87,669 results match your criteria Compartment Syndrome Abdominal


Massive cytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization in fertilized chordate eggs.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan.

Eggs have developed their own strategies for early development. Amphibian, teleost fish, and ascidian eggs show cortical rotation and an accompanying structure, a cortical parallel microtubule (MT) array, during the one-cell embryonic stage. Cortical rotation is thought to relocate maternal deposits to a certain compartment of the egg and to polarize the embryo. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Human bone marrow contains high levels of extracellular vesicles with a tissue-specific subtype distribution.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207950. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EV) are shed from a broad variety of cells and play an important role in activation of coagulation, cell to cell interaction and transport of membrane components. They are usually measured as circulating EV in peripheral blood (PB) and other body fluids. However, little is known about the distribution, presence and impact of EV and their subpopulations in bone marrow (BM). Read More

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December 2018

Insight into Amorphous Solid Dispersion Performance by Coupled Dissolution and Membrane Mass Transfer Measurements.

Mol Pharm 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The tendency of highly supersaturated solutions of poorly water soluble drugs to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) into drug-rich and water-rich phases when the concentration exceeds the amorphous solubility, for example, during dissolution of some amorphous solid dispersions, is thought to be advantageous from a bioavailability enhancement perspective. Recently, we have developed a high surface area, flow-through absorptive dissolution testing apparatus that enables fast mass transfer providing more in vivo relevant conditions and time frames for formulation testing. Using this apparatus, the absorption behaviors of solutions with different extents of supersaturation below and above the amorphous solubility were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Overexpression of IL-11 promotes premalignant gastric epithelial hyperplasia in isolation from germline gp130-JAK-STAT3 driver mutations.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Australia.

Expression of the cytokine IL-11 is elevated in human Helicobacter pylori infection and progressively increases with worsening gastric pathology. Additionally, IL-11 is required for tumour development in STAT3 dependent murine models of gastric cancer (GC) and, when administered acutely, causes resolving atrophic gastritis. However, it is unclear whether locally elevated IL-11 ligand expression can, in isolation from oncogenic gp130-JAK-STAT pathway mutations, initiate GC pathogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Nuclear compartmentalization, dynamics and function of regulatory DNA sequences.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biocenter, Department Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität (LMU Munich), Martinsried, Germany.

Transcription regulatory elements (TREs) have been extensively studied on the biochemical level with respect to their interactions with transcription factors, other DNA segments and larger protein complexes. In this review we describe concepts and preliminary experimental evidence for positional changes of TREs within a dynamic, functional nuclear architecture. We suggest a multi-layered shell-like chromatin organization of chromatin domain clusters with increasing chromatin compaction levels from the periphery toward the interior with a decondensed transcriptionally active peripheral layer and compact repressed chromatin typically located in the interior. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Population Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Extended-Release Bupropion and Its Three Metabolites in Chinese Healthy Volunteers.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 4/F, 604 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Background And Objective: Bupropion is used for the treatment of major depressive disorder. We determined the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of extended-release bupropion XL in healthy Chinese volunteers.

Methods: This open-label, single-center pharmacokinetic study was conducted between May 2016 and June 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Magnetic resonance imaging of the time course of hyperpolarized Xe gas exchange in the human lungs and heart.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.

Purpose: To perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human lung imaging, and quantification of the gas-transfer dynamics of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HPX) from the alveoli into the blood plasma.

Materials And Methods: HPX MRI with iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-square estimation (IDEAL) approach were used with multi-interleaved spiral k-space sampling to obtain HPX gas and dissolved phase images. IDEAL time-series images were then obtained from ten subjects including six normal subjects and four patients with pulmonary emphysema to test the feasibility of the proposed technique for capturing xenon-129 gas-transfer dynamics (XGTD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A discontinuous Galerkin model for fluorescence loss in photobleaching of intracellular polyglutamine protein aggregates.

BMC Biophys 2018 29;11. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, Odense M, 5230 Denmark.

