JBJS Rev 2021 06 8;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.
Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (C.A.S., N.N.T., G.B.N., S.A.C., and J.E.V.) and Family Medicine (S.A.C.), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
»: Concussion is a complex pathophysiologic process that affects the brain; it is induced by biomechanical forces, with alteration in mental status with or without loss of consciousness.
»: Concussion assessment tools may be broadly categorized into (1) screening tests such as the SAC (Standardized Assessment of Concussion), the BESS (Balance Error Scoring System), and the King-Devick (KD) test; (2) confirmatory tests including the SCAT (Sport Concussion Assessment Tool), the ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), and the VOMS (Vestibular Oculomotor Screening); and (3) objective examinations such as brain network activation (BNA) analysis, imaging studies, and physiologic markers.
»: The KD, child SCAT3 (cSCAT3), child ImPACT (cImPACT), and VOMS tests may be used to evaluate for concussion in the pediatric athlete. Read More