1,988 results match your criteria Conjunctivitis Viral

Pathogenesis and Manifestations of Zika Virus-Associated Ocular Diseases.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 Jun 15;7(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Pennsylvania College of Optometry, Salus University, Elkins Park, PA 19027, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is mosquito-borne flavivirus that caused a significant public health concern in French Polynesia and South America. The two major complications that gained the most media attention during the ZIKV outbreak were Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly in newborn infants. The two modes of ZIKV transmission are the vector-borne and non-vector borne modes of transmission. Read More

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Roles of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R pathway, cytokine release, and alteration of tight junctions in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

Laith Ashour

Tissue Barriers 2022 Jun 21:2090792. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Faculty of Medicine, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan.

This paper shows how SARS-CoV-2 alters tight junctions (TJs) in human organs. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the ACE/Ang II/AT1R pathway and immune cells culminates in the release of numerous pro-inflammatory mediators, leading to the presence of certain symptoms in COVID-19, such as acute lung injury (ALI), pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the cytokines released alter different TJs components. Read More

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Current status of human adenovirus infection in China.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, WHO WPRO Regional Reference Laboratory of Measles and Rubella, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Measles Laboratory in National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, 155# Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: Outbreaks of severe, acute hepatitis among children have recently attracted global attention. The pathogen causing the outbreak remains unknown, but there is growing evidence that it may be associated with human adenovirus (HAdV).

Data Sources: A review of adenovirus-related clinical studies, epidemiological studies, etiological studies, and case reports was conducted by reviewers independently. Read More

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RANBP2 and USP9x regulate nuclear import of adenovirus minor coat protein IIIa.

PLoS Pathog 2022 Jun 16;18(6):e1010588. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

As intracellular parasites, viruses exploit cellular proteins at every stage of infection. Adenovirus outbreaks are associated with severe acute respiratory illnesses and conjunctivitis, with no specific antiviral therapy available. An adenoviral vaccine based on human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) is currently in use for COVID-19. Read More

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults Accompanied with Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease: A Case Report.

Intern Med 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Japan.

We herein report a case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) complicated with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). A previously healthy 41-year-old man presented with painful swelling of the cervical lymph nodes, fever, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, edema, and hypotension one month after the onset of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevation of CRP, and echocardiography indicated diastolic dysfunction. Read More

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Does This Patient With Acute Infectious Conjunctivitis Have a Bacterial Infection?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review.

JAMA 2022 06;327(22):2231-2237

Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Acute infectious conjunctivitis is characterized by ocular redness and discharge, and is a common clinical entity. Evidence-based tools to aid the clinical diagnosis of viral vs bacterial conjunctivitis are lacking and may contribute to overprescribing of topical antibiotics.

Objective: To determine the relative prevalence of viral vs bacterial conjunctivitis in adults and children, and to determine which symptoms or signs are suggestive of a viral vs bacterial etiology. Read More

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Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV2 Mediated Depression, Therapeutics and Consequences: A Comprehensive Narrative.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Departments of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, UP-India.

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), belongs to emerging and reemerging diseases, which was first identified and reported in Wuhan, China, during December 2019. The genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was similar to SARS virus, a β-corona virus. The epidemiologicalstudies suggest that the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 mainly occurs from an infected person to others through close contact with the respiratory droplets or by having contact with SARS-CoV-2adhering toobjects and surfaces. Read More

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A Case Report of Secondary Syphilis Co-Infected with Measles: A Diagnostic Dilemma with Fever and Rash.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 May 9;7(5). Epub 2022 May 9.

Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, Department of Viral Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Osaka, Japan.

Fever and rash as manifestations of infection by microorganisms are collectively known as febrile exanthem. Since viruses are more frequently associated with fever and rash, these symptoms are thus impetuously termed viral exanthem. However, bacteria represent a frequently overlooked infectious etiology causing rash in humans. Read More

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Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among urban Iranian population: findings from the second large population-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2022 May 23;22(1):1031. Epub 2022 May 23.

Digestive Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14117-13135, Iran.

Background: The first large serosurvey in Iran found a SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence of 17.1% among the general population in the first wave of the epidemic by April, 2020. The purpose of the current study was to assess the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection among Iranian general population after the third wave of the disease. Read More

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Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factor Analysis of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Huangshi Port District, Huangshi City.

Juan Liu Hui Zhang

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 2;2022:3009589. Epub 2022 May 2.

Technical Service Center, Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, Yunnan 650034, China.

Objective: This study is aimed at investigating the epidemiology and risk factors of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (pinkeye) in Huangshi Port District of Huangshi City.

Methods: A total of 593 cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis from January 2019 to December 2021 were selected as the observation group. The epidemiological characteristics (age of onset, season, occupation, clinical manifestations, and etiological characteristics) were analyzed. Read More

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Muco-Cutaneous Infections in HIV Infected Children at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.

