766,732 results match your criteria Computer aided surgery : official journal of the International Society for Computer Aided Surgery[Journal]


Blood Flow after Endovascular Repair in the Aortic Arch: A Computational Analysis.

Aorta (Stamford) 2018 Jun 22;6(3):81-87. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Thoracic Aortic Research Center, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background:  The benefits of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) have encouraged stent graft deployment more proximally in the aortic arch. This study quantifies the hemodynamic impact of TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2 on the thoracic aorta and the proximal supra-aortic branches.

Methods:  Patients treated with TEVAR in proximal landing zone 2 having available preoperative and 30-day postoperative computer tomography angiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging data were retrospectively selected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1683771DOI Listing

Investigation the interaction between procyanidin dimer and α-glucosidase: Spectroscopic analyses and molecular docking simulation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

Procyanidins are reported to inhibit α-glucosidase, which may be a useful attribute for developing functional foods that control post-prandial blood sugar levels. At present, the nature of the molecular interaction between procyanidins and α-glucosidase is poorly understood. In this study, spectroscopic analyses and computer simulations were used to investigate the interactions between α-glucosidase and B-type procyanidin dimer (BPD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.105DOI Listing
February 2019

Geometric morphometrics in the cloud.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

IRD, UMR INTERTRYP IRD, CIRAD, University of Montpellier, F-34398 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

XYOM, for XY Online Morphometrics, is an online implementation of the geometric morphometric (GM) approach. It is a platform-independent product, and is presented here as an optional alternative software to client side morphometrics software. From the point of view of the user, the interesting features of a web application are: no download, no installation, no configuration, and automatic updating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.02.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Capturing and applying knowledge to guide compound optimisation.

Drug Discov Today 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Optibrium Limited, F5-6 Blenheim House, Cambridge Innovation Park, Denny End Road, Cambridge, CB25 9PB, UK.

Successful drug discovery requires knowledge and experience across many disciplines, and no current 'artificial intelligence' (AI) method can replace expert scientists. However, computers can recall more information than any individual or team and facilitate the transfer of knowledge across disciplines. Here, we discuss how knowledge relating to chemistry and the biological and physicochemical properties required for a successful compound can be captured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Cell pelotons: a model of early evolutionary cell sorting, with application to slime mold D. discoideum.

Authors:
Hugh Trenchard

J Theor Biol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Independent researcher, 805 647 Michigan Street, Victoria BC Canada V8V 1S9, 250-472-0718. Electronic address:

A theoretical model is presented for early evolutionary cell sorting within cellular aggregates. The model involves an energy-saving mechanism and principles of collective self-organization analogous to those observed in bicycle pelotons (groups of cyclists). The theoretical framework is applied to slime-mold slugs (Dictyostelium discoideum) and incorporated into a computer simulation which demonstrates principally the sorting of cells between the anterior and posterior slug regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

FXR Regulates Intestinal Cancer Stem Cell Proliferation.

Cell 2019 Feb;176(5):1098-1112.e18

Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Increased levels of intestinal bile acids (BAs) are a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we show that the convergence of dietary factors (high-fat diet) and dysregulated WNT signaling (APC mutation) alters BA profiles to drive malignant transformations in Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5) cancer stem cells and promote an adenoma-to-adenocarcinoma progression. Mechanistically, we show that BAs that antagonize intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) function, including tauro-β-muricholic acid (T-βMCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), induce proliferation and DNA damage in Lgr5 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.036DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of linear model and artificial neural network using antler beam diameter and length of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) dataset.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212545. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey.

