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    Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with left inferior vena cava.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Apr 2;5(4):482-485. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine JR Hiroshima Hospital 3-1-36 Futabanosato Higashi-ku Hiroshima 732-0057 Japan.
    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS), although difficult, is recommended for patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) to diagnose the subtype. Recognizing anatomical variation is key to a successful AVS. We report on a patient with PA and left inferior vena cava (IVC) whose left adrenal vein drained directly into the IVC. Read More

    Histopathological Classification of Cross-Sectional Image-Negative Hyperaldosteronism.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1182-1192
    Department of Pathology, and.
    Context: Approximately half of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) have clinically evident disease according to clinical (hypertension) and/or laboratory (aldosterone and renin levels) findings but do not have nodules detectable in routine cross-sectional imaging. However, the detailed histopathologic, steroidogenic, and pathobiological features of cross-sectional image-negative PA are controversial.

    Objective: To examine histopathology, steroidogenic enzyme expression, and aldosterone-driver gene somatic mutation status in cross-sectional image-negative hyperaldosteronism. Read More

    Prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome: amniotic fluid aldosterone.
    Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2017 Apr;75(2):204-208
    Service de biochimie-hormonologie, Hôpital Robert Debré, AP-HP, Paris, France, Service de biochimie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France.
    Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy characterized at birth by salt wasting, severe polyuria, dehydration, growth retardation and secondary hyperaldosteronism. Prenatally, the disease is usually discovered following onset of severe polyhydramnios. We studied amniotic fluid aldosterone concentration in cases of Bartter syndrome and in control groups. Read More

    AN INDIVIDUALIZED APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM.
    Endocr Pract 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Departments of Pharmacology & Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, University of Michigan, 1150 W Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
    Objective: With the increased emphasis on personalized and individualized medicine, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Adrenal Scientific Committee has developed a series of articles to update members on personalized medicine as it applies to adrenal diseases.

    Methods: Synthesis of literature review, guidelines from professional societies, and personal experience.

    Results: Since Conn described primary aldosteronism (PA) over 60 years ago, debate has raged about the prevalence of PA in the hypertensive population, the wisdom of broadly screening for PA, and prudent approach to the evaluation and management of these patients. Read More

    PENTRAXIN 3 AS A NEW CARDIOVASCULAR MARKER IN ADRENAL ADENOMAS.
    Endocr Pract 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    From: 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diskapi Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase glycoprotein, which is increased in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and considered as a predictor of CVD in the general population. Both functional and nonfunctional adrenal tumors are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed to investigate plasma PTX3 levels in patients with functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors and to determine its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

    Renin angiotensin aldosterone system altered in resistant hypertension in Sub-Saharan African diabetes patients without evidence of primary hyperaldosteronism.
    JRSM Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Jan-Dec;6:2048004017695006. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon; National Obesity Centre, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be altered in patients with resistant hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and resistant hypertension in Cameroonian diabetes patients with resistant hypertension.

    Methods: We carried out a case-control study including 19 diabetes patients with resistant hypertension and 19 diabetes patients with controlled hypertension matched to cases according to age, sex and duration of hypertension since diagnosis. Read More

    Gitelman Syndrome.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 Mar;27(3):S30-S32
    Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.
    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is the most frequently inherited renal salt-wasting tubulointerstitial disease. It follows variable but usually asymptomatic benign course. We present a rare case of GS that remained clinical enigma. Read More

    Accuracy of adrenal imaging and adrenal venous sampling in diagnosing unilateral primary aldosteronism.
    Eur J Clin Invest 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Chirurgische Klinik II, Campus Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Introduction: The correct differentiation between unilateral and bilateral adrenal involvement in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) is of utmost importance to justify surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of adrenal imaging compared to adrenal venous sampling (AVS), histopathology and postoperative outcome.

