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    Garlic Dermatitis on the Neck of an Infant Treated for Nasal Congestion.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Division of Dermatology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
    The health benefits of garlic (Allium sativum) as a naturopathic remedy have been well documented, but topical application of garlic has been linked to allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. We present a case of severe irritant contact dermatitis due to application of a fresh garlic necklace to the neck of infant for treatment of nasal congestion. Read More

    Myths on Chemical Burns in the Diaper Area.
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 May;56(5_suppl):13S-15S
    1 Kenwood Dermatology, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Over the past several years, a number of articles and online posts have circulated on the Internet associating use of disposable and cloth diapers with chemical burns on babies' skin. Because both mild chemical burns and diaper dermatitis (diaper rash) can cause skin redness and peeling, it is not surprising that some confusion has arisen regarding the association between these two conditions. However, diapers cannot cause chemical burns because they are made of inert materials. Read More

    Differential Diagnosis of Diaper Dermatitis.
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 May;56(5_suppl):16S-22S
    1 Johns Hopkins Children's Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Mild diaper dermatitis often occurs in children before toilet training is complete, particularly from 9 to 12 months of age, and the most common presentation is an irritant contact dermatitis. Diaper dermatitis may account for up to 25% of dermatology visits to health care providers during the first year of life. Fortunately, since the introduction of hypoallergenic, superabsorbent modern disposable diapers, the incidence and severity of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis has decreased dramatically. Read More

    Surgery-Related Contact Dermatitis: A Review of Potential Irritants and Allergens.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, Calif.
    Surgical procedures utilize an increasing number of medical products including antiseptics, anesthetics, gloves, suture materials, tissue adhesives, topical antibiotics, and bandages. Many of these products have irritant potential. Allergic contact dermatitis has also been reported. Read More

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis in North American Production Workers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis of Cross-sectional Data From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998 to 2014.
    Dermatitis 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    From the *HCMC Parkside Occupational and Contact Dermatitis Clinic; †Department of Dermatology, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center; and ‡Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; §Division of Dermatology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ∥Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; ¶Division of Dermatology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; #Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY; **Ohio State University, Columbus; ††University of Louisville, KY; ‡‡Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic, OH; §§Associates in Dermatology, Fort Myers, FL; ∥∥Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California, Los Angeles; ¶¶Department of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, State College; ##Division of Dermatology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; ***Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco; and †††Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, OH.
    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis in production workers (PWs).

    Objective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of contact dermatitis and characterize clinically relevant and occupationally related allergens among North American PWs undergoing patch testing.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data from 1998 to 2014. Read More

    Stratum corneum profiles of inflammatory mediators in patch test reactions to common contact allergens and sodium lauryl sulfate.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Nov 4. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Recent studies have demonstrated allergen-specific differences in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in patch tested skin.

    Objectives: To determine levels of various inflammatory mediators in the stratum corneum (SC) after patch testing with common contact allergens and the skin irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS).

    Methods: In total, 27 individuals who had previously patch tested positive to nickel, chromium, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) or para-phenylenediamine were retested and then patch tested with SLS and petrolatum, with petrolatum serving as the patch test control. Read More

    North America Wound, Ostomy, and Continence and Enterostomal Therapy Nurses Current Ostomy Care Practice Related to Peristomal Skin Issues.
    J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Janice C. Colwell, RN, MS, CWOCN, FAAN, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Laurie McNichol, MSN, RN, GNP, CWOCN, CWON-AP, FAAN, Cone Health, Wesley Long Hospital, Greensboro, North Carolina. Joy Boarini, MSN, WOC Nurse, (retired). At the time this article was written she was the Director of Global Clinical Education for Hollister Incorporated. Global Clinical Education, Hollister Incorporated, Libertyville, Illinois.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of 796 ostomy nurses in North America in 2014 related to peristomal skin issues.

    Design: Descriptive study.