West Afr J Med 2022 Apr;39(4):362-368

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, UniOsun Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Background: Studies on mucous infections in HIV infected children are sparse. Cutaneous infections though common, vary in pattern and prevalence over time and location.

Objectives: To provide updates on the prevalence and pattern of muco-cutaneous infections among HIV infected children attending a Nigerian tertiary hospital and identify neglected muco-cutaneous infections. Read More

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Ocular manifestations of COVID-19.

Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2022 Jan-Dec;14:25158414221083374. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Eye Research Center, LLC, 4023 Kennett Pike # 548, Wilmington, DE 19807, USA.

COVID-19 is a disease caused by a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, a disease that was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19, formerly known as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) respiratory disease, was officially named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2020. By 25 May 2021, there were 33,579,116 confirmed cases with 599,109 COVID-19 deaths worldwide. Read More

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A qualitative evaluation of pediatric conjunctivitis medical decision making and opportunities to improve care.

J AAPOS 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado; Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; Office of Research, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado.

Background: Acute infectious conjunctivitis is a common childhood illness, and the role of antibiotic treatment remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to describe the decision-making process providers use when managing infectious conjunctivitis, to identify factors that reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing, and to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced prescribing behavior.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 providers caring for children in primary care, urgent cares, and emergency departments in Denver, Colorado. Read More

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Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in febrile patients from an endemic region of dengue and chikungunya in Peru.

PLoS One 2022 8;17(4):e0265820. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

School of Medicine, Research Center of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru.

Introduction: The rapid expansion of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has raised serious public health concerns due to the possibility of misdiagnosis in regions where arboviral diseases are endemic. We performed the first study in northern Peru to describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies in febrile patients with a suspected diagnosis of dengue and chikungunya fever.

Materials And Methods: A consecutive cross-sectional study was performed in febrile patients attending primary healthcare centers from April 2020 through March 2021. Read More

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Profile and dynamics of infectious diseases: a population-based observational study using multi-source big data.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 4;22(1):332. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Institute of EcoHealth, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: The current surveillance system only focuses on notifiable infectious diseases in China. The arrival of the big-data era provides us a chance to elaborate on the full spectrum of infectious diseases.

Methods: In this population-based observational study, we used multiple health-related data extracted from the Shandong Multi-Center Healthcare Big Data Platform from January 2013 to June 2017 to estimate the incidence density and describe the epidemiological characteristics and dynamics of various infectious diseases in a population of 3,987,573 individuals in Shandong province, China. Read More

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Survey of state conjunctivitis policies for school-age students.

J AAPOS 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examine state policies regarding school-age students with conjunctivitis.

Methods: Analysis included the following evidence: publicly available policies for disposition of affected students; indications for exclusion and return to classroom; and completeness of information, including mention of different etiologies of conjunctivitis; signs and symptoms of viral versus bacterial conjunctivitis; student disposition and treatment based on etiology; internally consistent recommendations; reference to credible resources; and mention of the possibility of a conjunctivitis outbreak.

Results: Fifteen of 50 states have no policies. Read More

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Ocular Surface Infection Mediated Molecular Stress Responses: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 14;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 14.

GROW Research Laboratory, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Bangalore 560 099, India.

Infection mediated ocular surface stress responses are activated as early defense mechanisms in response to host cell damage. Integrated stress responses initiate the host response to different types of infections and modulate the transcription of key genes and translation of proteins. The crosstalk between host and pathogen results in profound alterations in cellular and molecular homeostasis triggering specific stress responses in the infected tissues. Read More

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Molecular analysis of Coxsackievirus A24 variant isolates from three outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 1988, 1994 and 2007 in Beijing, China.

Virol Sin 2022 Apr 22;37(2):168-176. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

National Polio Laboratory, WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory, National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Biosecurity, National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is a major pathogen that causes continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). In China, the first confirmed outbreak of CVA24v-related AHC occurred in Beijing in 1988, followed by another two significant outbreaks respectively in 1994 and 2007, which coincides with the three-stage dynamic distribution of AHC in the world after 1970s. To illustrate the genetic characteristics of CVA24v in different periods, a total of 23 strains were isolated from those three outbreaks and the whole genome of those isolations were sequenced and analyzed. Read More

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Measles Outbreak Investigation in Guradamole District of Bale Zone, South Eastern Ethiopia, 2021.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 27;15:669-683. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Field Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Measles is a highly contagious viral illness and globally, 142,300 people died from measles in 2018. On 25 March 2021, an outbreak of measles was reported from Guradamole district Bale Zone Southeast Ethiopia. Hence, we investigated to determine existence of the outbreak and to identify the associated factors. Read More

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February 2022

Topical pharmacologic interventions versus placebo for epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 03 3;3:CD013520. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Viruses cause about 80% of all cases of acute conjunctivitis. Human adenoviruses are believed to account for 65% to 90% of cases of viral conjunctivitis, or 20% to 75% of all causes of infectious keratoconjunctivitis worldwide. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a highly contagious subset of adenoviral conjunctivitis that has been associated with large outbreaks at military installations and at medical facilities. Read More

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[Viral conjunctivitis as the first sign of COVID-19 infection (clinical observation)].