Background: Intracellular phase separation and aggregation of proteins with extended poly-glutamine (polyQ) stretches are hallmarks of various age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Progress in our understanding of such processes heavily relies on quantitative fluorescence imaging of suitably tagged proteins. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) is particularly well-suited to study the dynamics of protein aggregation in cellular models of Chorea Huntington and other polyQ diseases, as FLIP gives access to the full spatio-temporal profile of intensity changes in the cell geometry. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Effects of fascia iliaca compartment block combined with general laryngeal mask airway anesthesia in children undergoing femoral fracture surgery: a randomized trial.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2821-2826. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Medicine, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, China,

Background: Postoperative agitation after general anesthesia is a common complication in children; however, pain or uncomfortable feeling is the main reason of emergence agitation. Here, we have investigated the effects of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) combined with general laryngeal mask airway (LMA) anesthesia in children undergoing femoral surgery.

Methods: Eighty children undergoing femoral surgery were randomly divided into two groups: FICB + LMA group and control group (n=40). Read More

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November 2018

ATP-dependent membrane remodeling links EHD1 functions to endocytic recycling.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5187. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune, 411008, Maharashtra, India.

Endocytic and recycling pathways generate cargo-laden transport carriers by membrane fission. Classical dynamins, which generate transport carriers during endocytosis, constrict and cause fission of membrane tubes in response to GTP hydrolysis. Relatively, less is known about the ATP-binding Eps15-homology domain-containing protein1 (EHD1), a dynamin family member that functions at the endocytic-recycling compartment. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanistic framework for cell-intrinsic re-establishment of PIN2 polarity after cell division.

Nat Plants 2018 Dec 3;4(12):1082-1088. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

IST Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria.

Cell polarity, manifested by the localization of proteins to distinct polar plasma membrane domains, is a key prerequisite of multicellular life. In plants, PIN auxin transporters are prominent polarity markers crucial for a plethora of developmental processes. Cell polarity mechanisms in plants are distinct from other eukaryotes and still largely elusive. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

CD4+ T cells induce rejection of urothelial tumors after immune checkpoint blockade.

JCI Insight 2018 Dec 6;3(23). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) provides clinical benefit to a minority of patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC). The role of CD4+ T cells in ICB-induced antitumor activity is not well defined; however, CD4+ T cells are speculated to play a supportive role in the development of CD8+ T cells that kill tumor cells after recognition of tumor antigens presented by MHC class I. To investigate the mechanisms of ICB-induced activity against UC, we developed mouse organoid-based transplantable models that have histologic and genetic similarity to human bladder cancer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Direct modulation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell compartment by azacitidine enhances healthy hematopoiesis.

Blood Adv 2018 Dec;2(23):3447-3461

Department of Medicine III, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are crucial components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment essential for regulating self-renewal, survival, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the stem cell niche. MSCs are functionally altered in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and exhibit an altered methylome compared with MSCs from healthy controls, thus contributing to disease progression. To determine whether MSCs are amenable to epigenetic therapy and if this affects their function, we examined growth, differentiation, and HSPC-supporting capacity of ex vivo-expanded MSCs from MDS patients in comparison with age-matched healthy controls after direct treatment in vitro with the hypomethylating agent azacitidine (AZA). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Rock substrate rather than black stain alterations drives microbial community structure in the passage of Lascaux Cave.

Microbiome 2018 Dec 5;6(1):216. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR5557/1418 Ecologie Microbienne, 69622, Villeurbanne, France.

Background: The World-famous UNESCO heritage from the Paleolithic human society, Lascaux Cave (France), has endeavored intense microclimatic perturbations, in part due to high touristic pressure. These perturbations have resulted in numerous disturbances of the cave ecosystem, including on its microbial compartment, which resulted in the formation of black stains especially on the rock faces of the passage. We investigated the cave microbiome in this part of Lascaux by sampling three mineral substrates (soil, banks, and inclined planes) on and outside stains to assess current cave microbial assemblage and explore the possibility that pigmented microorganisms involved in stain development occur as microbial consortia. Read More

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December 2018

Tumour associated lymphocytes in the pleural effusions of patients with mesothelioma express high levels of inhibitory receptors.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 5;11(1):864. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

National Centre for Asbestos Related Diseases, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: Pleural effusion (PE) is a common feature of malignant pleural mesothelioma. These effusions typically contain lymphocytes and malignant cells. We postulated that the PE would be a source of lymphocytes for analysis of tumor immune milieu. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence of an Anti-inflammatory Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR 9) Pathway in Adipocytes.