    Methods: The data of all patients with unequivocal AVS who underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism between May 2004 and April 2015 were entered in this retrospective study. Read More

    Acid-base disturbances in nephrotic syndrome: analysis using the CO2/HCO3 method (traditional Boston model) and the physicochemical method (Stewart model).
    Clin Exp Nephrol 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.
    Background: The Stewart model for analyzing acid-base disturbances emphasizes serum albumin levels, which are ignored in the traditional Boston model. We compared data derived using the Stewart model to those using the Boston model in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    Methods: Twenty-nine patients with nephrotic syndrome and six patients without urinary protein or acid-base disturbances provided blood and urine samples for analysis that included routine biochemical and arterial blood gas tests, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone. Read More

    Hypokalemia and Pendrin Induction by Aldosterone.
    Hypertension 2017 May 13;69(5):855-862. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (N.X., K.I., S.U., S.S.); Department of Nephrology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, China (N.X., W.X.C.); and Division of Clinical Epigenetics, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (D.H., T.F., S.S.) and Department of Clinical Laboratory, School of Medicine (T.S.), The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating Na-Cl reabsorption and blood pressure. Epithelial Na(+) channel, Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, and Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger pendrin are the major mediators of Na-Cl transport in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Existing evidence also suggests that plasma K(+) concentration affects renal Na-Cl handling. Read More

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients Often Display Antibody Deficiency but Not Other Immune Pathologies.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Mar 9. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Allergy Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Penn. Electronic address:
    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder associated with recurrent otitis. Most SMS cases result from heterozygous interstitial chromosome 17p11.2 deletions that encompass not only the intellectual disability gene retinoic acid-induced 1 but also other genes associated with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and/or malignancy. Read More

    Licorice-induced hypertension: a case of pseudohyperaldosteronism due to jelly bean ingestion.
    Postgrad Med 2017 Apr 15;129(3):329-331. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    d Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism , St. Joseph's Health Care , London , Canada.
    Hypertension is one of the most common problems encountered in the primary care setting. Numerous secondary causes of hypertension exist and are potentially reversible. The ability to screen for such causes and manage them effectively may spare patients from prolonged medical therapy and hypertensive complications. Read More

    Aldosterone activates the oncogenic signals ERK1/2 and STAT3 via redox-regulated mechanisms.
    Mol Carcinog 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California.
    Epidemiological studies found an increased risk for kidney cancer in hypertensive patients, of which a subgroup has high aldosterone (Ald) levels. We recently showed that Ald is genotoxic both in kidney tubular cells and in rats with mineralocorticoid-mediated hypertension. The present work investigated in vitro and in vivo, if the oxidative stress-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, and its downstream target STAT3, could be one mechanism involved in the potential oncogenic capability of excess Ald exposure. Read More

    Arterial Hypertension, Atrial Fibrillation, and Hyperaldosteronism: The Triple Trouble.
    Hypertension 2017 Apr;69(4):545-550
    From the Clinica dell'Ipertensione Arteriosa, Department of Medicine-DIMED, University of Padua, Italy (T.M.S., B.C., G.M., M.C., G.P.R.); and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (G.K.A.).

    [Long-term blood pressure outcome after unilateral adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism].
    Prog Urol 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Service d'endocrinologie, maladies métaboliques, diabétologie et nutrition, université de Picardie Jules-Verne, CHU d'Amiens, 80000 Amiens, France.
    Objectives: To evaluate long-term results of adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA) and to identify prognostic factors associated.

    Methods: Exhaustive retrospective review of all consecutive patients undergoing adrenalectomy for PA between 2002 and 2013 in our department. All patients underwent preoperative: clinical evaluation (age, sex, height, weight, systolic and diastolic BP under treatment, identification of anti-hypertension treatment), biological evaluation (potassium, renin, aldosterone) and radiological evaluation (CT and/or MRI). Read More

    Radiofrequency ablation treatment for aldosterone-producing adenomas.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb 28. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
    Purpose Of Review: To review the current status of radiofrequency ablation as a primary treatment for hyperfunctioning adrenal nodules, predominantly aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs).