Vestn Oftalmol 2022 ;138(1):52-56

Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia.

The article presents a case of complicated viral conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis was the initial sign of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the patient. The disease had a fairly long course and led to symmetrical scarring in the form of partial external symblepharon and dry eye syndrome. Read More

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Epidemiological trends and sociodemographic factors associated with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in mainland China from 2004 to 2018.

Virol J 2022 03 1;19(1):34. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Institute of Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 35 Zhuodaoquan North Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Background: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is classified as a class C notifiable infectious disease in China and poses a great threat to public health. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological trends and hotspots of AHC in mainland China. Sociodemographic factors that could contribute to early warning of AHC were further explored. Read More

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Incidental Detection of Viral Conjunctivitis on 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT in a Patient Suspected With Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome.

Clin Nucl Med 2022 May;47(5):e408-e410

Endocrinology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Abstract: Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is associated with a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors, including pancreatic and adrenal neuroendocrine tumors, renal cell carcinoma, and hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system and retina. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT has shown somatostatin receptor expression in inflammatory conditions. Read More

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SARS-COV-2 viral load in tears of patients with COVID-19 in the early symptomatic stages: comparison of two different tear sampling methods.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 18. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Presidency Central Laboratory, Istanbul Public Hospitals Services 2, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in tears of patients with COVID-19 in the early symptomatic stages and to compare two different sampling methods.

Materials And Method: In this cross-sectional study, tears sampling was performed in COVID-19 patients admitted within the first 7 days of symptom onset. The samples were collected with both conjunctival swabs and Schirmer strips. Read More

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February 2022

Hypochlorous acid as an antiseptic in the care of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) 2022 Feb 18;97(2):77-80. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Unidad de Córnea y Superficie Ocular, Servicio de Oftalmología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense, Instituto Castroviejo, Clínica Rementería, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19 disease, is transmitted by aerosols or by contact with infected surfaces. The route of entry to the body is through the nasal, oral or conjunctival mucosa. Health workers must use effective protection measures against the entry of the virus into mucous membranes, both physical and antiseptic filters. Read More

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February 2022

COVID-19 pandemic: Impact on the rate of viral conjunctivitis.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) 2022 Feb 31;97(2):63-69. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Servicio de Oftalmología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital la Paz (IDIPAZ), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic led Spain to order a state of alert with the cessation of non-essential activities on 14 March 2020, and to implement public health interventions (such as home confinement) and other health recommendations to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (hand washing and the obligation to wear face-masks). These factors could have influenced the rate of viral conjunctivitis.

Method: In this retrospective, noninterventional, descriptive study, the incidence of viral conjunctivitis in an emergency department of a national hospital is compared over two distinct time periods: pre-COVID (13 March-30 September 2019, one year before the start of the pandemic) and COVID (13 March-30 September 2020). Read More

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February 2022

Differential expression of long non-coding RNAs under (PPRV) infection in goats.

Virulence 2022 12;13(1):310-322

Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, ICAR-IVRI, Bareilly, India.

(PPR) characterized by fever, sore mouth, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in PPRV infection has not been explored to date. In this study, the transcriptome profiles of virulent Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infected goat tissues - lung and spleen were analyzed to identify the role of lncRNAs in PPRV infection. Read More

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December 2022

Virtual Consultation for Red Eye: Accuracy Assessment in a Primary Care Center.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul-Sep;28(3):180-183. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of teleexamination of red eye by a trained general practitioner (GP) compared to the gold standard (in-office consultation by an ophthalmologist).

Methods: This was a study of diagnostic accuracy. We included consecutive male or female patients aged ≥6 months who presented to a primary care clinic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with red eye. Read More

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February 2022


Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2022 ;2(Ahead of Print):1001-1008

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) epidemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from China. Coronaviruses belong to enveloped ssRNA viruses and are classified into four genera: Alpha coronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. It is assumed that SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily during a personal contact via bigger respiratory droplets. Read More

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February 2022


Lancet 2022 02 28;399(10325):678-690. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Virology Department, Normandie University, UNICAEN, INSERM U1311 DynaMicURe, Caen University Hospital, Caen, France.

Measles is a highly contagious, potentially fatal, but vaccine-preventable disease caused by measles virus. Symptoms include fever, maculopapular rash, and at least one of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis, although vaccinated individuals can have milder or even no symptoms. Laboratory diagnosis relies largely on the detection of specific IgM antibodies in serum, dried blood spots, or oral fluid, or the detection of viral RNA in throat or nasopharyngeal swabs, urine, or oral fluid. Read More

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February 2022