139,256 results match your criteria Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology[Journal]
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 7;246:328-335. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.
The occurrence and distributions of selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), along with related environmental factors, were investigated in two rivers and six reservoirs in the Pearl River Delta. The vertical profiles of aqueous 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and estrone (E1) were constant, with little change in concentration between the surface and the river bottom, while higher aqueous concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) were found in the bottom layers of the rivers. OP and NP in suspended particulate matter (SPM) were transferred from the surface to the bed layer, ultimately accumulating in the sediment. Read More
Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 11;207:101-109. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, China. Electronic address:
Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is thought to be a rapid and specific response to metal exposure in marine phytoplankton, but its potential as a predictor of metal toxicity is far from conclusive. Thus this research examines the bioaccumulation, PC induction, and toxicity of Cadmium (Cd) in Thalassiosira weissflogii, a coastal diatom under varying nutrient conditions. Nitrogen limitation strongly inhibited Cd uptake and PC induction at the same [Cd] level, and increased metal sensitivity. Read More
PLoS Genet 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007838. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
The earliest stage of animal development is controlled by maternally deposited mRNA transcripts and proteins. Once the zygote is able to transcribe its own genome, maternal transcripts are degraded, in a tightly regulated process known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). While this process has been well-studied within model species, we have little knowledge of how the pools of maternal and zygotic transcripts evolve. Read More
J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
2 Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 East Green Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.
We collected blood and serum from 155 brown bears ( Ursus arctos) inhabiting five locations in Alaska during 2013-16 and tested samples for evidence of prior exposure to a suite of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents. Antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears was estimated to be 15% for Brucella spp., 10% for Francisella tularensis, 7% for Leptospira spp. Read More
J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
1 Tarleton State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100, Stephenville, Texas 76402, USA.
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an immunosuppressive and sometimes oncogenic avian retrovirus that establishes lifelong infection in a wide range of avian species. REV-infected wild birds roaming near at-risk captive flocks, such as is the case for the highly endangered Attwater's prairie chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), could act as a reservoir for viral transmission. In wild birds, prevalence rates of REV are low and appearance of associated disease is uncommon. Read More
J Morphol 2019 Jan;280(1):133-148
School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.
Levantine scraper, Capoeta damascina is a candidate species for future stock assessments, conservation studies, and hatchery efforts. Herein, we documented embryonic and early larval development, from egg activation to the exogenous feeding period, using morphological and histological landmarks. Embryos were obtained by in vitro fertilization from hormonally induced wild-caught broodstock, and subsequent development was monitored at temperatures coinciding with native conditions. Read More
Zoo Biol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.
The ex situ population of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) face many challenges to its sustainability such as mate incompatibility, low founder numbers and disease prevalence. The North American population was monitored for a three-year period during institutional transfers and breeding introductions. In total, 26 fishing cats, including 15 different breeding pairs were monitored during 20 transfers. Read More
Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Biodiversity Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions Bentley Delivery Centre, Locked Bag 104, Western Australia, 6983.
The study of climate-driven effects on seed traits such as germination has gained momentum over the past decade as the impact of global warming becomes more apparent on the health and survival of plant diversity. Seed response to warming was evaluated in a suite of short-range endemic species from the biodiverse Greenstone Belt of southern Western Australia. The temperature dimensions for germination in 20 woody perennials were identified using small un-replicated samples over 6 weeks on a temperature gradient plate (constant and fluctuating temperatures between 5 and 40 °C). Read More
J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.
Protection of telomere 1 (POT1) is one of the key components of shelterin complex, implicated in maintaining the telomere homeostasis, and thus stability of the eukaryotic genome. A large number of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the POT1 gene have been reported to cause varieties of human diseases, including cancer. In recent years, a number of mutations in POT1 has been markedly increased, and interpreting the effect of these large numbers of mutations to understand the mechanism of associated diseases seems impossible using experimental approaches. Read More
Environ Toxicol Chem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Study Group on Wild Animal Conservation Medicine (GEMAS).
