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    312 results match your criteria Conjunctivitis Acute Hemorrhagic

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    Role of enhanced receptor engagement in the evolution of a pandemic acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Jan 28;115(2):397-402. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584CL Utrecht, The Netherlands;
    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a painful, contagious eye disease, with millions of cases in the last decades. Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) was not originally associated with human disease, but in 1970 a pathogenic "variant" (CV-A24v) emerged, which is now the main cause of AHC. Initially, this variant circulated only in Southeast Asia, but it later spread worldwide, accounting for numerous AHC outbreaks and two pandemics. Read More

    Human Adenovirus Surveillance - United States, 2003-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 6;66(39):1039-1042. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, CDC.
    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Read More

    Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 05 7;14(5). Epub 2017 May 7.
    Climate Change and Health Center, Shandong University, 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012, China.
    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackie A type 24 variant in China, 2004-2014.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 23;7:45202. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
    To understand control interventions, the molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) was investigated from 2004 to 2014.A total of 613,485 AHC cases (annualized cases 55,771) with two deaths were included. Our findings showed that AHC was reported in all provinces, predominantly in Southern and Eastern China. Read More

    Dynamic modelling of strategies for the control of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in schools in Changsha, China (2004-2015).
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 01 19;145(2):368-378. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Office for Disease Control and Emergency Response,Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention,Changsha,Hunan Province,People's Republic of China.
    Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to control AHC outbreaks in schools. A susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model was built to simulate AHC outbreaks in Chinese schools, with isolation or school closure added into the model. Read More

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011.
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 2016 Feb;39(2):137-141
    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP) in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Read More

    Ebola virus disease and the eye.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;27(6):538-544
    aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Emory Eye Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia cOcular Imaging Research and Reading Center, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The world has witnessed the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa with an unprecedented number of infected individuals and survivors. Many systemic and ocular complications have been reported in survivors. Herein, we review the ophthalmic complications associated with Ebolavirus. Read More

    Phylodynamic Characterization of an Ocular-Tropism Coxsackievirus A24 Variant.
    PLoS One 2016 16;11(8):e0160672. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Recent phylodynamic studies have focused on using tree topology patterns to elucidate interactions among the epidemiological, evolutionary, and demographic characteristics of infectious agents. However, because studies of viral phylodynamics tend to focus on epidemic outbreaks, tree topology signatures of tissue-tropism pathogens might not be clearly identified. Therefore, this study used a novel Bayesian evolutionary approach to analyze the A24 variant of coxsackievirus (CV-A24v), an ocular-tropism agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Read More

    A major outbreak of conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24, Réunion, January to April 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2016 Jun;21(26)
    Santé publique France, French national public health agency, Regional unit (Cire océan Indien), Saint-Denis, Réunion, France.
    From January to April 2015, Réunion experienced a major outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) caused by coxsackievirus A24, which heavily impacted the healthcare system. According to the general practitioners' (GP) sentinel network, the number of medical consultations due to conjunctivitis during this period was estimated at ca 100,000. This report describes the characteristics of the outbreak, which were obtained through several different yet complementary surveillance systems on the island. Read More

    Complete genome analysis of coxsackievirus A24 isolated in Yunnan, China, in 2013.
    Arch Virol 2016 Jun 3;161(6):1705-9. Epub 2016 Mar 3.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (CAMS and PUMC), 935 Jiao Ling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.
    Human coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24) belongs to the species Enterovirus C, and variants of this virus frequently cause acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). The complete genome of the K282/YN/CHN/2013 strain, isolated from a healthy child in Yunnan, China, in 2013, is reported here for the first time. The strain showed 80. Read More

    Allosteric inhibitors of Coxsackie virus A24 RNA polymerase.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2016 Feb 15;24(4):570-7. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, United States; Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, UTMB, United States.
    Coxsackie virus A24 (CVA24), a causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, is a prototype of enterovirus (EV) species C. The RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) of CVA24 can uridylylate the viral peptide linked to the genome (VPg) from distantly related EV and is thus, a good model for studying this reaction. Once UMP is bound, VPgpU primes RNA elongation. Read More