    Recent Findings: Radiofrequency ablation is an established treatment for focal benign and malignant lesions, including metastatic disease to the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism is the leading cause of secondary hypertension with up to 80% due to APA, statistically the most common functioning adrenal nodule. Read More

    Transarterial embolization of a hyperfunctioning aldosteronoma in a patient with bilateral adrenal nodules.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Mar 29;12(1):87-91. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1611 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL 33136-1005, USA.
    Primary hyperaldosteronism often results in resistant hypertension and hypokalemia, which may lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Although surgery is first line treatment for unilateral functioning aldosteronomas, minimally invasive therapies may be first line for certain patients such as those who cannot tolerate surgery. We present a case of transarterial embolization (TAE) of an aldosteronoma. Read More

    NP-59 test for preoperative localization of primary hyperaldosteronism.
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 2017 Mar 21;402(2):303-308. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    University Hospital La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: Adrenal venous sampling is generally considered the gold standard to identify unilateral hormone production in cases of primary hyperaldosteronism. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the iodine-131-6-β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) test may represent an alternative in selected cases.

    Methods: Patients submitted to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected primary hyperaldosteronism (n = 27) were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Low dose-eplerenone treatment decreases aortic stiffness in patients with resistant hypertension.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Divisions of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Würzburg, and Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, Würzburg, Germany.
    Vascular damage is aggravated in animal models of hypertension with mineralocorticoid (MR) excess and in hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. MR antagonism has shown to provide effective blood pressure (BP)-control in patients with treatment resistant hypertension (TRH), but the concurrent effects on the vasculature have not been examined. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group study, 51 patients with TRH received either eplerenone 50 mg or placebo for 6 months together with additional antihypertensives titrated to achieve a BP target of <140/90 mm Hg. Read More

    Increased Aldosterone Release During Head-Up Tilt in Early Primary Hypertension.
    Am J Hypertens 2017 May;30(5):484-489
    Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Background: Hyperaldosteronism is well known cause of secondary hypertension. However, the importance of aldosterone for the much larger group of patients with primary hypertension is less clear. We hypothesized that in young subjects with primary hypertension, the rise of plasma aldosterone levels in response to head-up tilt testing as a stress stimulus is exaggerated. Read More

    Adrenocortical neoplasms in adulthood and childhood: distinct presentation. Review of the clinical, pathological and imaging characteristics.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar;30(3):253-276
    Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in adulthood and childhood vary in clinical, histopathological, molecular, prognostic, and imaging aspects. ACT are relatively common in adults, as adenomas are often found incidentally on imaging. ACT are rare in children, though they have a significantly higher prevalence in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. Read More

    Stroke disclosing primary aldosteronism: Report on three cases and review of the literature.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Feb 4;78(1):9-13. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Department of Neurology, Military Hospital, 1008, Montfleury, 1089 Tunis, Tunisia.
    Objectives: There is a growing evidence of increased risk of cerebrovascular events in primary aldosteronism (PA). Nevertheless, acute neurologic ailment as presenting feature of PA is uncommon. Our aim is to highlight the diagnosis challenges in stroke unmasking PA and to discuss the underlying physiopathology and management dilemmas. Read More

    Anatomical Variations of the Right Adrenal Vein: Concordance Between Multidetector Computed Tomography and Catheter Venography.
    Hypertension 2017 Mar 30;69(3):428-434. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology (K.O., H.O., Y.T., T.M., K.S., K.T.), Department of Urology (Y.A.), and Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine (R.M., F.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan.
    Adrenal venous sampling is the most reliable diagnostic procedure to determine surgical indications in primary aldosteronism. Because guidelines recommend multidetector computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the adrenal gland, some past reports used multidetector CT as a guide for adrenal venous sampling. However, the detailed anatomy of the right adrenal vein and its relationship with an accessory hepatic vein remains uncertain. Read More