Evaluation of harvest data remains one of the most important sources of information in the development of strategies to manage regional populations of white-tailed deer. While descriptive statistics and simple linear models are utilized extensively, the use of artificial neural networks for this type of data analyses is unexplored. Linear model was compared to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models with Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M), Bayesian Regularization (BR) and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) learning algorithms, to evaluate the relative accuracy in predicting antler beam diameter and length using age and dressed body weight in white-tailed deer. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212545PLOS
February 2019

A simulation environment for studying transcutaneous electrotactile stimulation.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212479. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen - Bolzano, Bruneck - Brunico, Italy.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) allows the artificial excitation of nerve fibres by applying electric-current pulses through electrodes on the skin's surface. This work involves the development of a simulation environment that can be used for studying transcutaneous electrotactile stimulation and its dependence on electrode layout and excitation patterns. Using an eight-electrode array implementation, it is shown how nerves located at different depths and with different orientations respond to specific injected currents, allowing the replication of already reported experimental findings and the creation of new hypotheses about the tactile sensations associated with certain stimulation patterns. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212479PLOS
February 2019

Simulation of facial growth based on longitudinal data: Age progression and age regression between 7 and 17 years of age using 3D surface data.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212618. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Modelling of the development of facial morphology during childhood and adolescence is highly useful in forensic and biomedical practice. However, most studies in this area fail to capture the essence of the face as a three-dimensional structure. The main aims of our present study were (1) to construct ageing trajectories for the female and male face between 7 and 17 years of age and (2) to propose a three-dimensional age progression (age -regression) system focused on real growth-related facial changes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212618PLOS
February 2019

Automatic segmentation of the foveal avascular zone in ophthalmological OCT-A images.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212364. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Computer Science, University of A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.

Angiography by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality of recent appearance that allows the visualization of the vascular structure at predefined depths based on the detection of the blood movement through the retinal vasculature. In this way, OCT-A images constitute a suitable scenario to analyze the retinal vascular properties of regions of interest as is the case of the macular area, measuring the characteristics of the foveal vascular and avascular zones. Extracted parameters of this region can be used as prognostic factors that determine if the patient suffers from certain pathologies (such as diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion, among others), indicating the associated pathological degree. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212364PLOS
February 2019

Implementing artificial neural networks through bionic construction.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212368. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

It is evident through biology research that, biological neural network could be implemented through two means: by congenital heredity, or by posteriority learning. However, traditionally, artificial neural network, especially the Deep learning Neural Networks (DNNs) are implemented only through exhaustive training and learning. Fixed structure is built, and then parameters are trained through huge amount of data. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212368PLOS
February 2019
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Electronic control of H+ current in a bioprotonic device with carbon nanotube porins.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212197. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, United States of America.

Hybrid biotic abiotic devices can be used to interface electronics with biological systems for novel therapies or to increase device functionality beyond silicon. Many strategies exist to merge the electronic and biological worlds, one dominated by electrons and holes as charge carriers, the other by ions. In the biological world, lipid bilayers and ion channels are essential to compartmentalize the cell machinery and regulate ionic fluxes across the cell membrane. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212197PLOS
February 2019

Preprocessing 2D data for fast convex hull computations.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212189. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom.

This paper presents a method to reduce a set of n 2D points to a smaller set of s 2D points with the property that the convex hull on the smaller set is the same as the convex hull of the original bigger set. The paper shows, experimentally, that such reduction accelerates computations; the time it takes to reduce from n down to s points plus the time of computing the convex hull on the s points is less than the time to compute the convex hull on the original set of n points. The method accepts 2D points expressed as real numbers and thus extends our previous method that required points as integers. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212189PLOS
February 2019

BioNetApp: An interactive visual data analysis platform for molecular expressions.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0211277. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States of America.

Motivation: Systems biology faces two key challenges when dealing with large amounts of disparate data produced by different experiments: the integration of results across different experiments, and the extraction of meaningful information from the data produced by these experiments. An ongoing challenge is to provide better tools that can mine data patterns that could not have been discovered through simple visualization. Such mining capabilities also need to be coupled with intuitive visualization to portray those findings. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211277PLOS
February 2019

Structure and variability of delay activity in premotor cortex.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Feb 22;15(2):e1006808. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Voluntary movements are widely considered to be planned before they are executed. Recent studies have hypothesized that neural activity in motor cortex during preparation acts as an 'initial condition' which seeds the proceeding neural dynamics. Here, we studied these initial conditions in detail by investigating 1) the organization of neural states for different reaches and 2) the variance of these neural states from trial to trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006808DOI Listing
February 2019

A novel single-character visual BCI paradigm with multiple active cognitive tasks.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Objective: To introduce a novel event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm with active mental tasks multiplying precise judgments and visual cognitive capacities and evaluate its performance.

