45 results match your criteria Conidae
Zootaxa 2018 Jun 28;4441(3):467-494. Epub 2018 Jun 28.
Department of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala, India.
Lakshadweep, the northernmost region of the Chagos-Maldives-Lakshadweep group of islands located southwest of the Malabar coast of India in the Arabian Sea, is the only chain of coral atolls in India. This paper documents the diversity of the molluscan family Conidae from the seas around all ten inhabited islands of Lakshadweep. Of the 78 species of cone snails now reported from Lakshadweep, 49 were recorded in this study. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Sep 7;8(1):13397. Epub 2018 Sep 7.
IMB Centre for Pain Research, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.
Cone snails are a diverse group of predatory marine invertebrates that deploy remarkably complex venoms to rapidly paralyse worm, mollusc or fish prey. ω-Conotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from cone snail venoms that inhibit Ca2.2 voltage-gated calcium channel, demonstrating potential for pain management via intrathecal (IT) administration. Read More
PeerJ 2018 31;6:e5361. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States of America.
The advent of next-generation sequencing has resulted in transcriptome-based approaches to investigate functionally significant biological components in a variety of non-model organism. This has resulted in the area of "venomics": a rapidly growing field using combined transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to characterize toxin diversity in a variety of venomous taxa. Ultimately, the transcriptomic portion of these analyses follows very similar pathways after transcriptome assembly often including candidate toxin identification using BLAST, expression level screening, protein sequence alignment, gene tree reconstruction, and characterization of potential toxin function. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Oct 28;127:898-906. Epub 2018 Jun 28.
Institut Systématique Evolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:
With more than 5,000 species, Conoidea is one of the most diversified superfamilies of Gastropoda. Recently, the family-level classification of these venomous predator snails has undergone substantial changes, on the basis of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed combining partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, and up to 16 families are now recognized. However, phylogenetic relationships among these families remain largely unresolved. Read More
Mol Biol Evol 2018 May;35(5):1210-1224
Animal Biomedical and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University Bali, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
To expand our capacity to discover venom sequences from the genomes of venomous organisms, we applied targeted sequencing techniques to selectively recover venom gene superfamilies and nontoxin loci from the genomes of 32 cone snail species (family, Conidae), a diverse group of marine gastropods that capture their prey using a cocktail of neurotoxic peptides (conotoxins). We were able to successfully recover conotoxin gene superfamilies across all species with high confidence (> 100× coverage) and used these data to provide new insights into conotoxin evolution. First, we found that conotoxin gene superfamilies are composed of one to six exons and are typically short in length (mean = ∼85 bp). Read More
Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Dec 31;10(12):1167-1171. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
Objective: To investigate the fauna of a highly venomous marine species group, the cone snails (Family Conidae), in the shores of Qeshm Island, of evaluating the possibility of envenomation in the area and summarize recommendations for emergency first aid.
Methods: Shores surrounding Qeshm Island were surveyed to collect cone snails during cold (February and March) and warm (May and June) seasons of 2017. Collected snails were identified to the species level. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 07 24;112:79-87. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 17;109:421-429. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
Museum of Zoology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama.
Knowledge concerning the taxonomic diversity of marine organisms is crucial for understanding processes associated with species diversification in geographic areas that are devoid of obvious barriers to dispersal. The marine gastropod family Conidae contains many species complexes due to lack of clear morphological distinctiveness and existence of morphological intergradations among described species. Conus flavidus Lamarck, 1810 and Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848 are currently recognized as distinct taxa, but are often difficult to distinguish by morphological characters and include several synonyms, including Conus peasei Brazier, 1877. Read More
Zootaxa 2017 Jan 20;4221(5):zootaxa.4221.5.4. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
Six species of Conidae and seven species of Terebridae are reported from the Plio-Pleistocene "Cabarruyan" fauna of Pangasinan, the Philippines. Eleven species are identified; these species all occur in the Recent Indo-Pacific fauna and seven of these are previously known from the fossil record as well. The species composition of this fauna shows little overlap with other fossil assemblages, except with the Fijian fossil assemblage. Read More
Zootaxa 2016 Dec 22;4210(1):zootaxa.4210.1.1. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria..
