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    4612 results match your criteria Contact Dermatitis Irritant

    1 OF 93

    Absence of human skin irritation and allergenic potential after repeated patch applications of a lamellar moisturizer.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Apr 15. Epub 2018 Apr 15.
    GSK Consumer Healthcare, St George's Avenue, Weybridge, Surrey, UK.
    Background: New cosmetic products should undergo clinical evaluation for skin sensitization potential.

    Objectives: To assess the irritation and sensitization potential of a moisturizer containing lamellar structured lipids after repeated patch application in humans, using human repeated insult patch test methodology.

    Methods: This 6-week, single-center, open-label study compared a lamellar moisturizer with negative saline control in human subjects aged 18-70 years and skin phototype (Fitzpatrick) classification I-IV. Read More

    Case Report: Paederus Dermatitis in the Returning Traveler.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.
    Rash in the returned traveler can provide a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, but a detailed history including epidemiologic exposures can allow prompt diagnosis of etiologies uncommon in the United States. One such disease is Paederus dermatitis, an irritant contact dermatitis related to exposure to the rove beetle characterized by bullous lesions with surrounding erythema. Although cases and outbreaks have commonly been reported throughout the world, they are rarely reported in travelers returning to the United States. Read More

    Specific barrier response profiles after experimentally induced skin irritation in vivo.
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Background: Recently, natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) and corneocyte surface topography were suggested as biomarkers for irritant dermatitis.

    Objectives: To investigate how exposure to different irritants influences corneocyte surface topography, NMF levels and the barrier function of human skin in vivo.

    Methods: Eight healthy adult volunteers were exposed to aqueous solutions of 60% n-propanol, 0. Read More

    Can the epoxides of cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal show new cases of contact allergy?
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: Cinnamyl alcohol is considered to be a prohapten and prehapten with cinnamal as the main metabolite. However, many individuals who are allergic to cinnamyl alcohol do not react to cinnamal. Sensitizing epoxides of cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal have been identified as metabolites and autoxidation products of cinnamyl alcohol. Read More

    Differential diagnoses of diaper dermatitis.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Mar;35 Suppl 1:s10-s18
    Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Keil, Germany.
    Diaper dermatitis is the most common contact eczema present in early childhood. The main cause is an irritant reaction to urine and feces, which is facilitated by the occlusive conditions under the diaper, leading to hyperhydration of the stratum corneum (diaper dermatitis). In addition, diaper pressure and friction can increase the risk of skin inflammation, which also opens the skin up to other irritant agents, allergens, and infectious agents, such as candida albicans. Read More

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Canadian Aircraft Industry: A 25-Year Retrospective Study.
    Dermatitis 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    From the Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Québec, Canada.
    Background: Aircraft building exposes workers to irritant and sensitizing products.

    Objective: The aim of this article was to study occupational dermatoses among aircraft workers over 25 years.

    Methods: The files of aerospace workers referred between 1990 and 2015 were extracted from the database of the McGill University Health Centre contact dermatitis clinic. Read More

    Contact dermatitis and patch testing for the allergist.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Allergy and Immunology Fellow, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York.
    Objective: Contact dermatitis (CD) is a common disease seen by allergists. Although underutilized, patch testing (PT) remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of allergic CD. It is not difficult to perform, however, the interpretation of the PT, proper classification of the results and determination of their relevance, need an appropriate level of expertise. Read More

    Unilateral Palmar Callus and Irritant Hand Eczema - Underreported Signs of Dependency on Crutches.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Jan 10;6(1):103-104. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    University of Rome, Institute of Deramtology, Rome, Italy.
    Leg amputees who can't use prostheses and patients with arthritis are often dependent on crutches. Their chronic use can exert significant friction forces. The palmar skin will respond by forming a hyperkeratotic callus. Read More

    Clinical potential of mechlorethamine gel for the topical treatment of mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a review on current efficacy and safety data.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 31;12:241-254. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Hematology/Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.
    Nitrogen mustard is a chemotherapeutic agent that has a well-documented safety and efficacy profile in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Development of nitrogen mustard formulations and treatment regimens has been studied extensively over the last 40 years. In the last 5 years, a new gel formulation has been developed that is associated with a decrease in delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Read More

    Cutting Edge: Nqo1 Regulates Irritant Contact Hypersensitivity against Croton Oil through Maintenance of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells.
    J Immunol 2018 Mar 29;200(5):1555-1559. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Immunology and Pathology, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba 272-8516, Japan
    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is associated with local release of inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species and regulated by various antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants. Although Nqo1 is involved in antioxidative reactions and detoxification, its role in ICD remains unknown. Nqo1-deficient mice exhibited augmented ear swelling accompanied by neutrophil infiltration in the croton oil-induced mouse ICD model. Read More