Lead poisoning is a significant threat faced by raptors. Hence, rapid lead diagnosis has become a priority during the admission of raptors in Wildlife Recovery Centers (WRCs), and bench-top analyzers - such as LeadCare II - are routinely employed for this purpose. However, this device has been designed for conducting the analysis of human blood lead levels (BLL), and the validity of this methodology for whole blood from raptors has, to date, rarely been assessed. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1457-1461
Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun 248 001, India.
Asiatic wild dog () or dhole is an endangered canid with fragmented distribution in South, East and Southeast Asia. The remaining populations of this species face severe conservation challenges from anthropogenic interventions, but only limited information is available at population and demography levels. Here, we describe the novel molecular approaches for unambiguous species and sex identification from noninvasively collected dhole samples. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1363-1369
Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Av. Dr. Silas Munguba 1700, Fortaleza, CE 60714-903, Brazil.
The sea cucumber has become the subject of intense and unregulated fishing in northeastern Brazil due to their growing demand in Asian market. However, there is little knowledge about the dynamics and genetics of wild populations on the South American coast. In this study, we present the first set of microsatellite markers, identified and characterized using Illumina paired-end reads of whole genome shotgun sequencing. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1339-1351
The Land Institute, 2440 E. Water Well Road, Salina, KS, 67401,
The American cranberry () is an endemic domesticated species that has become an economically important commercial fruit crop. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) houses the national collection, which includes representatives of historical cranberry cultivars and wild-selected germplasm. The objective of this study wasto examine the genotypes of 271 cranberry plants from 77 accessions representing 66 named cultivars using 12 simple-sequence repeats to assess clonal purity and cultivar relatedness. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1139-1146
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.
(Orchidaceae) is a threatened medicinal orchid that grows under shady and moist forest floor where light remains for a very short period of time. Mycorrhizal association is known to be essential for seed germination and seedling establishment in amajority of orchids. Identification of fungi that form mycorrhizae with orchids is of crucial importance for orchid conservation. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1131-1138
Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, People's Republic of China.
Resistance to fatal disease bovine spongiformencephalopathy (BSE), due to misfolded prion protein in cattle, is associated with a 23-bp indel polymorphism in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1 of the gene. Gayal () is an important semiwild bovid species and of great conservation concern, but till today these indel polymorphisms have not been evaluated in gayals. Therefore, we collected 225 samples of gayals and evaluated the genetic indel polymorphism in the two regions of this gene. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1119-1130
Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Biológicas Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Instituto Literario # 100, Colonia Centro, Toluca, Estado de México, CP 50000, México.
The isolated and fragmented populations are highly susceptible to stochastic events, increasing the extinction risk because of the decline in putative adaptive potential and individual fitness. The population has high heterozygosity values and a moderate allelic diversity, the heterozygosity values are higher than in most other species and snake studies. Possibly these high levels of genetic diversity can be related to a large founder size, high effective population size, multiple paternity and overlapping generations. Read More
J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1097-1105
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.
Knowledge and analysis of the genetic structure of an endangered species is important for its conservation and evolutionary process. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used in evaluation of the genetic diversity and population differentiation in (Plumbaginaceae), an endangered herb with high medicinal and horticulture value. A total of 117 alleles were detected with an average 5. Read More
Trends Ecol Evol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.
We present the results of our tenth annual horizon scan. We identified 15 emerging priority topics that may have major positive or negative effects on the future conservation of global biodiversity, but currently have low awareness within the conservation community. We hope to increase research and policy attention on these areas, improving the capacity of the community to mitigate impacts of potentially negative issues, and maximise the benefits of issues that provide opportunities. Read More
Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):20. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Chongqing College of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160, China.