The Miocene Conidae and Conorbidae of the central- and south-eastern European Paratethys Sea are revised. In total, 74 species are described of which 10 are new species and 5 are documented for the first time from Paratethyan localities. Species descriptions and delimitations are partly based on morphometric data. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 02 27;107:142-151. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
Understanding how the extraordinary taxonomic and ecological diversity of cone snails (Caenogastropoda: Conidae) evolved requires a statistically robust phylogenetic framework, which thus far is not available. While recent molecular phylogenies have been able to distinguish several deep lineages within the family Conidae, including the genera Profundiconus, Californiconus, Conasprella, and Conus (and within this one, several subgenera), phylogenetic relationships among these genera remain elusive. Moreover, the possibility that additional deep lineages may exist within the family is open. Read More
Integr Comp Biol 2016 11 1;56(5):962-972. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
*Department of Chemistry, Hunter College, The City University of New York, Belfer Research Building, NY, 10021 USA
Venomous organisms used in research were historically chosen based on size and availability. This opportunity-driven strategy created a species bias in which snakes, scorpions, and spiders became the primary subjects of venom research. Increasing technological advancements have enabled interdisciplinary studies using genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics to expand venom investigation to animals that produce small amounts of venom or lack traditional venom producing organs. Read More
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2016 Jul;54(7):495-7
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2016 Jul;54(7):544-54
Background: Conotoxins in the venom of marine gastropods (genus Conus, family Conidae) have been incriminated in fatal human stingings. Conotoxins are peptides (conopeptides) which target specific classes of ion channels and block receptors involved in neuromuscular transmission. Some conopeptides also block receptors involved in neuropathic pain and one such peptide with an analgesic potency greater than that of morphine is marketed for clinical use. Read More
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2016 Jul;54(7):524-38
Objective: This paper provides the first compilation in more than 30 years of human injuries and fatalities from envenomation by marine gastropod molluscs of the predominantly tropical family Conidae. It seeks to apply recent advances in knowledge of the physiological effects of conopeptides and molecular genetics to improve our understanding of the human responses to stings by species that normally use their venom peptides to paralyze and overcome prey such as polychaete worms, other gastropod molluscs, and fishes.
Results: A database has been constructed for the 139 cases accepted as reliably reporting each human injury. Read More
BMC Genomics 2016 May 26;17:401. Epub 2016 May 26.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
Background: Although diet is believed to be a major factor underlying the evolution of venom, few comparative studies examine both venom composition and diet across a radiation of venomous species. Cone snails within the family, Conidae, comprise more than 700 species of carnivorous marine snails that capture their prey by using a cocktail of venomous neurotoxins (conotoxins or conopeptides). Venom composition across species has been previously hypothesized to be shaped by (a) prey taxonomic class (i. Read More
J Molluscan Stud 2015 Feb 5;81(1):1-23. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Departement Systematique et Evolution , ISyEB Institut (UMR 7205 CNRS/UPMC/MNHN/EPHE) , 55, Rue Buffon, Paris 75231 , France.
We present a new classification for the genus (family Conidae), based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of 329 species. This classification departs from both the traditional classification in only one genus and from a recently proposed shell- and radula-based classification scheme that separates members of this group into five families and 115 genera. Roughly 140 genus-group names are available for Recent cone snails. Read More
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2016 07 9;27(4):2738-9. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
a Department of Food Science , National Taiwan Ocean University , Keelung , Taiwan .
The complete mitogenome sequence of the cone snail Conus tulipa (Linnaeus, 1758) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome is 16,599 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base composition of C. Read More
Asian Pac J Trop Med 2015 May;8(5):337-51
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchurapalli, Tamil Nadu 620024, India.