    Impact of climate change on dermatological conditions related to flooding: update from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Climate change contributes to the increase in severity and frequency of flooding, which is the most frequent and deadly disaster worldwide. Flood-related damage can be very severe and include health effects. Among those health impacts, dermatological diseases are one of the most frequently encountered. Read More

    Potential of EPR spin-trapping to investigate in situ free radicals generation from skin allergens in reconstructed human epidermis: cumene hydroperoxide as proof of concept.
    Free Radic Res 2018 Feb 15;52(2):171-179. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    a Dermatochemistry Laboratory , University of Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7177, Institut le Bel , Strasbourg , France.
    The first step in the development of skin sensitisation to a chemical, and in the elicitation of further allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), is the binding of the allergen to skin proteins after penetrating into the epidermis. The so-formed antigenic adduct is then recognised by the immune system as foreign to the body. Sensitising organic hydroperoxides derived from autoxidation of natural terpenes are believed to form antigens through radical-mediated mechanisms, although this has not yet been established. Read More

    Clinico-etiologic profile of hand dermatitis and patch response of patients at a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria: results of a prospective observational study.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Feb 10;57(2):149-155. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Kyutis Clinic, Ikoyi Lagos, Nigeria.
    Background: Hand dermatitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the skin of the hands from a multifactorial cause which may be endogenous, exogenous, or a combination of both. With a wide range in severity and recurrent periods of flares, it has significant impact on the quality of life of its sufferers. A history of atopy predisposes patients to hand dermatitis, but contact dermatitis, either allergic or irritant, is the more commonly implicated factor in the etiology of hand dermatitis. Read More

    Towards an international language for incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD): design and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Ghent Global IAD Categorization Tool (GLOBIAD) in 30 countries.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a specific type of irritant contact dermatitis with different severity levels. An internationally accepted instrument to assess the severity of IAD in adults, with established diagnostic accuracy, agreement and reliability, is needed to support clinical practice and research.

    Objectives: To design the Ghent Global IAD Categorization Tool (GLOBIAD) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Read More

    Irritant contact keratitis caused by the bodily fluids of a brown marmorated stink bug.
    Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):221-223
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Purpose: The brown marmorated stink bug is native to Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Korean peninsula). Its bodily fluids are toxic and irritating to the human skin and eyes. Human case reports are rare. Read More

    Risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria among vocational students of agriculture.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Dec 22;24(4):716-721. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland.
    Introduction And Objective: Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture.

    Material And Methods: The study involved 440 students (245 males, 195 females aged 17-21 years) in 11 vocational schools which were at least 100 km from each other. Read More

    Contact Dermatitis Associated With Skin Cleansers: Retrospective Analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group Data 2000-2014.
    Dermatitis 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Background: There is limited information regarding contact dermatitis (CD) associated with skin cleansers (SCs).

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic patch test (APT) reactions and irritant CD (ICD) associated with SCs.

    Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed using North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, 2000-2014. Read More

    Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis: Pathogenesis, Contributing Factors, Prevention and Management Options.
    Drugs Aging 2018 Jan;35(1):1-10
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), Department of Public Health, University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis, seen in patients with urinary or faecal incontinence. Mechanical factors such as traumata and friction may aggravate the lesions. The fragile skin in elderly patients is more prone to developing IAD. Read More

    Contact allergy: an update.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Pulmonology, Allergology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Contact allergies are common cause of eczema in all age groups and are one of the most common causes of occupational disability. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic triggers of contact dermatitis by clinical and histologic examinations can be challenging. Read More

    A Non-Peptidic S100A9 Specific Ligand for Optical Imaging of Phagocyte Activity In Vivo.
    Mol Imaging Biol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    European Institute for Molecular Imaging (EIMI), University of Münster, Waldeyerstr. 15, 48149, Münster, Germany.
    Purpose: Non-invasive assessment of inflammatory activity in the course of various diseases is a largely unmet clinical challenge. An early feature of inflammation is local secretion of the alarmin S100A8/A9 by activated phagocytes. We here evaluate a novel S100A9-targeted small molecule tracer Cy5. Read More

    Classification of consumer products under the EU CLP Regulation: what to consider when caring for contact dermatitis patients.
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Jan 17;78(1):1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, 07743, Jena, Germany.
    Possibly hazardous chemical substances and mixtures need to be clearly and correctly classified and labelled, in order for their hazards to be properly identified and communicated. As dermatologists may encounter cases of harm to patients induced by chemicals, such as chemical burns, and irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, it is essential for them to be aware of the EU CLP Regulation and its potential pitfalls. Manufacturers are required by CLP to classify their products according to the rules given in the CLP Regulation. Read More

    Pathomechanisms of Contact Sensitization.
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2017 Nov 11;17(12):83. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Allergy Research Group, Department of Dermatology, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 7, 79104, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Contact sensitization is the initial process involved in the development of an allergic reaction to xenobiotic environmental substances. Here, we briefly describe the differences between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Then, we highlight the essential steps involved in the development of an ACD reaction, i. Read More

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by calcipotriol.
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Feb 8;78(2):139-142. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Contact Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: Calcipotriol, a synthetic vitamin D analogue, is widely used for the topical treatment of psoriasis. It often causes irritant reactions, whereas allergic contact dermatitis has less commonly been reported.