Along with rapid economic development and population growth, anthropogenic disturbances to natural ecosystems increase the progressively worsening environmental problems in and around water resources, making the potential ecological risks more severe and unpredictable. In order to cope with the increasingly serious issues related to the ecological environment and poverty alleviation, the Government of Yunnan in Southwest China launched a large-scale afforestation campaign (plantation forestry) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which is the main source of several major river systems in Southeast Asia. In this study, we use GIS to investigate the impacts of a large-scale afforestation on the water storage balance of Southeast Asia. Read More
Forensic Sci Int 2018 Dec 5;295:46-53. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Australian Centre for Wildlife Genomics, Australian Museum Research Institute, 1 William Street, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:
The illegal trade in wild animals being sold as 'captive bred' is an emerging issue in the pet and zoo industry and has both animal welfare and conservation implications. DNA based methods can be a quick, inexpensive, and definitive way to determine the source of these animals, thereby assisting efforts to combat this trade. The short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is currently one of the species suspected to be targeted in this trade. Read More
Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 10;274:479-487. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China; College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:
Malt syrup, as a low-cost substrate without any pretreatment, was proved to be able to replace maltose for ploymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium melanogenum GXZ-6. The PMA titer of 55.53 ± 1. Read More
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:
Rice is a major cereal crop for China. The development of the "three-line" hybrid rice system based on cytoplasmic male sterility in the 1970s (first-generation) and the "two-line" hybrid rice system based on photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile lines (second-generation) in the 1980s has contributed significantly to rice yield increase and food security in China. Here we describe the development and implementation of the "third-generation" hybrid rice breeding system that is based on a transgenic approach to propagate and utilize stable recessive nuclear male sterile lines, and as such, the male sterile line and hybrid rice produced using such a system is non-transgenic. Read More
Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 26;206:198-209. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and University Museums, Heritage Science for Conservation, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Johns Hopkins University, Whiting School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States. Electronic address:
Iron gall inks are known to be detrimental to the permanence of historic documents. Among the transition metals present, copper is the greatest threat and an open challenge due to the lack of Cu-specific treatments. In this study, we address the inhibition of copper by comparing extraction (a newly proposed glucose-based treatment) vs. Read More
Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 28;206:141-148. Epub 2018 Oct 28.
Department of Apparel, Merchandising, Design and Textiles, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United States; Composite Materials and Engineering Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United States. Electronic address:
In this study, post-consumer cotton waste was chemically recycled to produce regenerated fibers using eco-friendly alkaline/urea solvent systems. Both white and colored cotton waste was shredded and hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid to reduce the molecular weight of the cotton fibers. Two solvent systems, i. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Key Laboratory of Pu-erh Tea Science, the Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China; State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Kunming, China; Pu'erh Tea Research Institute, Pu'erh, China. Electronic address:
Caffeine intake is associated with a reduced risk developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. We report here that caffeine markedly improved high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice resulting in a 10-fold increase in circulating IL-6 levels, leading to STAT3 activation in the liver. Interestingly, the expression of IL-6 mRNA was not increased in the liver, but increased substantially in the muscles of caffeine-treated mice. Read More
Behav Processes 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa. Electronic address:
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on species' behaviour is crucial for conservation planning, considering the extent of habitat loss. We investigated the influence of anthropogenic disturbances including agriculture, urbanisation, protected areas, and the presence of novel predators, on the temporal and spatial behaviour of sympatric forest antelope (Tragelaphus scriptus, Philantomba monticola, Sylvicapra grimmia, and Cephalophus natalensis) in an anthropogenic matrix containing forest fragments in the Indian Ocean Coastal Belt of South Africa. We integrated land-use types with camera-trap data and compared activity patterns using circular statistics and occupancy modelling. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China. Electronic address:
To consistently and objectively delineate species-level divergence from population subdivision has been a challenge in systematics. This is particularly evident in naturally fragmented and allopatric systems in which small population size often leads to extreme population structuring. Here we evaluated the robustness of the species delimitation methods implemented in BEAST, BPP, and iBPP in the Primulina hochiensis complex comprising four described and one candidate species (five taxa in total) distributed in karst landscapes of southern China. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e026954. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Introduction: Deficiencies in childhood development is a major global issue and inequalities are large. The influence of environmental exposures on childhood development is currently insufficiently explored. This project will analyse the impact of various modifiable early life environmental exposures on different dimensions of childhood development. Read More
Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
infections can present different phenotypes in hosts, including different forms of reproductive manipulation and antiviral protection, which may influence infection dynamics within host populations. In populations of two distinct strains co-exist, each manipulating host reproduction: PanCI, causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereas PanMK, causes male-killing (MK). CI occurs when a -infected male mates with a female not infected with a compatible type of leading to non-viable offspring. Read More
Genome Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
The evolutionary history of a gene helps predict its function and relationship to phenotypic traits. Although sequence conservation is commonly used to decipher gene function and assess medical relevance, methods for functional inference from comparative expression data are lacking. Here, we use RNA-seq across seven tissues from 17 mammalian species to show that expression evolution across mammals is accurately modeled by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a commonly proposed model of continuous trait evolution. Read More
Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 16;28:8-12. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
Centre for Ecology and Conservation, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, UK.