The evolutionarily unique and ecologically diverse family Conidae presents fundamental opportunities for marine pharmacology research and drug discovery. The focus of this investigation is to summarize the worldwide distribution of Conus and their species diversity with special reference to the Indian coast. In addition, this study will contribute to understanding the structural properties of conotoxin and therapeutic application of Conus venom peptides. Read More
PLoS One 2015 1;10(4):e0120924. Epub 2015 Apr 1.
Department of Geology, San José State University, California, United States of America and Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.
The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails)--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. Read More
Proc Biol Sci 2015 Apr;282(1805)
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama.
Geographical heterogeneity in the composition of biotic interactions can create a mosaic of selection regimes that may drive the differentiation of phenotypes that operate at the interface of these interactions. Nonetheless, little is known about effects of these geographical mosaics on the evolution of genes encoding traits associated with species interactions. Predatory marine snails of the family Conidae use venom, a cocktail of conotoxins, to capture prey. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Nov 13;80:186-92. Epub 2014 Aug 13.
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Departement Systematique et Evolution, ISyEB Institut (UMR 7205 CNRS/UPMC/MNHN/EPHE), 55, Rue Buffon, 75231 Paris, France.
Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. Read More
Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Sep 28;78:290-303. Epub 2014 May 28.
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA. Electronic address:
We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Read More
Toxins (Basel) 2013 May 21;5(5):1043-50. Epub 2013 May 21.
Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
Venoms from cone snails (Conidae) have been extensively studied during the last decades, but those from other members of the suborder Toxoglossa, such as of Terebridae and Turridae superfamilies attracted less interest so far. Here, we report the effects of venom and gland extracts from three species of the superfamily Terebridae. By 2-electrode voltage-clamp technique the gland extracts were tested on Xenopus oocytes expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of rat neuronal (α3β2, α3β4, α4β2, α4β4, α7) and muscle subtypes (α1β1γδ), and expressing potassium (Kv1. Read More
Zootaxa 2013 ;3635:81-6
The Andaman and Nicobar archipelago comprises 572 islands spread over an area of 8,249 sq. km. These islands are within the 'Indo-Malayan region' and near the 'faunistic centre' from which other Indo-West Pacific regions recruit their tropical marine fauna (Ekman, 1953). Read More
Zool Scr 2011 Jul;40(4):350-363
Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
Puillandre, N. et al. (2010) Genetic divergence and geographic variation in a deep-water cone lineage: molecular and morphological analyses of the Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea). Read More
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2009 Jul-Aug;42(4):446-8
Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. Read More
Biochemistry 2009 May;48(17):3717-29
Institute for Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
AlphaD-conotoxins are peptide inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) first described from Conus vexillum (alphaD-VxXIIA-C and renamed here to alphaD-VxXXA, alphaD-VxXXB, and alphaD-VxXXC). In this study, we report cDNA sequences encoding D-superfamily conopeptides identified in the Clade XII Conidae Conus vexillum, Conus capitaneus, Conus mustelinus, and Conus miles, together with partial sequences of corresponding peptides from this family. The D-superfamily signal peptide sequences display greater heterogeneity than reported for other conotoxin superfamilies. Read More
Pak J Biol Sci 2007 Nov;10(22):4136-9
Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
The present study was aimed to characterize the type of conotoxin present in Conus parvatus. (CP) belongs to family conidae, through neuro-pharmacological activities of the crude venom extract on some of the CNS animal experiment using mice as animal model. The effects of CP on CNS were studied, by using spontaneous motor activity, gross behavior, rota-rod performance, analgesic activity and potentiation of pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice. Read More
Mol Biol Evol 2009 Jan 6;26(1):15-25. Epub 2008 Oct 6.
Biology Department, University of Utah, USA.
Toxoglossate marine gastropods, traditionally assigned to the families Conidae, Terebridae, and Turridae, are one of the most populous animal groups that use venom to capture their prey. These marine animals are generally characterized by a venom apparatus that consists of a muscular venom bulb and a tubular venom gland. The toxoglossan radula, often compared with a hypodermic needle for its use as a conduit to inject toxins into prey, is considered a major anatomical breakthrough that assisted in the successful initial radiation of these animals in the Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Read More
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2006 Sep-Oct;39(5):498-500
Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP.