    Objectives: To report on 6 patients (among them an 11-year-old child) who presented with eczematous lesions complicating pre-existing dermatitis, observed in our tertiary referral patch test clinic between 2004 and 2016. Read More

    Occupational hand eczema and/or contact urticaria: factors associated with change of profession or not remaining in the workforce.
    Contact Dermatitis 2018 Jan 27;78(1):55-63. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 2400, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Occupational hand eczema and/or contact urticaria may have social consequences such as change of profession or not remaining in the workforce.

    Objectives: To identify factors associated with job change in a cohort of participants with recognised occupational hand eczema/contact urticaria METHODS: A registry-based study including 2703 employees with recognised occupational hand eczema/contact urticaria in Denmark in 2010/2011. Four to five years later the participants received a follow-up questionnaire, comprising questions on current job situation (response rate 58. Read More

    Propylene Glycol in Contact Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.
    Dermatitis 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    From the *Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, CA; †Clinical Dermatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; and ‡Department of Dermatology, Loma Linda University, CA.
    Propylene glycol (PG), an emollient and emulsifier found in cosmetics, medications, and food, has been granted the dubious honor of being named the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Allergen of the Year for 2018. Contact, systemic, and irritant cutaneous reactions have been documented for PG, which has become an increasingly common ingredient. Propylene glycol is as contentious as it is ubiquitous because it acts as both a weak sensitizer and an irritant, confounding the results of positive patch tests. Read More

    Allergen of the Year: Propylene Glycol.
    Dermatitis 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    From the *Department of Dermatology, Loma Linda University, CA and †Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Propylene glycol (PG), an emollient and emulsifier found in cosmetics, medications, and food, has been granted the dubious honor of being named the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Allergen of the Year for 2018. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis and systemic cutaneous reactions to PG, which has become an increasingly common ingredient, have been documented. Propylene glycol is as contentious as it is ubiquitous because it acts as both a weak sensitizer and an irritant, confounding the results of positive patch tests. Read More

    Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis in infants with emphasis on skin microbiota in the diaper area.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Mar 6;57(3):265-275. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Diaper dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin eruption within the diaper area in infants and toddlers. Although it rarely causes problems for prolonged periods of time, it causes considerable distress for both infants and parents. Diapered skin is exposed to friction, excessive hydration, varying pH, and is in constant contact with urine and feces, both of which are highly irritant to the skin. Read More

    Paederus Dermatitis: A Case Series.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Sep-Oct;8(5):361-364
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
    Vorderman (1901) was the first to record blisters caused by beetles in medical literature. Blister beetle dermatitis is a cutaneous condition caused by the toxins released by blister beetles. The vesicant chemical in the body fluids of these insects causes an acute irritant contact dermatitis characterized by erythematovesicular lesions associated with burning sensation on exposed parts of the body. Read More

    The association of smoking with contact dermatitis and hand eczema - a review.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Apr 27;57(4):375-387. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Given the high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), hand eczema (HE), and smoking, and the impact that smoking has on skin disease, the authors reviewed the existing literature to assess the association between smoking and contact dermatitis or hand eczema. Using the PubMed and SCOPUS databases, a literature search identified articles related to allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and hand eczema and a possible association with smoking. The search period included articles prior to and including April 2016. Read More

    Characterization of reconstructed human skin containing Langerhans cells to monitor molecular events in skin sensitization.
    Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Feb 21;46:77-85. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Institute of Pharmacy (Pharmacology and Toxicology), Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Human cell-based approaches to assess defined key events in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are well-established, but lack cutaneous penetration and biotransformation as well as cellular cross-talk. Herein, we integrated in vitro-generated immature MUTZ-3-derived Langerhans-like cells (MUTZ-LCs) or monocyte-derived LC-like cells (MoLCs) into reconstructed human skin (RHS), consistent of a stratified epidermis formed by primary keratinocytes on a dermal compartment with collagen-embedded primary fibroblasts. LC-like cells were mainly localized in the epidermal compartment and distributed homogenously in accordance with native human skin. Read More