    Subjects And Setting: Participants were 796 wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) and enterostomal therapy (ET) nurses currently practicing in the United States or Canada and caring for patients with ostomies. Read More

    Debunking the Myth of Wool Allergy: Reviewing the Evidence for Immune and Non-immune Cutaneous Reactions.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Mar 28. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Dermatology, Monash University, Eastern Health, Box Hill Victoria; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Victoria, 3168 Melbourne, Australia.
    Although wool is commonly believed to cause irritant (non-immune) and hypersensitivity (immune) cutaneous reactions, the evidence basis for this belief and its validity for modern garments have not been critically examined. Publications from the last 100 years, using MEDLINE and Google Scholar, were analysed for evidence that wool causes cutaneous reactions, both immune-mediated (atopic dermatitis exacerbation, contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis) and non-immune-mediated (irritant contact dermatitis, itch). Secondary aims of this paper were to examine evidence that lanolin and textile-processing additives (formaldehyde, chromium) cause cutaneous reactions in the context of modern wool-processing techniques. Read More

    Clinical Study of 124 Patients Having Perianal Dermatitis.
    Dermatitis 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    From the Department of Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Background: Perianal complaints are often consulted in dermatology clinics, and in many cases, a conclusive diagnosis is not easily made.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study and identify the epidemiological, clinical, and contact allergy features of patients with perianal dermatitis who attended at a contact dermatitis unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain.

    Methods: Adult patients with long-lasting (>4 weeks) perianal dermatitis were recruited during the past 10 years for investigation and follow-up. Read More

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis in North American Print Machine Operators Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998 to 2014.
    Dermatitis 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    From the *HCMC Parkside Occupational and Contact Dermatitis Clinic and Department of Dermatology, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center; and †Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis; ‡Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY; §Division of Dermatology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ∥Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco; ¶Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, OH; #Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; **Division of Dermatology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; ††Ohio State University, Columbus; ‡‡University of Louisville, KY; §§Associates in Dermatology, Fort Myers, FL; ∥∥Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California, Los Angeles; ¶¶Department of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, State College; ##Division of Dermatology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; and ***Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic, OH.
    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in print machine operators (PMOs).

    Objective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of CD and characterize clinically relevant and occupationally related allergens among PMOs undergoing patch testing.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group data from 1998 to 2014. Read More

    Histomorphology and Immunophenotype of Eczematous Skin Lesions Revisited-Skin Biopsies Are Not Reliable in Differentiating Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, and Atopic Dermatitis.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar 10. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    *Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; †Dermatologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; and ‡Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lesions of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and atopic dermatitis (AD) share similar clinical features and thus, their diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study was to reassess histopathology and immunophenotyping properties to distinguish between ACD, ICD, and AD. Charts of patients with eczema, who had undergone complete routine diagnostic workup (skin biopsies, patch tests, skin prick tests, and respectively or serum IgE levels), were reviewed. Read More

    Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology.
    Contact Dermatitis 2017 May 14;76(5):287-295. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Academic Medical Center, Department: Coronel institute of Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography.

    Objective: To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Methods: Patch testing was performed on patients with previously positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate (Cr), nickel sulfate (Ni), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), or p-phenylenediamine. Read More

    A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.
    J Res Med Sci 2016 2;21:102. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Royan Institute for Animal Biotechnology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC) and potassium nitrate (KN) are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Neonatal Skin Lesions.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:11-17
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin findings during the initial month of life are ubiquitous. One study estimated that more than 95% of newborns have cutaneous findings, which often are distressing to parents but frequently are benign and self-limited. Among them are milia, cutis marmorata, congenital dermal melanocytosis, and the benign neonatal pustular eruptions (eg, benign cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis). Read More

    Development of an in vitro method to estimate the sensitization induction level of contact allergens.
    Toxicol Lett 2017 Apr 9;271:1-11. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
    No standardized in vitro methods to assess potency of skin sensitizers are available. Recently, we standardized a procedure which combines the epidermal equivalent potency assay with assessment of IL-18 to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizers. This current study aimed to extend tested chemicals, and to provide a simple in vitro method for estimation of the expected sensitization induction level interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 values to predict LLNA EC3 and/or human NOEL from standards curves generated using reference contact allergens. Read More

    Dermatoses among automobile mechanics in Mansoura, Egypt.
    Arch Environ Occup Health 2017 Feb 3:1-6. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    b Department of Dermatology , Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University , Mansoura , Egypt.
    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Sociodemographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45. Read More