Methods: This study employed a paradigm with three types of targets (true-, pseudo-, non-), double flash codes, colors and color terms, and four test conditions. The primary hypothesis was that active mental tasks combining multiple cognitive capacities and clear judgments for different categories of stimuli increase the BCI performance and evoke stronger or specific ERPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2900555DOI Listing
February 2019

Targeting the Next Generation of Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials: Expanding from Borates to Borate Fluorides to Fluorooxoborates.

Acc Chem Res 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

CAS Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments , Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, CAS, and Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices , 40-1 South Beijing Road , Urumqi 830011 , China.

Coherent light radiation down to the deep-ultraviolet spectral range (λ < 200 nm) produced by common laser sources is extensively used in diverse fields ranging from ultrahigh-resolution photolithography to photochemical synthesis to high-precision microprocessing. Actually, it is hard to immediately obtain certain wavelengths, deep-ultraviolet coherent light in particular, from commercial laser sources. However, the direct second harmonic generation process governed in part by nonlinear optical crystals is a feasible and effective approach to generate deep-ultraviolet coherent light, which motivates chemists and materials scientists to find potential deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical materials that can practically meet the scientific requirements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00649DOI Listing
February 2019

Microfabricated liquid junction hybrid capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry interface for fully automated operation.

Electrophoresis 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

One of the challenging instrumental aspects in coupling an automated capillary electrophoresis instrument with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is finding the balance between the stability, reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis and compatibility with the standard CE instrumentation. Here we present a development of a new liquid junction based electrospray interface for automated CE-MS, with a focus on the technical design followed by computer modeling of transport conditions as well as characterization of basic performance of the interface. This hybrid arrangement designed as a microfabricated unit attachable to the automated CE instrument allows using of a wide range of separation capillaries with respect to their diameter, length or internal coating (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201900049DOI Listing
February 2019

Microbiome signatures in prostate cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We have established a microbiome signature for prostate cancer using an array-based metagenomic and capture-sequencing approach. A diverse microbiome signature (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) was observed in the prostate cancer samples compared with benign prostate hyperplasia controls. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified three distinct prostate cancer-specific microbiome signatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgz008DOI Listing
February 2019

Translation and cultural adaptation of the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q) into Italian.

Med Lav 2019 Feb 22;110(1):37-45. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

University of Alicante.

Background: The original Spanish version of the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q©) is a validated instrument with good psychometric properties to measure the Computer Visual Syndrome (CVS) in workers exposed to video display terminals (VDT). The Italian version would facilitate research and its use in clinical practice the prevention of occupational hazards.

Objective: To culturally translate and adapt the CVS-Q© into Italian. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23749/mdl.v110i1.7499DOI Listing
February 2019

Can Augmented Reality Be Helpful in Pelvic Bone Cancer Surgery? An In Vitro Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2018 Sep;476(9):1719-1725

H. S. Cho, M. S. Park, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea S. Gupta, Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK I. Han, H.-S. Kim, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea H. Choi, J. Hong, Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, Korea.

Background: Application of surgical navigation for pelvic bone cancer surgery may prove useful, but in addition to the fact that research supporting its adoption remains relatively preliminary, the actual navigation devices are physically large, occupying considerable space in already crowded operating rooms. To address this issue, we developed and tested a navigation system for pelvic bone cancer surgery assimilating augmented reality (AR) technology to simplify the system by embedding the navigation software into a tablet personal computer (PC).

Questions/purposes: Using simulated tumors and resections in a pig pelvic model, we asked: Can AR-assisted resection reduce errors in terms of planned bone cuts and improve ability to achieve the planned margin around a tumor in pelvic bone cancer surgery?