Mollusks of the genus Conus present a venomous apparatus composed of radulae, a chitin structure linked to glands, which injects potent neurotoxic peptides, causing serious human envenomation and even death, associated with the blockage of certain receptors and muscular paralysis. No reported envenomation has occurred in Brazil, but certain populations are at risk of accidents. Read More
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005 Nov;1056:462-73
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 40005, India.
Highly structured small peptides are the major toxic constituents of the venom of cone snails, a family of widely distributed predatory marine molluscs. These animals use the venom for rapid prey immobilization. The peptide components in the venom target a wide variety of membrane-bound ion channels and receptors. Read More
Mol Divers 2004 ;8(2):127-34
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
Cone snails (Conidae) are marine predators with some extraordinary features. Their venom contains a hundred or more peptides that target numerous ion channels and receptors in mammals, including several that are involved in disease. omega-Conotoxins from fish hunting snails are 24-27 residue peptides with a rigid 4-loop cysteine framework that target the N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC). Read More
Toxicon 2004 Mar;43(4):365-74
Laboratory of Marine Neuropharmacology, Institute for Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro 76230, Mexico.
The objective of this investigation was to purify and characterize polypeptides from the venom ducts of the turrid snails Polystira albida and Gemmula periscelida (superfamily: Conoidea, family: Turridae), collected in Mexican waters. Venoms of other groups in the superfamily (family: Conidae, genus: Conus) have peptide toxins ('conotoxins'), but no venom components have been characterized from any turrid species. Crude venoms were fractionated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and one major component from each venom was characterized. Read More
Wien Med Wochenschr 1999 ;151(5-6):104-10
Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. Read More
J Soc Biol 1999 ;193(6):481-93
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, UPR 9040, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Marine snails of the genus Conus, as they are carnivorous predators, have a venom apparatus used to capture their prey. The toxins contained in the venoms of Conidae, called conotoxins, are of a particular high degree of diversity and represent powerful tools in the neuroscience field. Indeed, these toxins specifically bind with a high affinity to receptors and ionic channels. Read More
Bioorg Khim 1999 Nov;25(11):805-10
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
The review is devoted to the competitive blockers of different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, alpha-neurotoxins from snake venoms, and alpha-conotoxins from marine snails of the Conidae family. The relationship between the structure and function of these toxins is discussed. Recent data on the mechanism of alpha-neurotoxin and alpha-conotoxin interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are presented. Read More
Toxicon 1992 Apr;30(4):465-9
Zoology Department, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
Contraction of the foot pedal of a limpet snail is described as a new and quantifiable bioassay for mollusc paralysis. This bioassay was used for screening the venoms of seven different species of Conus snails. Comparison of the results of the limpet assay with those obtained from fish and blowflies shows a correlation between the feeding specificities and venom toxicities of these Conidae. Read More
Toxicon 1982 ;20(5):823-30
Oecologia 1976 Sep;25(3):199-210
Department of Zoology, University of Washington, 98195, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Structural complexity of the habitat significantly increases population density and number of species in assemblages of predatory gastropod molluscs (families Conidae, Muricidae, Mitridae and Vasidae) on intertidal, generally smooth, horizontal limestone platforms fringing tropical Pacific islands. The important topographic features are physical (depressions partly filled with coral rubble) and biotic (thick algal turf binding sand). Higher population density and species richness in areas with than without such natural refuges, and following experimental addition of artificial refuges on portions of habitat lacking them support this hypothesis. Read More
Toxicon 1970 Nov;8(4):271-7
Oecologia 1969 Feb;2(2):232-250
Department of Biology, University of Oregon, 97403, Eugene, Oregon.
Information on growth, gained from individually marked animals, is provided for at least one species of each of the families Trochidae, Neritidae, Strombidae, Cypraeidae, Thaisidae, Fasciolariidae, Vasidae and Conidae. Except in the cowries and strombs, which have determinate growth, shell growth is adequately described by a von Bertalanffy curve only to a certain point. Beyond this, growth continues slowly and at a rate that is independent of size. Read More