    [Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic Analyses of Coxsackievirus A24v Causing an Outbreak of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Jiangxi, China, in 2010].
    Bing Du Xue Bao 2015 May;31(3):251-7
    To identify the cause of an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Jiangxi (China) in 2010, 20 eye conjunctival swabs were first collected from AHC patients. Then, viruses were isola- ted and tested for human enterovirus 70, coxsackievirus A24 variant (CV-A24v) and adenovirus using the polymerase chain reaction. All CV-A24v isolates underwent sequencing of 3C and VP1 coding regions. Read More

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: anti-coxsackievirus A24 variant secretory immunoglobulin A in acute and convalescent tear.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2015 10;9:1665-73. Epub 2015 Sep 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical course of a laboratory-acquired case of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) caused by coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Also, the anti-CA24v neutralizing activity and anti-CA24v immunoglobulin (Ig) G and secretory IgA (sIgA) in acute and convalescent tears and/or sera are presented.

    Case: A 60-year-old male presented with acute-onset left eyelid edema, tearing, conjunctival erythema, pain, foreign body sensation, and subconjunctival hemorrhage 24 hours after suspected laboratory exposure. Read More

    Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Jan 7;213(1):57-60. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
    Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick.
    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Read More

    Virological and epidemiological analysis of coxsackievirus A24 variant epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Okinawa, Japan, in 2011.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2015 15;9:1085-92. Epub 2015 Jun 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a highly contagious enterovirus infection of the conjunctiva and cornea. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) is one of its etiological agents. We report a clinical, epidemiological, and virological analysis of a large epidemic of AHC that occurred from May to September, 2011, in Okinawa, Japan. Read More

    Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.
    PLoS One 2015 10;10(4):e0124181. Epub 2015 Apr 10.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.
    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. Read More

    Epidemic outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 in Thailand, 2014.
    Epidemiol Infect 2015 Oct 31;143(14):3087-93. Epub 2015 Mar 31.
    Centre of Excellence in Clinical Virology,Department of Pediatrics,Faculty of Medicine,Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok,Thailand.
    Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks are often attributed to viral infection. In 2014, an unprecedented nationwide outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis occurred in Thailand, which affected >300 000 individuals over 3 months. To identify and characterize the virus responsible for the epidemic, eye swab specimens from 119 patients were randomly collected from five different provinces. Read More

    What we know about ocular manifestations of Ebola.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2014 21;8:2355-7. Epub 2014 Nov 21.
    University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA.
    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a deadly disease caused by several species of ebolavirus. The current outbreak of 2014 is unique in that it has affected a greater number of people than ever before. It also has an unusual geographic distribution. Read More

    A sialic acid binding site in a human picornavirus.
    PLoS Pathog 2014 Oct 16;10(10):e1004401. Epub 2014 Oct 16.
    Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.
    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. Read More

    [Analysis of effect on infectious diseases outbreak detection performance by classifying provinces for moving percentile method].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Apr;48(4):265-9
    Objective: Providing evidences for further modification of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) via analyzing the outbreak detection performance of Moving Percentile Method (MPM) by optimizing thresholds in different provinces.

    Methods: We collected the amount of MPM signals, response results of signals in CIDARS, cases data in nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System, and outbreaks data in Public Health Emergency Reporting System of 16 infectious diseases in 31 provinces in Chinese mainland from January 2011 to October 2013. The threshold with the optimal sensitivity, the shortest time to detect outbreak and the least number of signals was considered as the best threshold of each disease in Chinese mainland and in each province. Read More

    [Comparing the performance of temporal model and temporal-spatial model for outbreak detection in China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System, 2011-2013, China].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Apr;48(4):259-64
    Objective: For providing evidences for further modification of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) by comparing the early-warning performance of the temporal model and temporal-spatial model in CIDARS.

    Methods: The application performance for outbreak detection of temporal model and temporal-spatial model simultaneously running among 208 pilot counties in 20 provinces from 2011 to 2013 was compared; the 16 infectious diseases were divided into two classes according to the disease incidence level; cases data in nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System was combined with outbreaks reported to Public Health Emergency Reporting System, by adopting the index of the number of signals, sensitivity, false alarm rate and time for detection.