J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

T Karrasch, Department of Internal Medicine III, Giessen University Hospital, Giessen, 35392, Germany.

Adipocytes express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and actively participate in anti-bacterial and anti-viral host defence. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue PRR expression. The potential role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in adipocytes has not yet been investigated. Read More

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December 2018

Amikacin target achievement in adult cystic fibrosis patients utilizing Monte Carlo simulation.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, Kentucky.

Aim: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) is a common pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). Management of an acute pulmonary exacerbation (APE) caused by PsA is dual anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, a beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside. Aminoglycoside dosing in CF differs from the general population due to altered pharmacokinetics. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic variants of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor genes in familial erythrocytosis.

Int J Lab Hematol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Objectives: Erythrocytosis is characterized by the expansion of erythrocyte compartment including elevated red blood cell number, hematocrit, and hemoglobin content. Familial erythrocytosis (FE) is a congenital disorder with different genetic background. Type 1 FE is primary FE caused by mutation in erythropoietin receptor gene (EPOR). Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol in spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus, at two water temperatures.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Key Laboratory of Maricultural Organism Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China.

The pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol in the spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) were investigated at 15 and 20°C water temperatures, respectively. Florfenicol content in plasma samples was analyzed using an HPLC method. Drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model after a single intravenous administration (15 mg/kg BW), and fitted to a two-compartment model after an oral administration (30 mg/kg BW) at 15 and 20°C. Read More

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December 2018

Acute and chronic effects of paracetamol exposure on Daphnia magna: how oxidative effects may modulate responses at distinct levels of organization in a model species.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.

The modern usage of pharmaceutical drugs has led to a progressive increase in their presence and environment concentrations, particularly in the aquatic compartment which is the most common final dumping location for this specific class of chemicals. These substances, due to their chemical and biological properties, can exert mostly uncharacterized toxic effects to non-target aquatic species, given the diverse pathways they activate, and the large number of putative targets in the wild. Among drugs in the environment, paracetamol assumes a leading role, considering its widespread therapeutic use and consequently, environmental presence. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Vancomycin and its Application in Chinese Geriatric Patients with Pulmonary Infections.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Nephrology, Peking University First Hospital, No.1 Dahongluochang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: The optimal use of vancomycin in the elderly requires information about the drug's pharmacokinetics and the influence of various factors on the drug's disposition. However, because of sampling restrictions, it is often difficult to perform traditional pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients.

Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in Chinese geriatric patients (age ≥ 65 years) with pulmonary infections and to explore the clinical application of this information for vancomycin dose individualization. Read More

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November 2018

Poor Performance on Single-Legged Hop Tests Associated With Development of Posttraumatic Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Nov 26;6(11):2325967118810775. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: The risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA) is substantially increased after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Tools are needed to identify characteristics of patients after ACL injury who are most at risk for posttraumatic OA.

Purpose: To determine whether clinical measures of knee function after ACL injury are associated with the development of radiographic knee OA 5 years after injury. Read More

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November 2018
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Marginal Zone B Cells Induce Alloantibody Formation Following RBC Transfusion.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2516. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Center for Transfusion Medicine and Cellular Therapies, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization represents a significant immunological challenge for some patients. While a variety of immune constituents likely contribute to the initiation and orchestration of alloantibodies to RBC antigens, identification of key immune factors that initiate alloantibody formation may aid in the development of a therapeutic modality to minimize or prevent this process. To define the immune factors that may be important in driving alloimmunization to an RBC antigen, we determined the specific immune compartment and distinct cells that may initially engage transfused RBCs and facilitate subsequent alloimmunization. Read More

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November 2018

Identification of differentially methylated cell types in epigenome-wide association studies.

