334 results match your criteria Conjunctivitis Acute Hemorrhagic


Molecular Characterization of Coxsackievirus A24v from Feces and Conjunctiva Reveals Epidemiological Links.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Immunovirology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, 22185 Malmo, Sweden.

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v), the main causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), can be isolated from both the eyes and lower alimentary tract. However, the molecular features of CVA24v in feces is not well-documented. In this study, we compared the VP1 and 3C sequences of CVA24v strains isolated from feces during AHC epidemics in Cuba in 1997, 2003, and 2008-2009 with those obtained from conjunctival swabs during the same epidemic period. Read More

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Ophthalmic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 in newborn infants: a preliminary report.

J AAPOS 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Asociación para evitar la ceguera en México, APEC, Mexico City, México.

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), affects people of all ages. The virus can cause multiple systemic infections, principally in the respiratory tract, as well as microvascular damage. Ocular manifestations of COVID-19 are uncommon in adults and children. Read More

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February 2021

Methylene Blue Inhibits Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis Virus Production and Induction of Caspase-3 Mediated Human Corneal Cell Cytopathy.

Clin Ophthalmol 2020 23;14:4483-4492. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.

Background: Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a highly contagious eye disease caused by enterovirus type 70 (E70) and Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) with no clinically approved treatment. The antiviral activity of methylene blue (MB; a WHO essential medicine) against AHC viruses was investigated using human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC).

Methods: Time and concentration-dependent MB accumulation by HCEC was determined colorimetrically and MB inhibition of virus production of 5 E70 and 3 CA24v AHC epidemic isolates in HCEC was determined by micro-plaque assay. Read More

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December 2020

Pentavalent Sialic Acid Conjugates Block Coxsackievirus A24 Variant and Human Adenovirus Type 37-Viruses That Cause Highly Contagious Eye Infections.

ACS Chem Biol 2020 10 16;15(10):2683-2691. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE90187 Umeå, Sweden.

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and human adenovirus 37 (HAdV-37) are leading causative agents of the severe and highly contagious ocular infections acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, respectively. Currently, neither vaccines nor antiviral agents are available for treating these diseases, which affect millions of individuals worldwide. CVA24v and HAdV-37 utilize sialic acid as attachment receptors facilitating entry into host cells. Read More

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October 2020

Forecasting the incidence of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Chongqing: a time series analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 08 18;148:e193. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing400016, China.

Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a highly contagious eye disease, the prediction of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis is very important to prevent and grasp its development trend. We use the exponential smoothing model and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to analyse and predict. The monthly incidence data from 2004 to 2017 were used to fit two models, the actual incidence of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 2018 was used to validate the model. Read More

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Molecular evolution of coxsackievirus A24v in Cuba over 23-years, 1986-2009.

Sci Rep 2020 08 13;10(1):13761. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Immunovirology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is a major causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks worldwide, yet the evolutionary and transmission dynamics of the virus remain unclear. To address this, we analyzed and compared the 3C and partial VP1 gene regions of CVA24v isolates obtained from five outbreaks in Cuba between 1986 and 2009 and strains isolated worldwide. Here we show that Cuban strains were homologous to those isolated in Africa, the Americas and Asia during the same time period. Read More

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Community-based surveillance advances the Global Health Security Agenda in Ghana.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(8):e0237320. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Ghana Health Service (GHS) has strengthened community-based surveillance (CBS) to facilitate early detection and rapid reporting of health events of all origins. Since June 2017, GHS has employed an event-based surveillance approach at the community level in a phased manner. CBS coverage has broadened from 2 to 30 districts across Ghana. Read More

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October 2020

Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis from 2004 to 2018 in Chongqing, China.

Sci Rep 2020 06 9;10(1):9286. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Health Statistics and Information Management, College of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R. China.

Chongqing is one of the five provinces in China that has the highest incidence of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). Data of AHC cases from 2004 to 2018 were obtained from National Notifiable Diseases Reporting Information System (NNDRIS). Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics; incidence maps were used to reflect incidence trends in each district; spatial autocorrelation was used to identify hotspot regions and spatiotemporal patterns of AHC outbreaks; spatiotemporal scan were conducted to identify AHC clusters. Read More

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Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020 Sep 6;19:100735. Epub 2020 May 6.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, Witty Fit, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Purpose: To describe the multiplicity of ocular manifestations of COVID-19 patients, we report a case of pseudomembranous and hemorrhagic conjunctivitis related with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a patient of intensive care unit (ICU).