    Results: The overall sensitivity of temporal model and temporal-spatial model for 16 diseases was 96. Read More

    Rare ocular manifestation in a case of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis.
    Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014 Jan;17(1):95-6
    Department of Neurology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, US.
    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, which causes flu-like illness and is sporadically associated with encephalitis. Transmission to humans occurs following a bite from an infected mosquito, which acquires the virus after feeding on dead birds. WNV meningoencephalitis is a rare infection with a neuroinvasive disease occurring in less than 1% of the cases, with varied presentations including aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. Read More

    A modeling and experiment framework for the emergency management in AHC transmission.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2014 16;2014:897532. Epub 2014 Feb 16.
    College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.
    Emergency management is crucial to finding effective ways to minimize or even eliminate the damage of emergent events, but there still exists no quantified method to study the events by computation. Statistical algorithms, such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models on epidemic transmission, ignore many details, thus always influencing the spread of emergent events. In this paper, we first propose an agent-based modeling and experiment framework to model the real world with the emergent events. Read More

    A case of corneal endothelial dysfunction due to coxsackievirus A24 corneal endotheliitis after cataract surgery.
    Cornea 2014 May;33(5):533-5
    Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Corneal endotheliitis causes endothelial decompensation and is associated with significant visual impairment. The goal of this article is to report a case of corneal endotheliitis associated with coxsackievirus A24 infection after cataract surgery in a patient who had no previous symptoms indicative of conjunctivitis.

    Methods: A 55-year-old man was admitted for cataract surgery when acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis was prevalent. Read More

    Molecular evolution of VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions in coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant isolates from acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.
    Microbiol Immunol 2014 Apr;58(4):227-38
    Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment, 2085 Ozato, Nanjo-Shi, Okinawa, 901-1202.
    A large acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreak occurred in 2011 in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Ten strains of coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant (CA24v) were isolated from patients with AHC and full sequence analysis of the VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions performed. To assess time-scale evolution, phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Read More

    Genetic characteristics of the coxsackievirus A24 variant causing outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Jiangsu, China, 2010.
    PLoS One 2014 24;9(1):e86883. Epub 2014 Jan 24.
    Department of Acute Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    During September 2010, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis reemerged in Jiangsu, three years after the nationwide epidemic in China in 2007. In total, 2409 cases were reported, 2118 of which were reported in September; 79.8% of those affected were students or teachers, with a median age of 16 years. Read More

    [Study on the complete sequence of CA24 variant isolated during the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in Zhejiang province during 2002 to 2010].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2013 May;34(5):496-502
    Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.
    Objective: To analyze the genetic characteristics of the complete sequence of coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) isolated from acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks in Zhejiang province during 2002 to 2010.

    Methods: Complete sequences of CA24v epidemic strains isolated in different years were amplified under the RT-PCR assay, while the sequences of whole genome, VP1, and 3C region of Zhejiang strains were compared with epidemic strains isolated in other areas of China and abroad.

    Results: The whole genome of Zhejiang CA24v strains isolated in 2002 and 2010 was 7456 - 7458 bp in length, encoding a polyglutamine protein which containing 2214 amino acid residues. Read More

    The Rift Valley fever: could re-emerge in Egypt again?
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr;43(1):41-56
    The Military Medical Services For Preventive Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.
    The Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus of the family of Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus. RVF is an acute, febrile disease affecting humans and a wide range of animals. Read More

    [Study on the efficacy of quarantine during outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks at schools through the susceptive-infective-quarantine-removal model].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2013 Jan;34(1):75-9
    Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, China.
    To assess the efficacy of quarantine for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks control in schools, by using the Compartment Model. Through combining the characters of both AHC and compartment model, we built a susceptive-infective-removal (SIR) model suited for AHC outbreaks control in schools, and then quarantine was added into the model to develop a susceptive-infective-quarantine-removal (SIQR) model. An outbreak of AHC in Changsha in 2011 was employed as a sample to assess the effect of quarantine for the prevention and control of AHC. Read More

    A molecular investigative approach to an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Egypt, October 2010.
    Virol J 2013 Mar 25;10:96. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
    US Naval Medical Research Unit No,3, Cairo, 11517, Egypt.
    Background: During October 2010, Egypt reported an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). A total of 1831 cases were reported from three governorates; 1703 cases in El Daqahliya, 92 cases in Port Said, and 36 in Damietta. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the causative agent associated with this outbreak. Read More

