68 results match your criteria Conidae

Complete mitochondrial genome of Weinkauff, 1875 (Neogastropoda, Conidae) and phylogenetic implications of the evolutionary diversification of dietary types of species.

Zookeys 2022 10;1088:173-185. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Division of EcoScience, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Ewha Womans University Seoul Republic of Korea.

The family Conidae, commonly known as cone snails, is one of the most intriguing gastropod groups owing to their diverse array of feeding behaviors (diets) and toxin peptides (conotoxins). Weinkauff, 1875 is a worm-hunting species widely distributed from Africa to the Northwest Pacific. In this study, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of and inferred its phylogenetic relationship with other species. Read More

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Comparative Venomics of and and Closely Related Vermivorous Cone Snails.

Mar Drugs 2022 Mar 15;20(3). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Cone snail venom biodiversity reflects dietary preference and predatory and defensive envenomation strategies across the ≈900 species of . To better understand the mechanisms of adaptive radiations in closely related species, we investigated the venom of two phylogenetically and spatially related species, and of the clade. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the major superfamily profiles were conserved between the two species, including 68 shared conotoxin transcripts. Read More

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Integrating Venom Peptide Libraries Into a Phylogenetic and Broader Biological Framework.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 21;9:784419. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

The venomous marine snails are conventionally divided into three groups, the cone snails (family Conidae), the auger snails (family Terebridae) and the turrids (formerly all assigned to a single family, Turridae). In this study, a library of venom peptides from species conventionally assigned to the genus was correlated to a phylogenetic analysis. Nucleotide sequences of multiple genes from transcriptomes were used to assess the phylogenetic relationships across a diverse set of species. Read More

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February 2022

Biomedical Potential of the Neglected Molluscivorous and Vermivorous Species.

Mar Drugs 2022 Jan 27;20(2). Epub 2022 Jan 27.

CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal.

Within the Conidae family, the piscivorous species have been a hotspot target for drug discovery. Here, we assess the relevance of and their other feeding habits, and thus under distinctive evolutionary constraints, to highlight the potential of neglected molluscivorous and vermivorous species in biomedical research and pharmaceutical industry. By singling out the areas with inadequate disquisition, such as the Tamil Nadu Coast and the Andaman Islands, research resources can be expanded and better protected through awareness. Read More

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January 2022

A Combined Transcriptomics and Proteomics Approach Reveals the Differences in the Predatory and Defensive Venoms of the Molluscivorous Cone Snail (Caenogastropoda: Conidae).

Toxins (Basel) 2021 09 10;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

Venoms are complex mixtures of proteins that have evolved repeatedly in the animal kingdom. Cone snail venoms represent one of the best studied venom systems. In nature, this venom can be dynamically adjusted depending on its final purpose, whether to deter predators or hunt prey. Read More

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September 2021

A phylogeny-aware approach reveals unexpected venom components in divergent lineages of cone snails.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 07 7;288(1954):20211017. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institut Systématique Evolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France.

Marine gastropods of the genus are renowned for their remarkable diversity and deadly venoms. While venoms are increasingly well studied for their biomedical applications, we know surprisingly little about venom composition in other lineages of Conidae. We performed comprehensive venom transcriptomic profiling for and , first time for both respective genera. Read More

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The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a cone snail, (Neogastropoda: Conidae), from the South China sea.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 19;6(6):1696-1698. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of the tubular cone snail is presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome was 16,240 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region (D-loop). The overall base composition was estimated to be 25. Read More

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The genome of the venomous snail Lautoconus ventricosus sheds light on the origin of conotoxin diversity.

Gigascience 2021 05;10(5)

Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

Background: Venoms are deadly weapons to subdue prey or deter predators that have evolved independently in many animal lineages. The genomes of venomous animals are essential to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the origin and diversification of venoms.

Results: Here, we report the chromosome-level genome of the venomous Mediterranean cone snail, Lautoconus ventricosus (Caenogastropoda: Conidae). Read More

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Reticulate evolution in Conidae: Evidence of nuclear and mitochondrial introgression.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 08 20;161:107182. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Michigan, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1105 North University Avenue, Biological Sciences Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1085, USA. Electronic address:

Conidae is a hyperdiverse family of marine snails that has many hallmarks of adaptive radiation. Hybridization and introgression may contribute to such instances of rapid diversification by generating novel gene combinations that facilitate exploitation of distinct niches. Here we evaluated whether or not these mechanisms may have contributed to the evolutionary history of a subgenus of Conidae (Virroconus). Read More

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Slow lorises use venom as a weapon in intraspecific competition.

Curr Biol 2020 10;30(20):R1252-R1253

Forest Resources Conservation Department, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Animals have evolved an array of spectacular weapons, including antlers, forceps, proboscises, stingers, tusks and horns [1]. Weapons can be present in males and females of species needing to defend critical limiting resources, including food (rhinoceros beetles, Trypoxylus) and territories (fang blennies, Meiacanthus) [1-3]. Chemicals, including sprays, ointments and injected venoms, are another defence system used by animals. Read More

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October 2020

Identification of Conomarphin Variants in the Venom and the Effect of Sequence and PTM Variations on Conomarphin Conformations.