    Assessment of the Aldosteronona resolution score as a predictive resolution score of hypertension after adrenalectomy for aldosteronoma in French patients.
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 2017 Mar 22;402(2):309-314. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Clinique de Chirurgie Digestive et Endocrinienne (CCDE), Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif (IMAD), CHU Hôtel-Dieu, 1 place Alexis Ricordeau, 44093, Nantes cedex 1, France.
    Purpose: Aldosteronoma Resolution Score (ARS) is a predictive score for cure of hypertension after adrenalectomy for hyperaldosteronism and has been validated in American patients. The aim of the study was to validate this score in a French population.

    Method: Data concerning patients operated from 2002 to 2015 in 7 French University Hospitals were retrospectively collected. Read More

    Evacetrapib: Another CETP Inhibitor for Dyslipidemia With No Clinical Benefit.
    Cardiol Rev 2017 Mar/Apr;25(2):43-52
    From the *Department of Medicine, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA; and †Department of Medicine, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.
    Evacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor that has been recently studied as a cholesterol modifying agent to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality in high risk cardiovascular disease patients. Evacetrapib acts to decrease lipid exchange through CETP inhibition. CETP acts to transfer cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C). Read More

    Novel Approach to Establishing an Aldosterone: Renin Ratio Cutoff for Primary Aldosteronism.
    Hypertension 2017 Mar 9;69(3):450-456. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    From the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine (A.A.L., G.A.K.) and Calgary Laboratory Services, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Section of Clinical Biochemistry (D.J.O., A.C., H.S.), University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Direct renin concentration is replacing plasma renin activity in many laboratories for the investigation of primary aldosteronism, which may have a significant impact on the resulting aldosterone:renin ratios. We sought to develop a population-based approach to establishing an aldosterone:renin ratio cutoff when transitioning between assays. A population-based study was performed in Calgary, Alberta, Canada of 4301 individuals who received testing from January 2012 to November 2015. Read More

    Hypokalemic Paralysis Complicated by Concurrent Hyperthyroidism and Hyperaldosternoism: A Case Report.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Jan 4;18:12-16. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    BACKGROUND Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is commonly observed in patients with acute paralysis and hyperthyroidism. However, there is a possibility of secondary causes of hypokalemia in such a setting. CASE REPORT Herein, we present the case of a 38-year-old woman with untreated hypertension and hyperthyroidism. Read More

    Synthetic approaches towards the multi target drug spironolactone and its potent analogues/derivatives.
    Steroids 2017 Feb 29;118:76-92. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Spironolactone is a well-known multi-target drug and is specifically used for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. It is also used for the treatment of edema, cirrhosis of the liver, malignant, pediatric, nephrosis and primary hyperaldosteronism. Spironolactone in association with thiazide diuretics treats hypertension and in association with furosemide treats bronchopulmonary dyspepsia. Read More

    A novel mutation of CLCNKB in a Korean patient of mixed phenotype of Bartter-Gitelman syndrome.
    Korean J Pediatr 2016 Nov 30;59(Suppl 1):S103-S106. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Bartter syndrome (BS) is an inherited renal tubular disorder characterized by low or normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Type III BS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLCNKB encoding basolateral ClC-Kb. The clinical phenotype of patients with CLCNKB mutations has been known to be highly variable, and cases that are difficult to categorize as type III BS or other hereditary tubulopathies, such as Gitelman syndrome, have been rarely reported. Read More

    Digenic mutations involving both the BSND and GJB2 genes detected in Bartter syndrome type IV.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jan 26;92:17-20. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China. Electronic address:
    Bartter syndrome type IV, characterized by salt-losing nephropathies and sensorineural deafness, is caused by mutations of BSND or simultaneous mutations of both CLCNKA and CLCNKB. GJB2 is the primary causative gene for non-syndromic sensorineural deafness and associated with several syndromic sensorineural deafness. Owing to the rarity of Bartter syndrome, only a few mutations have been reported in the abovementioned causative genes. Read More

    Hypertension: The role of biochemistry in the diagnosis and management.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Feb 19;465:131-143. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnostic Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Read More

    Improvement of Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density following treatment of Primary Aldosteronism.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2016 Dec 20. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia -
    Background: Recent studies showed association between hyperaldosteronism and low bone density among patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our objective is to assess bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) of PA patients compared to essential hypertension.