Methods: We developed an AR-based navigation system for pelvic bone tumor surgery, which could be operated on a tablet PC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999.0000000000000233DOI Listing
September 2018

QuikLitE, a Framework for Quick Literacy Evaluation in Medicine: Development and Validation.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Feb 22;21(2):e12525. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States.

Background: A plethora of health literacy instruments was developed over the decades. They usually start with experts curating passages of text or word lists, followed by psychometric validation and revision based on test results obtained from a sample population. This process is costly and it is difficult to customize for new usage scenarios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12525DOI Listing
February 2019

Understanding Youths' Ability to Interpret 3D-Printed Physical Activity Data and Identify Associated Intensity Levels: Mixed-Methods Study.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Feb 22;21(2):e11253. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Applied Sports Science Technology and Medicine Research Centre (A-STEM), Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.

Background: A significant proportion of youth in the United Kingdom fail to meet the recommended 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. One of the major barriers encountered in achieving these physical activity recommendations is the perceived difficulty for youths to interpret physical activity intensity levels and apply them to everyday activities. Personalized physical activity feedback is an important method to educate youths about behaviors and associated outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11253DOI Listing
February 2019

Classification of Movement Preparation between Attended and Distracted Self-Paced Motor Tasks.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Objective: Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems aim to control external devices by using brain signals. The performance of these systems is influenced by the user's mental state, such as attention. In this study, we classified two attention states to a target task (attended and distracted task level) while attention to the task is altered by one of three types of distractors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2900206DOI Listing
February 2019

Can AI Help Reduce Disparities in General Medical and Mental Health Care?

AMA J Ethics 2019 Feb 1;21(2):E167-179. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

An assistant professor of computer science and medicine at the University of Toronto and a faculty member at the Vector Institute, both in in Ontario, Canada; and previously served as a visiting researcher at Alphabet Inc. within its life sciences research organization, Verily, and as a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Background: As machine learning becomes increasingly common in health care applications, concerns have been raised about bias in these systems' data, algorithms, and recommendations. Simply put, as health care improves for some, it might not improve for all.

Methods: Two case studies are examined using a machine learning algorithm on unstructured clinical and psychiatric notes to predict intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and 30-day psychiatric readmission with respect to race, gender, and insurance payer type as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2019.167DOI Listing
February 2019

How Should AI Be Developed, Validated, and Implemented in Patient Care?

AMA J Ethics 2019 Feb 1;21(2):E125-130. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

A professor emerita of philosophy at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut.

Should an artificial intelligence (AI) program that appears to have a better success rate than human pathologists be used to replace or augment humans in detecting cancer cells? We argue that some concerns-the "black-box" problem (ie, the unknowability of how output is derived from input) and automation bias (overreliance on clinical decision support systems)-are not significant from a patient's perspective but that expertise in AI is required to properly evaluate test results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2019.125DOI Listing
February 2019

Mental health training, attitudes toward support, and screening positive for mental disorders.

Cogn Behav Ther 2019 Feb 22:1-19. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

j Hill / Levene Schools of Business, Faculty of Business Administration , University of Regina , Regina , SK , Canada.

Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police) are frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2019.1575900DOI Listing
February 2019

Implementing a School Vision Screening Program in Botswana Using Smartphone Technology.

Telemed J E Health 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

6 Department of Computer Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

Purpose: Child eye health is a significant public health issue in low- and middle-income countries, such as Botswana, and the need for eye care requires a well-integrated and innovative approach. Traditional vision screening tools are costly, difficult to transport, and reliant on highly trained eye care professionals. Novel smartphone-based vision screening technologies, however, are low cost, portable, and easily operated by trained novice users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0213DOI Listing
February 2019

An exploration of usability issues in telecare monitoring systems and possible solutions: a systematic literature review.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2019 Feb 22:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

c Business School, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane , Australia.

Background: The idea of product usability has been discussed in several research areas including product research and development. Usability, in telecare monitoring systems, determines how much the system is effective and efficient for the telecare users. Usability has been considered an important factor in the acceptance of telecare monitoring systems by individuals who encounter challenges in the use of such systems and who possess a limited knowledge of their use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2019.1578998DOI Listing
February 2019

RN: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm for Analysis of Gene Expression Data Using Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

J Comput Biol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, South Korea.