Observations: A 63-year-old male was admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), seven days after the beginning of an influenza-like symptoms, to manage an acute respiratory syndrome related with SARS-CoV-2. Chest scan showed interstitial pneumonia with "crazy paving" patterns. Read More

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September 2020

Effects of Floods on the Incidence of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Mengshan, China, from 2005 to 2012.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1263-1268

School of Public Health, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, P.R. China.

This study aimed to examine the association between floods and the morbidity of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Mengshan, China. Relying on the longitudinal data, a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to quantify the relationship between the morbidity of AHC and floods from 2005 to 2012, controlling for other meteorological variables. Years lived with disability (YLDs) and attributable YLDs were used as the measure of the burden of AHC because of the floods. Read More

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Complete genome sequence of a coxsackievirus type A24 variant causing an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in southeastern Mexico in 2017.

Arch Virol 2020 Apr 12;165(4):1015-1018. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE) "Dr. Manuel Martínez Báez", Secretaría de Salud, Mexico City, Mexico.

Cases of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) caused by a coxsackie virus A24 variant (CV-A24v) in Mexico have been reported since 1987; however, no molecular data on the causative strains have been available. Here, we report the identification of the etiological agent responsible for the most recent AHC outbreak in southeastern Mexico (at the end of 2017) as well as the complete genome sequences of seven isolates, using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenomic analysis of the CV-A24v sequences reported here showed similarity to contemporary strains causing AHC outbreaks in French Guiana and Uganda, forming a novel clade related to genotype IV. Read More

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Forecast of the trend in incidence of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in China from 2011-2019 using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) and Exponential Smoothing (ETS) models.

J Infect Public Health 2020 Feb 14;13(2):287-294. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Social Medicine, Health Management College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to explore the demographic and distributive features of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). We constructed seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential smoothing (ETS) models to predict its trend in incidence in mainland China and provided evidence for the government to formulate policies regarding AHC prevention.

Methods: Data regarding the distribution and demographic characteristics of AHC in China from 2011-2016 were retrieved from the Public Health Scientific Data website. Read More

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February 2020

Transmissibility of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in small-scale outbreaks in Hunan Province, China.

Sci Rep 2020 01 10;10(1):119. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks are reported frequently in China. However, the transmissibility of AHC remains unclear. This study aimed to calculate the transmissibility of the disease with and without interventions. Read More

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January 2020

Quantification of fecal adenovirus viral load and correlation with Vesikari score in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Oct 11. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Pediatric Laboratory, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy.

Background: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are an important cause of acute respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and gastroenteritis. In addition to enteric serotypes 40 and 41, some serotypes belonging to subgroups A, B, and C have also been implicated to be etiological agents of gastroenteritis among infants and young children.The Vesikari Scoring System (VSS) is the severity scale that was originally developed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of rotavirus vaccines on 20 points. Read More

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October 2019

Commercial Vaccines and Vaccination Strategies Against Infectious Laryngotracheitis: What We Have Learned and Knowledge Gaps That Remain.

Avian Dis 2019 06;63(2):325-334

Avian Health International LLC, Suite M 135, Flowery Branch, GA 30452.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory disease of chickens, pheasants, and peafowl caused by the alphaherpesvirus (GaHV-1), commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus. ILT is an acute respiratory disease characterized by clinical signs of conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, dyspnea, and lethargy. In severe forms of the disease, hemorrhagic tracheitis together with gasping, coughing, and expectoration of bloody mucus are common. Read More

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Lassa Virus Targeting of Anterior Uvea and Endothelium of Cornea and Conjunctiva in Eye of Guinea Pig Model.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 05;25(5):865-874

Lassa virus (LASV), a hemorrhagic fever virus endemic to West Africa, causes conjunctivitis in patients with acute disease. To examine ocular manifestations of LASV, we histologically examined eyes from infected guinea pigs. In fatal disease, LASV immunostaining was most prominent in the anterior uvea, especially in the filtration angle, ciliary body, and iris and in and around vessels in the bulbar conjunctiva and peripheral cornea, where it co-localized with an endothelial marker (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule). Read More

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Re-emergence of a coxsackievirus A24 variant causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Brazil from 2017 to 2018.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr;164(4):1181-1185

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A large outbreak (over 200,000 cases) of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) took place in Brazil during the summer of 2017/2018, seven years after a nationwide epidemic, which occurred in 2011. To identify the etiological agent, 80 conjunctival swabs from patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of AHC were analyzed at the national enterovirus laboratory. Real-time RT-PCR for human enteroviruses was performed, and enterovirus RNA was detected in 91. Read More

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Impact of Drinking Water Quality on the Development of Enteroviral Diseases in Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 11 14;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea.