Mar Drugs 2020 Oct 1;18(10). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institute of Chemistry, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.

Marine cone snails belonging to the Conidae family make use of neuroactive peptides in their venom to capture prey. Here we report the proteome profile of the venom duct of , a cone snail belonging to the Tesseliconus clade. Through tandem mass spectrometry and database searching against the transcriptome and the ConoServer database, we identified 24 unique conopeptide sequences in the venom duct. Read More

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October 2020

Purification and Characterization of the Pink-Floyd Drillipeptide, a Bioactive Venom Peptide from (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Drilliidae).

Toxins (Basel) 2020 08 7;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

The Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.

The cone snails (family Conidae) are the best known and most intensively studied venomous marine gastropods. However, of the total biodiversity of venomous marine mollusks (superfamily Conoidea, >20,000 species), cone snails comprise a minor fraction. The venoms of the family Drilliidae, a highly diversified family in Conoidea, have not previously been investigated. Read More

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A turripeptide from Polystira nobilis venom inhibits human α3β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2020 09 24;124:103416. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología Marina, Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro, 76230, Mexico. Electronic address:

Almost all marine snails within superfamily Conoidea produce venoms containing numerous neuroactive peptides. Most toxins characterized from members of this superfamily are produced by species belonging to family Conidae. These toxins (conotoxins) affect diverse membrane proteins, such as voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Read More

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September 2020

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity of Venom Peptides in Unexplored Predatory Gastropods of the Genus Clavus.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 05;12(5):684-700

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense, and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. Read More

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Venom Diversity and Evolution in the Most Divergent Cone Snail Genus .

Toxins (Basel) 2019 10 28;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Institut Systématique Evolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antillles, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France.

is the most divergent cone snail genus and its unique phylogenetic position, sister to the rest of the family Conidae, makes it a key taxon for examining venom evolution and diversity. Venom gland and foot transcriptomes of cf. and were de novo assembled, annotated, and analyzed for differential expression. Read More

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October 2019

Macroevolutionary Analyses Suggest That Environmental Factors, Not Venom Apparatus, Play Key Role in Terebridae Marine Snail Diversification.

Syst Biol 2020 05;69(3):413-430

Department of Chemistry, Hunter College Belfer Research Center, 413 E. 69th Street, BRB 424, New York, NY 10021, USA.

How species diversification occurs remains an unanswered question in predatory marine invertebrates, such as sea snails of the family Terebridae. However, the anatomical disparity found throughput the Terebridae provides a unique perspective for investigating diversification patterns in venomous predators. In this study, a new dated molecular phylogeny of the Terebridae is used as a framework for investigating diversification of the family through time, and for testing the putative role of intrinsic and extrinsic traits, such as shell size, larval ecology, bathymetric distribution, and anatomical features of the venom apparatus, as drivers of terebrid species diversification. Read More

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Conomarphins cause paralysis in mollusk: Critical and tunable structural elements for bioactivity.

J Pept Sci 2019 Jul;25(7):e3179

Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

Two conomarphins were purified as the major component of the venom of Conus eburneus. Conomarphins Eb1 and Eb2 showed biological activity in the mollusk Pomacea padulosa, causing sluggishness and retraction of siphon, foot, and cephalic tentacles. To further probe the effects of conserved amino acids and posttranslational modifications in conomarphins, we prepared four synthetic analogues: conomarphin Eb1 Hyp10Pro, Hyp10Ala, d-Phe13Ala, and l-Phe13 variants. Read More

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Effects of Predator-Prey Interactions on Predator Traits: Differentiation of Diets and Venoms of a Marine Snail.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 05 25;11(5). Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Species interactions are fundamental ecological forces that can have significant impacts on the evolutionary trajectories of species. Nonetheless, the contribution of predator-prey interactions to genetic and phenotypic divergence remains largely unknown. Predatory marine snails of the family Conidae exhibit specializations for different prey items and intraspecific variation in prey utilization patterns at geographic scales. Read More

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Lack of Signal for the Impact of Conotoxin Gene Diversity on Speciation Rates in Cone Snails.

Syst Biol 2019 09;68(5):781-796

Institut Systématique Evolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, 1259 Trumansburg Road, EPHE, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France.

Understanding why some groups of organisms are more diverse than others is a central goal in macroevolution. Evolvability, or the intrinsic capacity of lineages for evolutionary change, is thought to influence disparities in species diversity across taxa. Over macroevolutionary time scales, clades that exhibit high evolvability are expected to have higher speciation rates. Read More

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September 2019

Conidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of Lakshadweep, India.

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 28;4441(3):467-494. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala, India.