Biclustering is a process of finding groups of genes that behave similarly under a subset of conditions. In this article, we propose an efficient biclustering algorithm, namely RN, to identify biologically meaningful biclusters in gene expression data. The RN algorithm finds biologically meaningful biclusters through a novel gene filtering using protein-protein interaction network, gene searching, gene grouping, and queuing process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2019.0003DOI Listing
February 2019

Comprehensive data analysis for development of custom qRT-PCR miRNA assay for glioblastoma: a prevalidation study.

Epigenomics 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Medical Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

Aim: Glioblastoma (GB) is one notable example of miRNA-modulated neoplasms. Given its unique expression signature, proper miRNA profiling can help discriminate between GB and other types of brain tumors. The current work aimed to develop a more GB-specific and applicable custom designed quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) miRNA assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2018-0134DOI Listing
February 2019

Growth of thymic epithelial tumors and thymic cysts: Differential radiological points.

Thorac Cancer 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The growth rate of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) and thymic cysts was investigated to determine whether they can be differentiated and clinico-radiological predictors of interval growth was identified.

Methods: This retrospective study included 122 patients with pathologically proven thymic cysts (n = 56) or TETs (n = 66) who underwent two serial chest computed tomography scans at least eight weeks apart. Average diameters and attenuation were measured, volume-doubling times (VDTs) were calculated, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13016DOI Listing
February 2019

In vitro aging of boar spermatozoa: role of sperm proximity and seminal plasma.

Andrology 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Unit for Reproductive Medicine of Clinics/Clinic for Pigs and Small Ruminants, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Knowledge on the effect of seminal plasma on sperm function in extended semen during in vitro storage is lacking.

Objectives: The aim was to examine the interactive role of sperm concentration and seminal plasma concentration on boar sperm function during in vitro aging.

Material And Methods: Experiment 1: Twenty-one boar ejaculates were aliquoted with Beltsville Thawing Solution into five semen doses containing between 32. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.12600DOI Listing
February 2019

An open source code for Mie Extinction EMSC for infrared microscopy spectra of cells and tissues.

J Biophotonics 2019 Feb 21:e201800415. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Drø bakveien 31, 1432 Å s, Norway.

Infrared spectroscopy of single cells and tissue is affected by Mie scattering. During recent years, several methods have been proposed for retrieving pure absorbance spectra from such measurements, while currently no user-friendly version of the state of the art algorithm is available. In this work, an open source code for correcting highly scatter-distorted absorbance spectra of cells and tissues is presented, as well as several improvements of the latest version of the Mie correction algorithm based on extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) published by Konevskikh et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800415DOI Listing
February 2019

Holographic projection for multi-spot structured illumination microscopy.

Authors:
E N Ward R Pal

J Microsc 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

This paper describes the design and testing of a multi-spot structured illumination microscopy system using computer-generated holograms to create the required excitation patterns. Furthermore, it demonstrates the use of an adapted direct search algorithm for calculating the holograms that allows for imaging across an extended field of view. The system was tested on fixed targets and live cells yielding a two times resolution increase over conventional diffraction-limited imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12787DOI Listing
February 2019

Origin of the aromatic group of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) traced to the Indian subcontinent.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, UK.

The aromatic group of Asian cultivated rice is a distinct population with considerable genetic diversity on the Indian subcontinent and includes the popular Basmati types characterized by pleasant fragrance. Genetic and phenotypic associations with other cultivated groups are ambiguous, obscuring the origin of the aromatic population. From analysis of genome-wide diversity among over 1,000 wild and cultivated rice accessions, we show that aromatic rice originated in the Indian subcontinent from hybridization between a local wild population and examples of domesticated japonica that had spread to the region from their own center of origin in East Asia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz039DOI Listing
February 2019

Smartphone problem-solving therapy to reduce fear of cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors: an open single-arm pilot study.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Psycho-Oncology and Palliative Care, Nagoya City University Hospital, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate a newly developed smartphone problem-solving therapy (PST) application's feasibility and preliminary effectiveness for reducing fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) among breast cancer survivors.