Enterovirus diseases are fecal-orally transmitted, and its transmission may be closely related with the drinking water quality and other environmental factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors including drinking water quality and the incidence of enteroviral diseases in metropolitan provinces of Korea. Using monthly number of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis (AM) and acute hemorrhage conjunctivitis (AHC) cases, generalized linear Poisson model was applied to estimate the effects of environmental factors on the monthly cases. Read More

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November 2018

Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses Linked to Epidemic Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease.

Front Microbiol 2018 8;9:2422. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Enterovirus (EV) infections are a major threat to global public health, and are responsible for mild respiratory illness, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, severe neonatal sepsis-like disease, and acute flaccid paralysis epidemic. Among them, HFMD is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by EVs of the family including EV-A71, coxsackieviruses (CV)-A2, CV-A6, CV-A10, and CV-A16. Due to lack of vaccines and specific antiviral therapeutics, millions of children still suffer from HFMD. Read More

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October 2018

Role of enhanced receptor engagement in the evolution of a pandemic acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 01 28;115(2):397-402. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584CL Utrecht, The Netherlands;

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a painful, contagious eye disease, with millions of cases in the last decades. Coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) was not originally associated with human disease, but in 1970 a pathogenic "variant" (CV-A24v) emerged, which is now the main cause of AHC. Initially, this variant circulated only in Southeast Asia, but it later spread worldwide, accounting for numerous AHC outbreaks and two pandemics. Read More

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January 2018

Costs of Conjunctivitis Outbreak, Réunion Island, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 01;24(1):168-170

During January-April 2015, a major outbreak of conjunctivitis on Réunion Island caused a large public health impact. On the basis of general practitioner consultations, emergency department visits, and eye medication sales during the 13-week epidemic, we estimated a total healthcare cost of €3,341,191 from the outbreak. Read More

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January 2018

An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis associated with coxsackievirus A24 variant in The Gambia, West Africa.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Dec 6;10(1):692. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objective: An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurred in The Gambia, West Africa in 2011. Affected individuals presented with conjunctival haemorrhages, swelling and ocular discharge. In an effort to identify a causative agent of the disease, ocular swabs were taken from patients during the acute and convalescent phases. Read More

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December 2017

Human Adenovirus Surveillance - United States, 2003-2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 6;66(39):1039-1042. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, CDC.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Adenoviridae; seven species (A-G) and >60 genotypes are known to cause human infection (1). Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. HAdV infection can be severe, particularly among immunocompromised patients, and can cause respiratory failure, disseminated infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, neurologic disease, and death (1,2). Read More

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October 2017

Post-Polio-Like Syndrome.

Am J Med 2017 11 10;130(11):e491-e492. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Japan.

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November 2017

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 05 7;14(5). Epub 2017 May 7.

Climate Change and Health Center, Shandong University, 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012, China.

Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackie A type 24 variant in China, 2004-2014.

Sci Rep 2017 03 23;7:45202. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

To understand control interventions, the molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) was investigated from 2004 to 2014.A total of 613,485 AHC cases (annualized cases 55,771) with two deaths were included. Our findings showed that AHC was reported in all provinces, predominantly in Southern and Eastern China. Read More

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Dynamic modelling of strategies for the control of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in schools in Changsha, China (2004-2015).

Epidemiol Infect 2017 01 19;145(2):368-378. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Office for Disease Control and Emergency Response, Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to control AHC outbreaks in schools. A susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model was built to simulate AHC outbreaks in Chinese schools, with isolation or school closure added into the model. Read More

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January 2017

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011.

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2016 Feb;39(2):137-141

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP) in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Read More

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February 2016

Ebola virus disease and the eye.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;27(6):538-544

aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Emory Eye Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia cOcular Imaging Research and Reading Center, Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The world has witnessed the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa with an unprecedented number of infected individuals and survivors. Many systemic and ocular complications have been reported in survivors. Herein, we review the ophthalmic complications associated with Ebolavirus. Read More

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November 2016

Phylodynamic Characterization of an Ocular-Tropism Coxsackievirus A24 Variant.

PLoS One 2016 16;11(8):e0160672. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Recent phylodynamic studies have focused on using tree topology patterns to elucidate interactions among the epidemiological, evolutionary, and demographic characteristics of infectious agents. However, because studies of viral phylodynamics tend to focus on epidemic outbreaks, tree topology signatures of tissue-tropism pathogens might not be clearly identified. Therefore, this study used a novel Bayesian evolutionary approach to analyze the A24 variant of coxsackievirus (CV-A24v), an ocular-tropism agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Read More

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