    A Case of a Paediatric Patient With Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2018 Mar/Apr;22(2):226-228. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    1 Division of Dermatology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Allergic contact dermatitis to benzoyl peroxide can occur in up to 6.5% of those with a history of exposure to this potential allergen. Conversely, irritant contact dermatitis is very common with benzoyl peroxide and can be differentiated from allergic contact dermatitis based on the patient's history and clinical signs and symptoms. Read More

    Bullous cutaneous larva migrans: case series and review of atypical clinical presentations.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Oct;152(5):516-519
    Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, I.R.C.C.S. Foundation Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HRCLM) is caused by the penetration and migration in the epidermis of larvae of Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum. It is characterized by slightly raised and erythematous tracks, located especially on the feet. These tracks may be single or multiple, serpiginous or linear, ramified and intertwined, accompanied by pruritus. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: addressing allergy, infection, itch and complementary therapies.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):112-117
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY; Allergy & Immunology Training Program, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex condition that results from the dynamic interplay between genetic predisposition, skin barrier defects, environmental factors, and a dysfunctional immune system. As a result, AD can be complicated by irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and imbalances in the skin microbiome, which can subsequently exacerbate the severity and complicate the course of preexisting atopic disease. Itch is an important symptom of AD, as it plays a large role in the quality of life of patients and their families. Read More

    Effects of Acupuncture on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2017 Aug 11;10(4):252-260. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Shandong Medicine Technician College, Tai'an, Shandong, China. Electronic address:
    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for ACD despite their significant adverse effects. Acupuncture has been widely used in the treatment of various skin diseases, but its underlying mechanism remains unrevealed. Read More

    Benzalkonium Chloride: An Irritant and Sensitizer.
    Dermatitis 2017 Nov/Dec;28(6):346-352
    From the *Tufts University School of Medicine and †Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
    Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a known irritant, and potentially cross-reacting quaternary ammonium compounds are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to review positive reactions to BAK in 615 patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in 615 patients patch tested from June 2015 to October 2016. Read More

    Skin targeting of curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles-engrossed topical gel for the treatment of pigmentation and irritant contact dermatitis.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017 Sep 8:1-12. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    a Sinhgad College of Pharmacy , Pune , India.
    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and hyperpigmentation are the problems associated with skin. Topical curcumin (CUR) although effective in hyperpigmentation and ICD, is a challenging molecule due to low-solubility. Encapsulation of CUR into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) makes it amenable to topical dosing as their small size promotes its penetration into the skin. Read More

    Best practices, new perspectives and the perfect emollient: optimizing the management of contact dermatitis.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Sep 19:1-11. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    e Department of Dermatology , University of Kiel , Kiel , Germany.
    Contact dermatitis (CD) is caused by environmental agents, irritants, and allergens that penetrate the epidermis and lead to inflammation. An intact skin barrier prevents penetration and is important in maintaining healthy skin. Classical diagnosis of CD is made using the patch test, and traditional treatment strategies for CD promote skin barrier integrity and resolve the inflammatory component of the condition. Read More

    [Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital].
    An Pediatr (Barc) 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, España.
    Introduction: Hand eczema is a frequent disease in adults. Diagnosing the cause of hand eczema is difficult due to different classifications. There is lack of evidence on hand eczema and its causes in children. Read More

    Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.
    Contact Dermatitis 2017 Nov 9;77(5):303-310. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern.

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease.

    Methods: Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Read More

    An observational study on the effects of aviation turbine fuel and lubricants on the skin of Indian Air Force ground crew in flying stations.
    Med J Armed Forces India 2017 Jul 11;73(3):294-298. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
    Assistant Surgeon, O/o Deputy Director Medical Services (Leprosy), Collectorate, Salem District, Tamil Nadu 636001, India.
    Background: Ground crew of the Air Force routinely handle aviation turbine fuel (ATF) and lubricants and a need was felt to study the adverse effects of these substances on their skin so that remedial measures could be taken to prevent these adverse effects.

    Methods: A multi-centric, cross-sectional, observational study was performed at three Air Force flying stations. 109 ground crew members of the Indian Air Force (IAF) who were in direct contact with ATF and lubricants were screened for dermatological manifestations on exposed areas. Read More

    Skin diseases of the vulva: eczematous diseases and contact urticaria.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Apr 7;38(3):295-300. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    a Department of Dermatology , Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Skin diseases in the vulvar area include a variety of disorders many of which have a chronic course with significant morbidity. It is important to be aware of the symptoms, signs and diagnostic tools in order to optimise treatment. Herein, the most common eczematous diseases of the vulvar area, i. Read More

    Atopic and Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva.
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017 Sep;44(3):371-378
    Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 4618 Country Club Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27104, USA. Electronic address:
    Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Read More

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