Methods: Female disease-free breast cancer survivors aged 20-49 years who were more than 6 months post-breast surgery participated in the study. The patients received the smartphone PST using an iPhone or iPad for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyz005DOI Listing
February 2019

Ice Ih vs. ice III along the homogeneous nucleation line.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Pure water can be substantially supercooled below the melting temperature. The pressures and temperatures where water is observed to freeze in supercooling experiments define the so-called homogeneous nucleation line. The slope of such a line changes from negative to positive as pressure increases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp07432aDOI Listing
February 2019

Modeling Neural Behavior and Pain During Bladder Distention using an Agent-based Model of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala.

Spora 2019 ;5:1-13

Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Chronic bladder pain evokes asymmetric behavior in neurons across the left and right hemispheres of the amygdala. An agent-based computational model was created to simulate the firing of neurons over time and in response to painful bladder stimulation. Each agent represents one neuron and is characterized by its location in the amygdala and response type (excited or inhibited). Read More

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January 2019

Dissociating tinnitus patients from healthy controls using resting-state cyclicity analysis and clustering.

Netw Neurosci 2019 1;3(1):67-89. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.

Chronic tinnitus is a common and sometimes debilitating condition that lacks scientific consensus on physiological models of how the condition arises as well as any known cure. In this study, we applied a novel cyclicity analysis, which studies patterns of leader-follower relationships between two signals, to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of brain regions acquired from subjects with and without tinnitus. Using the output from the cyclicity analysis, we were able to differentiate between these two groups with 58-67% accuracy by using a partial least squares discriminant analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/netn_a_00053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326732PMC
October 2018

Time-varying whole-brain functional network connectivity coupled to task engagement.

Netw Neurosci 2019 1;3(1):49-66. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Brain functional connectivity (FC), as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, fluctuates at the scale of 10s of seconds. It has recently been found that whole-brain dynamic FC (dFC) patterns contain sufficient information to permit identification of ongoing tasks. Here, we hypothesize that dFC patterns carry fine-grained information that allows for tracking short-term task engagement levels (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/netn_a_00051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326730PMC
October 2018

Charge extraction via graded doping of hole transport layers gives highly luminescent and stable metal halide perovskite devices.

Sci Adv 2019 Feb 15;5(2):eaav2012. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK.

One source of instability in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is interfacial defects, particularly those that exist between the perovskite and the hole transport layer (HTL). We demonstrate that thermally evaporated dopant-free tetracene (120 nm) on top of the perovskite layer, capped with a lithium-doped Spiro-OMeTAD layer (200 nm) and top gold electrode, offers an excellent hole-extracting stack with minimal interfacial defect levels. For a perovskite layer interfaced between these graded HTLs and a mesoporous TiO electron-extracting layer, its photoluminescence yield reaches 15% compared to 5% for the perovskite layer interfaced between TiO and Spiro-OMeTAD alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377269PMC
February 2019

Power flow-conformal metamirrors for engineering wave reflections.

Sci Adv 2019 Feb 15;5(2):eaau7288. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.

Recently, the complexity behind manipulations of reflected fields by metasurfaces has been addressed, showing that, even in the simplest scenarios, nonlocal response and excitation of auxiliary evanescent fields are required for perfect field control. In this work, we introduce purely local reflective metasurfaces for arbitrary manipulations of the power distribution of reflected waves without excitation of any auxiliary evanescent field. The method is based on the analysis of the power flow distribution and the adaptation of the reflector shape to the desired distribution of incident and reflected fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau7288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377268PMC
February 2019

In-memory computing on a photonic platform.

Sci Adv 2019 Feb 15;5(2):eaau5759. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK.

Collocated data processing and storage are the norm in biological computing systems such as the mammalian brain. As our ability to create better hardware improves, new computational paradigms are being explored beyond von Neumann architectures. Integrated photonic circuits are an attractive solution for on-chip computing which can leverage the increased speed and bandwidth potential of the optical domain, and importantly, remove the need for electro-optical conversions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau5759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377270PMC
February 2019

Free Polyethylenimine Enhances Substrate-Mediated Gene Delivery on Titanium Substrates Modified With RGD-Functionalized Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes.