Lakshadweep, the northernmost region of the Chagos-Maldives-Lakshadweep group of islands located southwest of the Malabar coast of India in the Arabian Sea, is the only chain of coral atolls in India. This paper documents the diversity of the molluscan family Conidae from the seas around all ten inhabited islands of Lakshadweep. Of the 78 species of cone snails now reported from Lakshadweep, 49 were recorded in this study. Read More

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Novel analgesic ω-conotoxins from the vermivorous cone snail Conus moncuri provide new insights into the evolution of conopeptides.

Sci Rep 2018 09 7;8(1):13397. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

IMB Centre for Pain Research, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Cone snails are a diverse group of predatory marine invertebrates that deploy remarkably complex venoms to rapidly paralyse worm, mollusc or fish prey. ω-Conotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from cone snail venoms that inhibit Ca2.2 voltage-gated calcium channel, demonstrating potential for pain management via intrathecal (IT) administration. Read More

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September 2018

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Neogastropoda: Conidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2018 Aug 17;3(2):933-934. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan.

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of cone snail a kind of worm-hunting sea snails, was performed by next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome is 16,439 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes ( and ), and one control region. It has overall base composition of A (28. Read More

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Venomix: a simple bioinformatic pipeline for identifying and characterizing toxin gene candidates from transcriptomic data.

PeerJ 2018 31;6:e5361. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States of America.

The advent of next-generation sequencing has resulted in transcriptome-based approaches to investigate functionally significant biological components in a variety of non-model organism. This has resulted in the area of "venomics": a rapidly growing field using combined transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to characterize toxin diversity in a variety of venomous taxa. Ultimately, the transcriptomic portion of these analyses follows very similar pathways after transcriptome assembly often including candidate toxin identification using BLAST, expression level screening, protein sequence alignment, gene tree reconstruction, and characterization of potential toxin function. Read More

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Phylogenetic relationships of the conoidean snails (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) based on mitochondrial genomes.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 10 28;127:898-906. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Institut Systématique Evolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

With more than 5,000 species, Conoidea is one of the most diversified superfamilies of Gastropoda. Recently, the family-level classification of these venomous predator snails has undergone substantial changes, on the basis of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed combining partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, and up to 16 families are now recognized. However, phylogenetic relationships among these families remain largely unresolved. Read More

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October 2018

Targeted Sequencing of Venom Genes from Cone Snail Genomes Improves Understanding of Conotoxin Molecular Evolution.

Mol Biol Evol 2018 05;35(5):1210-1224

Animal Biomedical and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University Bali, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

To expand our capacity to discover venom sequences from the genomes of venomous organisms, we applied targeted sequencing techniques to selectively recover venom gene superfamilies and nontoxin loci from the genomes of 32 cone snail species (family, Conidae), a diverse group of marine gastropods that capture their prey using a cocktail of neurotoxic peptides (conotoxins). We were able to successfully recover conotoxin gene superfamilies across all species with high confidence (> 100× coverage) and used these data to provide new insights into conotoxin evolution. First, we found that conotoxin gene superfamilies are composed of one to six exons and are typically short in length (mean = ∼85 bp). Read More

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Faunal data and envenomation emergency first aid of cone snails (Conus spp.) in Qeshm Island, the Persian Gulf.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Dec 31;10(12):1167-1171. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the fauna of a highly venomous marine species group, the cone snails (Family Conidae), in the shores of Qeshm Island, of evaluating the possibility of envenomation in the area and summarize recommendations for emergency first aid.

Methods: Shores surrounding Qeshm Island were surveyed to collect cone snails during cold (February and March) and warm (May and June) seasons of 2017. Collected snails were identified to the species level. Read More

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December 2017

Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 07 24;112:79-87. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. Read More

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Molecular and morphometric data suggest the presence of a neglected species in the marine gastropod family Conidae.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 17;109:421-429. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Museum of Zoology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama.

Knowledge concerning the taxonomic diversity of marine organisms is crucial for understanding processes associated with species diversification in geographic areas that are devoid of obvious barriers to dispersal. The marine gastropod family Conidae contains many species complexes due to lack of clear morphological distinctiveness and existence of morphological intergradations among described species. Conus flavidus Lamarck, 1810 and Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848 are currently recognized as distinct taxa, but are often difficult to distinguish by morphological characters and include several synonyms, including Conus peasei Brazier, 1877. Read More

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Conidae and Terebridae (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines.

Enate A Helwerda

Zootaxa 2017 Jan 20;4221(5):zootaxa.4221.5.4. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Six species of Conidae and seven species of Terebridae are reported from the Plio-Pleistocene "Cabarruyan" fauna of Pangasinan, the Philippines. Eleven species are identified; these species all occur in the Recent Indo-Pacific fauna and seven of these are previously known from the fossil record as well. The species composition of this fauna shows little overlap with other fossil assemblages, except with the Fijian fossil assemblage. Read More

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January 2017