    [Identification and genetic characterization of coxsackievirus A24 isolated from patients with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Shandong Province].
    Bing Du Xue Bao 2012 Nov;28(6):663-9
    School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.
    To identify the pathogen of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Shandong Province in 2010, eye mucous swab samples were collected from 26 patients in Qingdao and Linyi City. Real time-PCR assays for EV70, CVA24 and Adenovirus were performed on these samples. The result showed 17 samples (65. Read More

    Symptoms and otoscopic signs in bilateral and unilateral acute otitis media.
    Pediatrics 2013 Feb 28;131(2):e398-405. Epub 2013 Jan 28.
    Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, PL 52, 20521 Turku, Finland.
    Objective: Bilateral acute otitis media (AOM) is considered more severe than unilateral AOM, and several guidelines recommend more active treatment and/or follow-up of bilateral AOM. We studied whether bilateral AOM is a clinically more severe illness than unilateral AOM by comparing symptoms and otoscopic signs between bilateral and unilateral AOM.

    Methods: Two hundred thirty-two children aged 6 to 35 months diagnosed with AOM were eligible. Read More

    A peptide vaccine based on a B-cell epitope on the VP1 protein of enterovirus 70 induces a strong antibody response.
    Acta Virol 2012 ;56(4):337-42
    The Catholic University of Korea, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    Enterovirus 70 (EV70) is the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), for which no effective vaccine is available. This study revealed a high reactivity of the N-terminal region of EV70 VP1 (VP1-1) with an anti-EV70 mouse serum. The analysis of overlapping synthetic peptides of VP1-1 identified a B-cell epitope in this region. Read More

    Molecular identification and phylogenetic study of coxsackievirus A24 variant isolated from an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in India in 2010.
    Arch Virol 2013 Mar 4;158(3):679-84. Epub 2012 Nov 4.
    Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, 226014 Uttar Pradesh, India.
    An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) occured in India between August and October 2010. Molecular typing by RT-PCR and sequencing of a partial VP1 region identified coxsackievirus A24 variant (CV A24v) as the serotype involved in this outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 and 3C genes revealed that CV A24v strains associated with the 2010 AHC outbreak in India were genetically similar to strains from Central and South America that caused outbreaks of AHC in Cuba between 2008 and 2009 and Brazil in 2009. Read More

    2012 outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Indian Ocean Islands: identification of Coxsackievirus A24 in a returned traveller.
    Euro Surveill 2012 May 31;17(22). Epub 2012 May 31.
    University Hospital Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, EuroTravNet Coordination Center, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    In May 2012, a Coxsackievirus A24 haemorrhagic conjunctivitis was diagnosed in Marseille, France, in a traveller returning from the Comoros Islands. This case allowed identification of the cause of an ongoing outbreak of haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Indian Ocean Islands, illustrating that returning travellers may serve as sentinels for infectious diseases outbreaks in tropical areas where laboratory investigation is limited. Read More

    Phylogenetic and molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A24 variant isolates from a 2010 acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreak in Guangdong, China.
    Virol J 2012 Feb 15;9:41. Epub 2012 Feb 15.
    Institute of Microbiology, Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510300, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a common disease in China. As a notifiable disease, cases are registered by ophthalmologists on the AHC surveillance system. An AHC outbreak caused by CA24v was observed in Guangdong Province in 2007 by the National Disease Supervision Information Management System. Read More

    [Application of Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model in dealing with an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis on one school campus].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2011 Aug;32(8):830-3
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.
    To simulate intervention measures in controlling an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis on one school campus by using the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, to provide evidence for preparedness and response to the epidemic. Classical SIR model was used to model the epidemic. Malthusian exponential decline method was employed to estimate the infective coefficient β for interventions. Read More

    Isolation of Coxsackievirus A24 variant from patients with hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Cuba, 2008-2009.
    J Clin Virol 2012 Jan 9;53(1):77-81. Epub 2011 Nov 9.
    Department of Virology, Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK), Autopista Novia del Mediodía km. 6 1/2, Marianao 13, Havana, Cuba.
    Background: An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in Cuba in 2008 and 2009.

    Objective: To determinate the etiological agent associated with the Cuban outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis during 2008 and 2009.

