond(s), and capitalizes on efficient haem loading through the porous outer membrane. Using monomeric and dimeric anti-nucleoprotein (NP) sdAb cross-reactive within the genus and cross-reactive within the genus, we show that periplasmic sdAb-APEX2 fusion proteins are easily purified at multi-mg amounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040364DOI Listing

The incidence of first stroke in and around pregnancy: A population-based cohort study from Sweden.

Eur Stroke J 2017 Sep 21;2(3):250-256. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Division of Epidemiology & Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Introduction: Research has suggested that delivery is associated with an increased risk of stroke in women; however, there is a lack of contemporary estimates on the incidence of stroke in and after pregnancy compared with the baseline risk in women of childbearing age in Sweden.

Patients And Methods: All women aged 15-49 years with live births/stillbirths in 1992-2011 were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry linked with the National Patient Registry. First stroke during the study period was identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987317706600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454822PMC
September 2017

No longer locally extinct? Tracing the origins of a lion () living in Gabon.

Conserv Genet 2018 1;19(3):611-618. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

1Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Lions () are of particular conservation concern due to evidence of recent, widespread population declines in what has hitherto been seen as a common species, robust to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use non-invasive methods to recover complete mitochondrial genomes from single hair samples collected in the field in order to explore the identity of the Gabonese Plateaux Batéké lion. Comparison of the mitogenomes against a comprehensive dataset of African lion sequences that includes relevant geographically proximate lion populations from both contemporary and ancient sources, enabled us to identify the Plateaux Batéké lion as a close maternal relative to now extirpated populations found in Gabon and nearby Congo during the twentieth century, and to extant populations of Southern Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-1039-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448349PMC
February 2018

Bridging the legitimacy gap-translating theory into practical signposts for legitimate flood risk governance.

Reg Environ Change 2018 21;18(2):397-408. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

3Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, Hendon, London, NW4 4BT UK.

Legitimacy is widely regarded as a founding principle of 'good' and effective governance, yet despite intense academic debate and policy discourse, the concept remains conceptually confusing and poorly articulated in practice. To bridge this gap, this research performed an interpretive thematic analysis of academic scholarship across public administration, public policy, law, political science, and geography. Four core themes were identified in relation to , , and , with numerous sub-themes therein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-017-1195-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445502PMC

Biopolitics, space and hospital reconfiguration.

Soc Sci Med 2019 Apr 13;230:111-121. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Public Service Management, King's Business School, King's College London, Bush House, 30 Aldwych, London, WC2B 4BG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Major service change in healthcare - whereby the distribution of services is reconfigured at a local or regional level - is often a contested, political and poorly understood set of processes. This paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of major service change by demonstrating the utility of interpreting health service reconfiguration as a biopolitical intervention. Such an approach orients the analytical focus towards an exploration of the spatial and the population - crucial factors in major service change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Complications of Postoperative Epidural Analgesia for Oncologic Surgery: A Review of 18,895 Cases.

Clin J Pain 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

The Department of Pain Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Objectives: The risks of epidural analgesia differ depending on the population studied. We describe our experience with postoperative epidural analgesia for oncologic surgery.

Materials And Methods: After approval from the Institutional Review Board of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to conduct this retrospective analysis, we searched our acute pain medicine database for cases in which postoperative epidural analgesia was used between 2003 and 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000718DOI Listing

A Survey Identifying Nutritional Needs in a Contemporary Adult Cystic Fibrosis Cohort.

BMC Nutr 2019 7;5. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Medicine; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific, Campus Box 356522, Seattle, WA, USA 98195-6522.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease in which nutritional barriers are diverse and common, with malnutrition greatly influencing pulmonary trajectory and overall outcomes. Despite this, the most effective methods to optimize CF nutrition are unknown, and literature describing patients' perspectives on their specific nutritional needs is lacking, particularly in the modern era of CF care. This study aimed to identify the most important nutritional needs and desired health-improvement resources in a contemporary adult CF cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0266-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474380PMC
January 2019

Knowledge and Use of Biostatistics among Resident and Junior Doctors at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt.

Niger J Surg 2019 Jan-Jun;25(1):60-63

Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Background: The place of research in the generation of facts and evidence on which contemporary medicine can be based cannot be overemphasized. Medical and surgical research is now more crucial than ever before for advancement of clinical practice and career progression for medical professionals. This requires good understanding and application of biostatistics among clinicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njs.NJS_37_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452770PMC

Have Synergies Between Nitrogen Deposition and Atmospheric CO Driven the Recent Enhancement of the Terrestrial Carbon Sink?

Global Biogeochem Cycles 2019 Feb 10;33(2):163-180. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment University of Leeds Leeds UK.

The terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the turn of this century at a time of increased fossil fuel burning, yet the mechanisms enhancing this sink are not fully understood. Here we assess the hypothesis that regional increases in nitrogen deposition since the early 2000s has alleviated nitrogen limitation and worked in tandem with enhanced CO fertilization to increase ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration, providing a causal link between the parallel increases in emissions and the global land carbon sink. We use the Community Land Model (CLM4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018GB005922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472506PMC
February 2019

Bringing Development Back into Development Studies.

Authors:
Andrew M Fischer

Dev Change 2019 Mar 8;50(2):426-444. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

This article challenges Horner and Hulme's call to move from 'international development' to 'global development' with a reaffirmation of the classical traditions of development studies. With some adaptation to fit the changing contemporary context, these traditions not only remain relevant but also recover vital insights that have been obscured in the various fashionable re-imaginings of development. In particular, development thinking and agendas in the past were much more radical and ambitious in addressing the imperatives of redistribution and progressive forms of transformation in the context of stark asymmetries of wealth and power. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dech.12490
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dech.12490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472494PMC
March 2019
1 Read

DISEASE to EASE: Paradigm shift in clinical approach.

Med Teach 2019 Apr 21:1-2. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

c Department of Health Education, Severn Postgraduate Medical Education (PGME) School of Primary Care , England NHS , Bristol , United Kingdom.

The high demands of contemporary medical practice have minimized the patient-physician contact with less or no time for Empathy. Unconsciously, our mind is set to focus on "disease" and often patients are referred as "cases." Where there is a rising concern of physician fatigue and burn out, there is equal concern of losing the component of "being humane" in the busy era of modern medical practices. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1597259DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Locomotory adaptations in entoptychine gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) and the mosaic evolution of fossoriality.

J Morphol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Nanjing University, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Centre for Research and Education on Biological Evolution and Environment, Qixia District, Nanjing, China.

Pocket gophers (family Geomyidae) are the dominant burrowing rodents in North America today. Their fossil record is also incredibly rich; in particular, entoptychine gophers, a diverse extinct subfamily of the Geomyidae, are known from countless teeth and jaws from Oligocene and Miocene-aged deposits of the western United States and Mexico. Their postcranial remains, however, are much rarer and little studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20990DOI Listing

The computational stance in biology.

Authors:
C C Wood

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Jun;374(1774):20180380

Santa Fe Institute , 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501 , USA.

The goal of this article is to call attention to, and to express caution about, the extensive use of computation as an explanatory concept in contemporary biology. Inspired by Dennett's 'intentional stance' in the philosophy of mind, I suggest that a 'computational stance' can be a productive approach to evaluating the value of computational concepts in biology. Such an approach allows the value of computational ideas to be assessed without being diverted by arguments about whether a particular biological system is 'actually computing' or not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0380DOI Listing

The Bayley-III scale may underestimate neurodevelopmental disability after cardiac surgery in infants†.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: Neurodevelopmental disability is the most common complication among congenital heart surgery survivors. The Bayley scales are standardized instruments to assess neurodevelopment. The most recent edition (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition, Bayley-III) yields better-than-expected scores in typically developing and high-risk infants than the second edition (Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd Edition, BSID-II). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezz123DOI Listing

Genetic components of human pain sensitivity: a protocol for a genome-wide association study of experimental pain in healthy volunteers.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 20;9(4):e025530. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Pain constitutes a major component of the global burden of diseases. Recent studies suggest a strong genetic contribution to pain susceptibility and severity. Whereas most of the available evidence relies on candidate gene association or linkage studies, research on the genetic basis of pain sensitivity using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is still in its infancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025530DOI Listing

Stakeholder evaluations of risk interventions for non-potable recycled water schemes: A case study.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 6;674:439-450. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

Non-potable recycled water schemes can benefit sustainable urban water management through reducing demand for drinking water and mitigating environmental loadings through the provision of advanced wastewater treatment. However, scheme feasibility can be diminished by high capital and operating costs which can be elevated by perceptions of health risks and subsequently overly cautious risk reduction measures. Conversely, a failure to anticipate the risk management expectations of stakeholders can undermine scheme feasibility through insufficient demand for recycled water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.044DOI Listing

Impact of Multiple Myocardial Scars Detected by CMR in Patients Following STEMI.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Cardiology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Objectives: This study investigated the incidence and long-term prognostic importance of multiple myocardial scars in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a large contemporary cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Background: Patients presenting with STEMI may have multiple infarctions/scars caused by multiple culprit lesions, previous myocardial infarction (MI) or procedure-related MI due to nonculprit interventions. However, the incidence, long-term prognosis, and distribution of causes of multiple myocardial scars remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.01.032DOI Listing

The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: Current trends in clinical practice between guidelines and technology progress.