The emergence of family groups is associated with conflict over the allocation of food or other limited resources. Understanding the mechanisms mediating the resolution of such conflict is a major aim in behavioral ecology. Most empirical work on familial conflict has focused on birds. Read More
Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1078-1084. Epub 2018 Nov 6.
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Chronic kidney diseases occur as result of exposure to wide range of deleterious agents as environmental pollutants, toxins and drug. Currently, there is no effective protective therapy against renal damage, fibrosis and its sequel of end stage renal disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a progressively gained consideration in wound healing, repair/regeneration of damaged tissues and conservation of organ function. Read More
Tree Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.
Remobilization of stored nitrogen (N) plays an important role in the early growth of deciduous trees in spring. Several environmental factors can modulate N remobilization, but whether water stress is one such factors is unknown. This study analyzes how the size of N storage in Quercus variabilis Blume seedlings interacts with water stress to affect N remobilization, uptake and new growth. Read More
Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Conservation and Utilization of Special Biological Resources in the Western China, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia, China; College of Life Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced autophagy of alveolar macrophages has been confirmed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Growing evidence indicates that excessive or uncontrolled autophagic activity, which results in type II programmed cell death, can be regulated by many factors, including Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple diseases through the regulation of autophagy; however, its exact role in regulating autophagy induced by Mtb remains unclear. Read More
Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11;162:39-43. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:
The summer of 2018 in Germany was the second hottest and driest on record. These generally extremely favorable climatic conditions most likely triggered the further expansion and the efficient propagation of the zoonotic arthropod-borne West Nile virus in many Southern/Southeastern and even Central European countries. WNV infections were detected for the first time in resident wild and aviary birds, such as common blackbirds, northern goshawks and great grey owls in Eastern and Southeastern Germany. Read More
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500046, India. Electronic address:
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from bacterial infections. The multi-drugresistant strain has warranted the development of new drug molecules which can inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most of the known drugs inhibit the enzymes in the cell wall biosynthesis. Read More
Ecol Appl 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Instantaneous implementation of systematic conservation plans at regional scales is rare. More typically, planned actions are applied incrementally over periods of years or decades. During protracted implementation, the character of the connected ecological system will change as a function of external anthropogenic pressures, local metapopulation processes, and environmental fluctuations. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209091. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Background And Aims: The bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis is a close interaction between endophytes and their plant hosts, mainly within the coffee family. The interaction between Rubiaceae species and Burkholderia bacteria is unique due to its obligate nature, high specificity, and predominantly vertical transmission of the endophytes to the next generation of host plants. This vertical transmission is intriguing since it is the basis for the uniqueness of the symbiosis. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208986. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Basque Country, Spain.
Molecular techniques allow non-invasive dietary studies from faeces, providing an invaluable tool to unveil ecological requirements of endangered or elusive species. They contribute to progress on important issues such as genomics, population genetics, dietary studies or reproductive analyses, essential knowledge for conservation biology. Nevertheless, these techniques require general methods to be tailored to the specific research objectives, as well as to substrate- and species-specific constraints. Read More
FASEB J 2018 Dec 14:fj201801670R. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Centre for Molecular and Translational Oncology (COMT), University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ( CSPG4) gene encodes a transmembrane proteoglycan (PG) constituting the largest and most structurally complex macromolecule of the human surfaceome. Its transcript shows an extensive evolutionary conservation and, due to the elaborated intracellular processing of the translated protein, it generates an array of glycoforms with the potential to exert variant-specific functions. CSPG4-mediated molecular events are articulated through the interaction with more than 40 putative ligands and the concurrent involvement of the ectodomain and cytoplasmic tail. Read More
Ecol Appl 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) designs are powerful tools to derive inferences about environmental perturbations (e.g. hurricanes, restoration programs) when controlled experimental designs are unfeasible. Read More
Conserv Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veter…cut the number of references to the best 3inary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 90 South St, Murdoch, WA 6160, Australia.