    Study Design: Conjunctival swabs and/or faecal samples from 382 patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis were subject to viral culture in HEp-2 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells. Read More

    [Study on the pathological and molecular characteristics of AHC epidemic in Zhejiang Province in 2010].
    Bing Du Xue Bao 2011 Sep;27(5):421-6
    Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.
    To identify and trace the pathogen of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) epidemic in Zhejiang Province in 2010. Viral nucleic acid of Enterovirus (EV) and Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) were directly detected by real-time RT-PCR from the conjunctival swab collected from suspected patients. The virus was isolated from the swab samples using Hep-2 cell. Read More

    Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics and outbreaks of Paederus spp. keratoconjunctivitis ('Nairobi red eyes') and dermatitis.
    S Afr Med J 2011 Jul 25;101(8):541-3. Epub 2011 Jul 25.
    Department of Medical Biosciences, University of Western Cape, Tanzania.
    An epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam in 2010 demonstrated the importance of a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network to minimise disease outbreaks. Misunderstanding of the causes and management of diseases explains the repetitive nature of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Dar es Salaam. This paper discusses AHC and Paederus spp. Read More

    Coxsackievirus A24 variant uses sialic acid-containing O-linked glycoconjugates as cellular receptors on human ocular cells.
    J Virol 2011 Nov 31;85(21):11283-90. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
    Division of Virology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden.
    Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is a main causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), which is a highly contagious eye infection. Previously it has been suggested that CVA24v uses sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as attachment receptors on corneal cells, but the nature of these receptors is poorly described. Here, we set out to characterize and identify the cellular components serving as receptors for CVA24v. Read More

    Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of coxsackievirus A24v causing outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Brazil.
    PLoS One 2011 16;6(8):e23206. Epub 2011 Aug 16.
    Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) is the most prevalent viral pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks. Sixteen years after its first outbreak in Brazil, this agent reemerged in 2003 in Brazil, spread to nearly all states and caused outbreaks until 2005. In 2009, a new outbreak occurred in the northeast region of the country. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patient.
    Lupus 2011 Nov 18;20(13):1439-41. Epub 2011 Jul 18.
    Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Children's Hospital, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade São Paulo, Brazil.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and rare immune-mediated cutaneous reaction usually induced by drugs or infections. Few case reports have demonstrated SJS associated with adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rarely in juvenile SLE (JSLE) patients. However, to the best of our knowledge the prevalence of this life-threatening cutaneous disease in the pediatric lupus population has not been studied. Read More

    [Comparison on the different thresholds on the 'moving percentile method' for outbreak detection].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2011 May;32(5):450-3
    Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200136, China.
    Objective: To compare the different thresholds of 'moving percentile method' for outbreak detection in the China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS).

    Methods: The thresholds of P(50), P(60), P(70), P(80) and P(90) were respectively adopted as the candidates of early warning thresholds on the moving percentile method. Aberration was detected through the reported cases of 19 notifiable infectious diseases nationwide from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010. Read More

    An ex vivo model of coxsackievirus infection using multilayered human conjunctival epithelial cells.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011 Sep 26;249(9):1327-32. Epub 2011 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to establish an ex vivo model of coxsackievirus infection since there seems to be no suitable disease model currently.

    Methods: Human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs) were cultured for 2 weeks in a serum-free air-liquid interface system to produce a multilayered structure. The cells were infected with coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24). Read More

    Understanding of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) epidemics and outbreaks of Paederus spp keratoconjuctivitis, periorbital oedema ("Nairobi red eyes") and dermatitis.
    East Afr J Public Health 2010 Sep;7(3):242-5
    Medical Biosciences Department, University of Western Cape, Cape Town and Mbeya Referral Hospital.
    A recent epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam showed again the importance of developing a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network which is effective in minimising disease outbreaks. The current misunderstanding of diseases causation and management explains the repetitive nature of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Dar es Salaam. This article aims at increasing public awareness by elaborating two diseases (Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis and Paederus spp keratoconjuctivitis, periorbital oedema-"Nairobi red eyes") confused by many as being associated with recurrent epidemics of conjunctivitis Dar es Salaam. Read More

    An antiviral small-interfering RNA simultaneously effective against the most prevalent enteroviruses causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Jan 5;52(1):58-63. Epub 2011 Jan 5.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease, is caused primarily by either enterovirus 70 (EV70) or coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24) infection. Yet methods to prevent or cure AHC are not available. Recent evidence has shown that small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), mediators of posttranscriptional gene knockdown, can act as effective antiviral agents. Read More

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