    Methods: This was an open-label, prospective, case-controlled study, conducted over 12 months. Read More

    Genetic heterogeneity in patients with Bartter syndrome type 1.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Feb 21;15(2):581-590. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK 73117, USA.
    Bartter syndrome (BS) type 1 is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder caused by loss‑of‑function mutations in the solute carrier family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene. To date, 72 BS type 1 patients harboring SLC12A1 mutations have been documented. Of these 144 alleles studied, 68 different disease‑causing mutations have been detected in 129 alleles, and no mutation was detected in the remaining 15 alleles. Read More

    The Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Networks in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, PRC, China.
    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is normally linked to cognitive and functional dysfunctions. In this study, we explored the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the default mode network (DMN) to show the mechanism of neurophysiology in patients with OSAHS. Resting-state structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were obtained from sixteen male moderate-to- severe patients with untreated OSAHS and 15 male matched healthy control subjects. Read More

    Consequences of morbid obesity on the kidney. Where are we going?
    Clin Kidney J 2016 Dec 20;9(6):782-787. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat, Autònoma de Barcelona, Esfera UAB, Badalona, Spain.
    Obesity and morbid obesity are modifiable risk factors for the development and progression of kidney disease. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is currently an important health problem in Europe, so it is necessary to develop therapeutic and preventive strategies. The obesity-related glomerulopathy has been defined as a secondary form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and its most characteristic feature is glomerulomegaly. Read More

    The Triad of Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Spectrum of Common Pathology.
    Cardiorenal Med 2016 Nov 5;7(1):74-82. Epub 2016 Nov 5.
    Division of Nephrology, University of Missouri Health Science Center, Columbia, MO, USA; Nephrology Section, Harry S. Truman Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO, USA.
    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are different entities and are generally managed individually most of the time. However, CKD, OSA, and hypertension share many common risk factors and it is not uncommon to see this complex triad together. In fact, they share similar pathophysiology and have been interlinked with each other. Read More

    Is Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Adrenalectomy a Feasible Alternative in Treating Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma?
    Biomed Res Int 2016 16;2016:6894381. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Surgery, Taipei Tzuchi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Urology, Tzu Chi University, Medical College, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Objective. To compare laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) and conventional multiport adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Material and Methods. Read More

    Genetic characterization of a mouse line with primary aldosteronism.
    J Mol Endocrinol 2017 Feb 13;58(2):67-78. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IVEndocrine Research Unit, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU, Munich, Germany.
    In an attempt to define novel genetic loci involved in the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism, a mutagenesis screen after treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea was established for the parameter aldosterone. One of the generated mouse lines with hyperaldosteronism was phenotypically and genetically characterized. This mouse line had high aldosterone levels but normal creatinine and urea values. Read More

    A Novel Method of Adrenal Venous Sampling via an Antecubital Approach.
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2017 Mar 8;40(3):388-393. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishilu, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100037, China.
    Purpose: Currently, almost all adrenal venous sampling (AVS) procedures are performed by femoral vein access. The purpose of this study was to establish the technique of AVS via an antecubital approach and evaluate its safety and feasibility.