    The Endocannabinoid System and Its Role in Eczematous Dermatoses.
    Dermatitis 2017 Jan/Feb;28(1):22-32
    From the *Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; †School of Medicine, ‡Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis; and §Dermatology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    The skin serves as the foremost barrier between the internal body and the external world, providing crucial protection against pathogens and chemical, mechanical, and ultraviolet damages. The skin is a central player in the intricate network of immune, neurologic, and endocrine systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes an extensive network of bioactive lipid mediators and their receptors, functions to modulate appetite, pain, mood, and memory, and has recently been implicated in skin homeostasis. Read More

    Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Dec;15(12):1504-1510
    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. Read More

    Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Nov;15(11):s81-s85
    Background: Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. Read More

    Evaluation of in vitro assays for the assessment of the skin sensitization hazard of functional polysiloxanes and silanes.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Mar 23;84:64-76. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Dow Corning Corporation, Health and Environmental Sciences, 2200 West Salzburg Road, Auburn, MI 48611, United States.
    The skin sensitization potential of chemicals has traditionally been evaluated in vivo according to OECD testing guidelines in guinea pigs or the mouse local lymph node assay. There has lately been a great emphasis on establishing in vitro test methods reflecting the key biological events in the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization as published by the OECD. Against this background, a group of 8 polysiloxanes and silanes, seven of them aminofunctionalised, for which in vivo data were already available, has been tested in vitro in the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) and in the modified myeloid U937 skin sensitization test (mMUSST) as far as technically feasible. Read More

    Biomimetic proopiomelanocortin suppresses capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in humans.
    Res Pharm Sci 2016 Dec;11(6):484-490
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.
    Sensitive skin is a frequently mentioned cosmetic complaint. Addition of a biomimetic of neuromediator has recently appeared as a promising new way to cure skin care product problems. This study was aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of a biomimetic lipopeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (bPOMC) on capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in human volunteers and also to compare its protective effect with that of the well-known anti irritant strontium chloride. Read More

    Patch Test Series for Allergic Perineal Dermatitis in the Diapered Infant.
    Dermatitis 2017 Jan/Feb;28(1):70-75
    From the *Section of Pediatric Dermatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA; and †Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Background: Allergic perineal dermatitis (PD) due to diaper wipes, topical medicaments, or diapers has been reported. Although patch testing is the criterion standard for detection of allergic contact dermatitis in children, this is limited by body surface area, decreased tolerance of the patch testing procedure, and increased false-positive rates due to irritant reactions. Therefore, a targeted patch testing series is necessary to better screen diapered infants for possible allergic PD. Read More

    A new treatment regimen with permethrin in scabies.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 16. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Postgraduate School of Dermatology and Venereology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Topical permethrin, applied once daily, is considered as the most effective treatment in scabies.

    Methods: Eighty-nine adult immunocompetent patients with scabies were treated with 5% permethrin cream: 42 patients were treated with a single application/day (group I); 47 patients were treated with one application/day for two consecutive days (group II). Clinical diagnosis of scabies was confirmed by microscopical examinations. Read More

    Skin targeting of resveratrol utilizing solid lipid nanoparticle-engrossed gel for chemically induced irritant contact dermatitis.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res 2017 Feb;7(1):37-52
    Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon(Bk.), Pune S. No 44/1, Vadgaon (Bk), Off Sinhgad Road, Pune, MS, 411041, India.
    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Despite its growing prevalence, therapeutic treatments remain limited. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation, and increase in transepidermal water loss. Read More

    Outcomes of acute dermal irritation and sensitisation tests on active dressings for chronic wounds: a comparative study.
    J Wound Care 2016 Dec;25(12):722-729
    Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Laboratory for Medicine and Veterinary Products in the GMP Head of Research Laboratory for Medicine and Veterinary Products.
    Objective: Chronic, non-healing ulcers are a significant problem in clinical practice. The numerous complications, associated with toxicological and allergic reactions, caused by certain compounds in active dressings have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the local skin tolerance of active dressings and determine which of them carries a risk of causing local skin reactions. Read More