Front Chem 2019 7;7:51. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States.

Substrate mediated gene delivery (SMD) is a method of immobilizing DNA complexes to a substrate via covalent attachment or nonspecific adsorption, which allows for increased transgene expression with less DNA compared to traditional bolus delivery. It may also increase cells receptivity to transfection via cell-material interactions. Substrate modifications with poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) brushes may improve SMD by enhancing substrate interactions with DNA complexes via tailored surface chemistry and increasing cellular adhesion via moieties covalently bound to the brushes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374293PMC
February 2019

Guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent anxiety: Predictors of treatment response.

Internet Interv 2019 Mar 31;15:116-125. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 9, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: Guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found efficacious in reducing symptoms of anxiety in adolescents with anxiety disorders, but not all respond equally well.

Objective: In this study, we explored candidate predictors of ICBT treatment response within the frame of a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Sixty-five adolescents (13-17 years) with anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV received 14 weeks of therapist-guided ICBT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2019.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371410PMC

In-Bed Pose Estimation: Deep Learning With Shallow Dataset.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2019 14;7:4900112. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Augmented Cognition LaboratoryElectrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentNortheastern UniversityBostonMA02115USA.

This paper presents a robust human posture and body parts detection method under a specific application scenario known as in-bed pose estimation. Although the human pose estimation for various computer vision (CV) applications has been studied extensively in the last few decades, the in-bed pose estimation using camera-based vision methods has been ignored by the CV community because it is assumed to be identical to the general purpose pose estimation problems. However, the in-bed pose estimation has its own specialized aspects and comes with specific challenges, including the notable differences in lighting conditions throughout the day and having pose distribution different from the common human surveillance viewpoint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JTEHM.2019.2892970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360998PMC
January 2019

Development and evaluation of isradipine via rutin-loaded coated solid-lipid nanoparticles.

Interv Med Appl Sci 2018 Dec;10(4):236-246

Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Chandigarh, India.

The objective was to develop a stable and non-compliance coated solid-lipid nanoparticles (coated SLN) using polymer (Eudragit L100) and lipoid (glycerol monostearate: soya lecithin) for partial dose reduction of isradipine [ISR; 2.5 mg by combination of bioenhancing agent (rutin; Ru) in equivalent ratio]. The physicochemical characterizations were performed by FT-IR and DSC of elected model drug (ISR), drug mixer with Ru/polymer and coated SLN with Ru (ONbp); the resulted distinctive peaks demonstrated that no chemical interaction and incompatibility found between them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/1646.10.2018.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376350PMC
December 2018

Analysis of core protein clusters identifies candidate variable sites conferring metronidazole resistance in .

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2019 Feb 2;7(1):42-49. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

The Marshall Centre for Infectious Diseases Research and Training, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Metronidazole is one of the first-line drugs of choice in the standard triple therapy used to eradicate infection. Hence, the global emergence of metronidazole resistance in poses a major challenge to health professionals. Inactivation of RdxA is known to be a major mechanism of conferring metronidazole resistance in However, metronidazole resistance can also arise in strains expressing functional RdxA protein, suggesting that there are other mechanisms that may confer resistance to this drug. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goy048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375344PMC
February 2019

Removing the no-analogue bias in modern accelerated tree growth leads to stronger medieval drought.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2509. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Botany and Landcape Ecology, University of Greifswald, 17487, Greifswald, Germany.

In many parts of the world, especially in the temperate regions of Europe and North-America, accelerated tree growth rates have been observed over the last decades. This widespread phenomenon is presumably caused by a combination of factors like atmospheric fertilization or changes in forest structure and/or management. If not properly acknowledged in the calibration of tree-ring based climate reconstructions, considerable bias concerning amplitudes and trends of reconstructed climatic parameters might emerge or low frequency information is lost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39040-5DOI Listing
February 2019
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