    Materials And Methods: From January 2012 to June 2015, 194 consecutive patients diagnosed as primary aldosteronism underwent AVS via an antecubital approach without ACTH simulation. Read More

    Adrenocortical carcinoma, an unusual cause of secondary hypertension.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Dec 7;2016. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Regional Licenciado Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.
    We present the case of a female patient aged 39 years who was admitted to our hospital due to hypertension, severe hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis; physical examination was remarkable for plethoric moon face, centripetal obesity and bilateral lower extremity oedema. She was admitted for intravenous potassium replacement and further assessment of hypertension and associated clinical findings. Laboratory testing showed increased levels of aldosterone, renin, cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. Read More

    Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone but not aldosterone is correlated with blood pressure in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas.
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2017 Mar 5;19(3):280-286. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Although plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) varies depending on primary aldosteronism (PA) subtypes, patients with different subtypes may have similar blood pressure (BP). The authors hypothesized that hormones other than aldosterone might influence BP in PA patients. A total of 73 PA cases, including 30 cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs), 29 cases of bilateral hyperaldosteronism, and 24 control cases of essential hypertension were enrolled retrospectively. Read More

    Bartter's and Gitelman's syndrome.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2017 Apr;29(2):179-186
    Center of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine at Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: The clinical presentations of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome will be reviewed including two most recently described hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. By taking the quite heterogeneous presentations and the apparently different pathophysiologies as the basis, the applicability of the physiologic classification has been tested.

    Recent Findings: According to the physiologic approach, salt-losing tubulopathies can be divided into two major groups (with completely different tubular defects): first, disorders of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (loop disorders); second, disorders of the distal convolute tubule (DCT disorders). Read More

    Hypertension Cure Following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Hyperaldosteronism is not Universal: Trends Over Two Decades.
    World J Surg 2017 Apr;41(4):986-990
    Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Background: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been established as a standard surgical method for unilateral primary aldosteronism. Meanwhile, the background characteristics of the patients undergoing adrenalectomy have changed over the last 20 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in hypertension cure rates after laparoscopic adrenalectomy during the last two decades. Read More

    Preclinical and Early Clinical Profile of a Highly Selective and Potent Oral Inhibitor of Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2).
    Hypertension 2017 Jan 21;69(1):189-196. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    From the Clinical Pharmacology (K.B., D.S., M.-L.D.), Biostatistics (G.P.), Discovery (K.A.), Pharmaceutical Sciences (S.M., M.C.D.V.M.), and Translational Medicine, Cardiovascular Diseases (P.F.), Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Switzerland; and Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom (M.J.B).
    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of resistant hypertension. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal by aldosterone synthase (AS, encoded by the gene CYP11B2). AS shares 93% homology to 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP11B1), responsible for cortisol production. Read More

    Resistant Hypertension.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2016 Nov 19. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Lankenau Medical Center, Lancaster Avenue, Suite 130, Wynnewood, PA, USA, 19096.
    Conservatively, ten million people in the USA alone may suffer from RH and may be similarly prevalent elsewhere. Given the strong linear correlation between hypertension and cardiovascular outcomes, better control is paramount. We favor a multi-pronged approach. Read More

    Scoring system for the diagnosis of bilateral primary aldosteronism in the outpatient setting before adrenal venous sampling.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 19;86(4):467-472. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Division of General Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Objective: The only reliable method for subtyping primary aldosteronism (PA) is adrenal venous sampling (AVS), which is costly and time-consuming. Considering the limited availability of AVS, it would be helpful to obtain information on the diagnosis of bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA) from routine tests. We aimed to establish new, simple criteria for outpatients to diagnose BHA from PA before AVS. Read More

    Anterior Chamber Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Iris Masquerading as Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphema Syndrome.
    Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016 Oct 12;2(4):230-233. Epub 2016 May 12.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Haven, Conn., USA; Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Smilow Cancer Hospital, New Haven, Conn., USA.
    Purpose: To report a case of iris non-Hodgkin lymphoma initially thought to be uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome.

    Methods: We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings in a patient with recurrent hyphemas and increased ocular pressure who eventually was found to have a rapidly growing iris mass.

    Results: An 89-year-old man with a history of cataract extraction and mantle cell lymphoma developed recurrent hyphema, which was subsequently revealed to be due to an iris mass. Read More

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