    Acral manifestations of contact dermatitis.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):9-18. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Section of Dermatology, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:
    Contact dermatitis is a broad term that encompasses both nonimmunologic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and immunologically mediated allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Both ICD and ACD can negatively affect a patient's quality of life and are a source of exorbitant medical and societal costs. Avoidance of inciting irritants and/or allergens and liberal use of emollients or humectants are the cornerstone of therapy. Read More

    Review of Medicinal Remedies on Hand Eczema Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Narrative Review Article.
    Iran J Public Health 2016 Aug;45(8):986-996
    Dept. of Iranian Traditional Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Hand Eczema (HE) is a dermatological disorder with frequent relapses and multiple causes such as atopic, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The management is complex because of the wide range of different pathogenesis. Efficacy of some of available treatments is not well established and it can affect patients' quality of life significantly. Read More

    [Main Causes of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Three Year Study in the Center of Portugal].
    Acta Med Port 2016 Aug 31;29(7-8):449-455. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Serviço de Dermatologia. Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal. Clinica de Dermatologia. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal.
    Introduction: Allergic contact dermatitis, along with irritant contact dermatitis and immediate contact reactions, contact urticarial, are the most frequent dermatological occupational disease, but seldom reported to the National authorities.

    Material And Methods: We performed a 3-year retrospective study at the allergology section in the Dermatology Clinic of the University Hospital of Coimbra to evaluate the main occupations diagnosed as occupational allergic contact dermatitis, most common allergens and the effect of the modification of the work station in the evolution of the disease.

    Results: During 2012 - 2014 among the 941 patch tested patients, 77 (8. Read More

    Recent Advances in Pharmacotherapeutic Paradigm of Mild to Recalcitrant Atopic Dermatitis.
    Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2016 ;33(3):213-263
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Read More

    Contact sensitization to limonene and linalool hydroperoxides in Spain: a GEIDAC(*) prospective study.
    Contact Dermatitis 2017 Feb 29;76(2):74-80. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital del Mar, Institut Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes widely used in cosmetic, household and hygiene products. Their primary oxidation products formed after air exposure, the hydroperoxides, have been recognized as important contact haptens.

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to hydroperoxides of limonene (Lim-OOHs) and hydroperoxides of linalool (Lin-OOHs) in Spain, and to define the optimal concentration for screening in consecutive patients. Read More

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis.
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2017 Feb;37(1):141-152
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, Gloriastrasse 31, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. Read More

    Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Paederus Dermatitis Among Nut Farm Workers in Turkey.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 22;96(2):483-487. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Giresun University Medicine Faculty, Giresun, Turkey.
    Paederus dermatitis is an acute irritant dermatitis resulting from contact with the hemolymph of Paederus beetles. This dermatitis mimics other infectious skin disorders, often resulting in diagnostic dilemmas. This study of 46 patients was conducted to increase awareness about Paederus dermatitis. Read More



    Quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization: Success or failure?
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Feb 18;83:104-108. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Skin sensitization is unique in the world of toxicology. There is a combination of reliable, validated predictive test methods for identification of skin sensitizing chemicals, a clearly documented and transparent approach to risk assessment, and effective feedback from dermatology clinics around the world delivering evidence of the success or failure of the hazard identification/risk assessment/management process. Recent epidemics of contact allergy, particularly to preservatives, have raised questions of whether the safety/risk assessment process is working in an optimal manner (or indeed is working at all!). Read More

    Acquired Bilateral Longitudinal True Leukonychia in a 35-year-old Woman.
    Int J Prev Med 2016 26;7:118. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Acquired bilateral longitudinal true leukonychia is a rare disorder. We present a case of a 35-year-old healthy woman presented with this unusual and rare manifestation. She mentioned a history of unprotected exposure to detergents and bleaching chemical agents. Read More

    Tight junctions in skin inflammation.
    Pflugers Arch 2017 Jan 16;469(1):3-14. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Dermatology and Venerology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
    Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e. Read More