Eur J Intern Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Arrhythmia & EP Research Center, IRCCS Humanitas Research & University Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) is a valuable alternative to the conventional trans-venous ICD (TV-ICD) for the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Prospective registries showed that the S-ICD is safe and effective in treating ventricular tachyarrhythmias in high-risk patients without pacing indications. While in earlier studies patients implanted with S-ICDs were young and mostly affected by channelopathies, contemporary S-ICD cohorts include patients with severely impaired left ventricular function and significant comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Agreement of 2D transthoracic echocardiography with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Eur J Radiol 2019 May 28;114:6-13. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, PO box 30.001, 9700 RB, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging, Groningen, PO box 30.001, 9700 RB, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: This study was designed to investigate the agreement of 2D transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE) with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a contemporary population of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Methods: In this subanalysis of the GIPS-III trial, a randomized controlled trial investigating the administration of metformin in STEMI patients to prevent reperfusion injury, we studied 259 patients who underwent same-day CMR and 2D TTE assessments four months after hospitalization for a first STEMI. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to assess agreement between LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and LV mass measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.02.039DOI Listing

A contemporary biological pathway of islet amyloid polypeptide for the management of diabetic dementia.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia; Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) & School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle (UoN), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Major challenges of dealing elder patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are the individualization of consideration in persons with various comorbid types of conditions. In spite of the fact that microvascular and macrovascular problems associated with DM are well documented, there is only a few numbers of reports viewing different conditions, for example, cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction is of specific significance due to its effect on self-care and quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.04.022DOI Listing

Frailty index is associated with increased risk of elevated BNP in an elderly population: the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aims: To explore whether frailty, defined by frailty index (FI), is associated with the risk of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a surrogate endpoint of cardiovascular events.

Methods: Data of 1382 community-dwelling elders who had no documented cardiovascular diseases aged 70-84 years from the ageing arm of the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study was used. Traditional risk factor index (TI) was constructed using eight established cardiovascular-related risk factors. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40520-019-01189-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01189-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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Clinicopathological features, treatment approaches, and outcomes in Rosai-Dorfman disease.

Haematologica 2019 04 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare subtype of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. With the last major report published in 1990, there is a paucity of contemporary data on this disease. Our objective was to report the clinicopathological features, treatments and outcomes of patients seen at a tertiary referral center. Read More

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http://www.haematologica.org/lookup/doi/10.3324/haematol.201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.219626DOI Listing
April 2019
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Approach to Complications of Ventricular Assist Devices: A Clinical Review for the Emergency Provider.

J Emerg Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Emergency Medicine Department, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.

Background: Heart failure is a major public health problem in the United States. Increasingly, patients with advanced heart failure that fail medical therapy are being treated with implanted ventricular assist devices (VADs).

Objective: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current data for the evaluation and management of implanted VAD complications in an emergency department context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.03.012DOI Listing
April 2019
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Inflammation during acute coronary syndromes - Risk of cardiovascular events and bleeding.

Int J Cardiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Many parameters can affect the level of inflammation during acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We aimed to assess the one-year risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding associated with elevated hsCRP levels during ACS, taking into account the severity of myocardial infarction, the timing of blood sampling and established long-term prognostic factors.

Methods: We studied 1864 consecutive patients with ACS enrolled in a contemporary multicenter prospective cohort study in Switzerland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.03.049DOI Listing
March 2019
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Food Marketing Influences Children's Attitudes, Preferences and Consumption: A Systematic Critical Review.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 18;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Psychological Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.

Exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages is a widely acknowledged risk factor for the development of childhood obesity and noncommunicable diseases. Food marketing involves the use of numerous persuasive techniques to influence children's food attitudes, preferences and consumption. This systematic review provides a comprehensive contemporary account of the impact of these marketing techniques on children aged 0-18 years and critically evaluates the methodologies used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040875DOI Listing

Augmented and virtual reality in dental medicine: A systematic review.

Comput Biol Med 2019 Mar 15;108:93-100. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, University Center for Dental Medicine Basel, University of Basel, Switzerland, Hebelstr. 3, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on the contemporary knowledge and scientific development of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) in dental medicine, and to identify future research needs to accomplish its clinical translation.

Method: A modified PICO-strategy was performed using an electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) plus manual search up to 12/2018 exploring AR/VR in dentistry in the last 5 years. Inclusion criteria were limited to human studies focusing on the clinical application of AR/VR and associated field of interest in dental medicine. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00104825193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.03.012DOI Listing
March 2019
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Long-term administration of Aspalathus linearis infusion affects spatial memory of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats as well as increases their striatal dopamine content.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 16:111881. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology CePT, Banacha 1b, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Everyday use of the herbal tea rooibos, produced from Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg. (Fabaceae) is customary in South Africa, a continuation of its historical use by indigenous people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111881DOI Listing