Much progress has been made improving animal welfare in conservation over the past two decades. However, several glaring knowledge gaps remain where animal welfare concerns exist but animal welfare studies have not been performed in politically sensitive contexts. We use examples from Australia to identify four such issues lacking meaningful analysis; the absence of animal welfare oversight for operations designated as "management" (as opposed to research), the lack of consideration for the animal welfare impacts of biological agents that are used to control invasive animals, the paucity of studies to examine the welfare of animals that are hunted recreationally, and the scarcity of studies to examine the animal welfare impacts associated with Indigenous wildlife use. Read More
Glob Chang Biol 2019 Jan 22;25(1):155-173. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation INRES, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32-multi-model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO concentration by 2050 on global wheat grain and protein yield are likely to be negated by impacts from rising temperature and changes in rainfall, but with considerable disparities between regions. Read More
Br J Health Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Objectives: Since behavioural risk factors are the foremost causes of disability and premature mortality, developing new perspectives for understanding them is of utmost importance. This paper describes an innovative approach that conceptualizes health-related behaviours as nodes in a weighted network.
Design & Methods: Using self-reported data from a representative sample (n = 374), a network of 37 health behaviours was analysed, with the aim of identifying 'central' nodes, that is, behaviours that are likely to co-occur with others and potentially influence them. Read More
Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Laboratory of Microbiology, Aichi Gakuin University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, 1-100 Kusumoto-cho, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8650, Japan.
Taxonomic studies of strain PAGU 1678 , an obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain positive, spore-forming bacterium isolated from Biobreeding rat feces, were performed. This strain has been demonstrated that the ability to exacerbate pathosis in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed high homology with Paraclostridium bifermentans. Read More
Zoo Biol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia.
For species that form dominance hierarchies, such as group-living ungulates, aggressive interactions can pose a challenge to successful captive management. For example, Jackson's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), a rare antelope of east Africa, can be difficult to maintain in captivity because aggression within female dominance hierarchies can lead to injury and death. We quantified behavioral and endocrine correlates of dominance in a captive herd of ten female hartebeest with the goal of understanding how to minimize dangerous interactions. Read More
Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
ECNU-Alberta Joint Lab for Biodiversity Study, Tiantong National Station for Forest Ecosystem Research, East China Normal University, 200241, Shanghai.
Climate is widely recognised as an important determinant of the latitudinal diversity gradient. However, most existing studies make no distinction between direct and indirect effects of climate, which substantially hinders our understanding of how climate constrains biodiversity globally. Using data from 35 large forest plots, we test hypothesised relationships amongst climate, topography, forest structural attributes (stem abundance, tree size variation and stand basal area) and tree species richness to better understand drivers of latitudinal tree diversity patterns. Read More
Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria.
The European Union (EU) has recently published its first list of invasive alien species (IAS) of EU concern to which current legislation must apply. The list comprises species known to pose great threats to biodiversity and needs to be maintained and updated. Horizon scanning is seen as critical to identify the most threatening potential IAS that do not yet occur in Europe to be subsequently risk assessed for future listing. Read More
Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, 89557, USA.
Phytochemical traits are a key component of plant defense theory. Chemical ecology has been biased towards studying effects of individual metabolites even though effective plant defenses are comprised of diverse mixtures of metabolites. We tested the phytochemical landscape hypothesis, positing that trophic interactions are contingent upon their spatial location across a phytochemically diverse landscape. Read More
Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Dachverband Deutscher Avifaunisten (DDA) e.V., Geschäftsstelle, Münster, Germany.
Mountain areas often hold special species communities, and they are high on the list of conservation concern. Global warming and changes in human land use, such as grazing pressure and afforestation, have been suggested to be major threats for biodiversity in the mountain areas, affecting species abundance and causing distribution shifts towards mountaintops. Population shifts towards poles and mountaintops have been documented in several areas, indicating that climate change is one of the key drivers of species' distribution changes. Read More