    Contact dermatitis and interferon-γ dependent chemokines.
    Clin Ter 2016 Sep-Oct;167(5):e112-e116
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Inflammation of the skin is the pathological base of contact dermatitis (CD), and cytokines are very important in its pathogenesis. Recently it has been shown that interferon (IFN)-γ, and the IFN-γ dependent chemokines, monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), play an important role in CD. Allergic CD (ACD) is a T-cell-mediated disease in which expression of a distinct repertoire of chemokines results in the recruitment of effector T cells into the skin. Read More

    Comparison of BALB/c and CBA/J mice for the local lymph node assay using bromodeoxyuridine with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM).
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Feb 2;83:13-22. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Toxicological Screening & Testing Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The local lymph node assay using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified LLNA that is used to identify skin sensitizers by counting BrdU-incorporated lymph node cells (LNCs) with flow cytometry. Unlike other LLNA methods (OECD TG 429, 442A and 442B) in which the CBA/J mouse strain is used, LLNA: BrdU-FCM was originally designed to be compatible with BALB/c, a mouse strain that is more widely used in many countries. To justify the substitution of CBA/J for BALB/c, the equivalence of the test results between two strains shall be established prior to the official implementation of LLNA: BrdU-FCM. Read More

    Proteomics analysis of dendritic cell activation by contact allergens reveals possible biomarkers regulated by Nrf2.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Dec 3;313:170-179. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Berlin, Germany.
    Allergic contact dermatitis is a widespread disease with high clinical relevance affecting approximately 20% of the general population. Typically, contact allergens are low molecular weight electrophilic compounds which can activate the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. We performed a proteomics study to reveal possible biomarkers for dendritic cell (DC) activation by contact allergens and to further elucidate the role of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in this process. Read More

    In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.
    Int J Pharm 2016 Dec 19;515(1-2):384-389. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy institutes, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; FDE (EA4267), university of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.
    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Read More

    [Epidermal barrier disorders in dermatoses].
    Hautarzt 2016 Nov;67(11):907-921
    Klinik für Dermatologie, Allergologie und Venerologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstr. 7, 24105, Kiel, Deutschland.
    The permeability barrier plays an important role in numerous skin diseases. Particularly well known is the importance of this barrier in eczema. In irritative-toxic contact dermatitis, the first step in the pathogenesis is the disturbance of the permeability barrier by irritative-toxic noxious substances. Read More

    The Scourge of the Spurge Family-An Imitator of Rhus Dermatitis.
    Dermatitis 2016 Nov/Dec;27(6):372-381
    From the *University at Buffalo School of Medicine, New York, NY; †The University of Utah Department of Dermatology, Salt Lake City; and ‡Veterans Administration Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT.
    The Euphorbiaceae family (commonly known as "spurge") is a large, diverse, and widely distributed family of plants that encompass around 300 genera and more than 8000 species. Their attractiveness and hearty nature have made them popular for both indoor ornamentation and outdoor landscaping. Despite their ubiquity, the potential to cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is often overlooked in favor of more notorious causes of phytodermatitis, namely, Toxicodendron species and nettles. Read More

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Mechanics and Repairers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998-2014.
    Dermatitis 2017 Jan/Feb;28(1):47-57
    From the *HCMC Parkside Occupational and Contact Dermatitis Clinic and Department of Dermatology, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center; †Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis; ‡Division of Dermatology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; §Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco; ∥Division of Dermatology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ¶Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY; #University of Louisville, KY; **Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; ††Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic; ‡‡Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, OH; §§Associates in Dermatology, Fort Myers, FL; ∥∥University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles; ¶¶Department of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park; ##Division of Dermatology, University of Ottawa, Canada; ***Ohio State University, Columbus; and †††Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland.
    Background: Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations.

    Objectives: This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other).

    Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014. Read More

    Rare case of type I hypersensitivity reaction to sodium hypochlorite solution in a healthcare setting.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Oct 21;2016. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Government of Singapore Ministry of Manpower, Singapore.
    Sodium hypochlorite is a clear yellowish solution with a characteristic odour of chlorine and is commonly used as a disinfectant and a bleaching agent. It is used in various healthcare settings for its fast-acting and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a known irritant and there are some reports that it can also cause allergic contact dermatitis of type IV hypersensitivity. Read More

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