Nat Methods 2018 Dec 30;15(12):1059-1066. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

An outstanding challenge of epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) performed in complex tissues is the identification of the specific cell type(s) responsible for the observed differential DNA methylation. Here we present a statistical algorithm called CellDMC ( https://github.com/sjczheng/EpiDISH ), which can identify differentially methylated positions and the specific cell type(s) driving the differential methylation. Read More

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December 2018

Usp16 modulates Wnt signaling in primary tissues through Cdkn2a regulation.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17506. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305, USA.

Regulation of the Wnt pathway in stem cells and primary tissues is still poorly understood. Here we report that Usp16, a negative regulator of Bmi1/PRC1 function, modulates the Wnt pathway in mammary epithelia, primary human fibroblasts and MEFs, affecting their expansion and self-renewal potential. In mammary glands, reduced levels of Usp16 increase tissue responsiveness to Wnt, resulting in upregulation of the downstream Wnt target Axin2, expansion of the basal compartment and increased in vitro and in vivo epithelial regeneration. Read More

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November 2018

Genome-wide association meta-analysis yields 20 loci associated with gallstone disease.

Nat Commun 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5101. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Inc., Reykjavik, 101, Iceland.

Gallstones are responsible for one of the most common diseases in the Western world and are commonly treated with cholecystectomy. We perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of gallstone disease in Iceland and the UK, totaling 27,174 cases and 736,838 controls, uncovering 21 novel gallstone-associated variants at 20 loci. Two distinct low frequency missense variants in SLC10A2, encoding the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), associate with an increased risk of gallstone disease (Pro290Ser: OR = 1. Read More

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November 2018

Semaphorin signalling in GnRH neurons: from development to disease.

Neuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.


In mammals, fertility critically depends on the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by scattered hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons). During development, GnRH neurons originate in the nasal placode and migrate first in the nasal compartment and then through the nasal/forebrain junction, before reaching their final positions in the hypothalamus. This neurodevelopmental process, which has been extensively studied in mouse models, is regulated by a plethora of factors that might control GnRH neuron migration or survival as well as the fasciculation/targeting of the olfactory/vomeronasal axons along which the GnRH neurons migrate. Read More

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December 2018

Emergency medical services oxygen equipment: a fomite for transmission of MRSA?

Emerg Med J 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was present on the surface of oxygen cylinders and regulators used in the prehospital setting and secondarily to assess other surfaces for MRSA within the ambulance compartment, as a comparison.

Methods: On 17 March 2018, the surface of oxygen cylinders and regulators located in ambulances at an emergency medical services (EMS) station in North Alabama (n=9) and at an offsite oxygen cylinder storage area (n=70) were swabbed using sterile cotton-tipped applicators saturated in an 0.9% NaCl solution. Read More

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December 2018

Fiber-associated spirochetes are major agents of hemicellulose degradation in the hindgut of wood-feeding higher termites.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Research Group Insect Gut Microbiology and Symbiosis, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany.

Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in wood-feeding higher termites (family Termitidae) is a two-step process that involves endogenous host cellulases secreted in the midgut and a dense bacterial community in the hindgut compartment. The genomes of the bacterial gut microbiota encode diverse cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, but the contributions of host and bacterial symbionts to lignocellulose degradation remain ambiguous. Our previous studies of spp. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Actomyosin-Driven Tension at Compartmental Boundaries Orients Cell Division Independently of Cell Geometry In Vivo.

Dev Cell 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK. Electronic address:

Cell shape is known to influence the plane of cell division. In vitro, mechanical constraints can also orient mitoses; however, in vivo it is not clear whether tension can orient the mitotic spindle directly, because tissue-scale forces can change cell shape. During segmentation of the Drosophila embryo, actomyosin is enriched along compartment boundaries forming supracellular cables that keep cells segregated into distinct compartments. Read More

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November 2018

Transcriptional Heterogeneity of Beta Cells in the Intact Pancreas.

Dev Cell 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address:

Pancreatic beta cells have been shown to be heterogeneous at multiple levels. However, spatially interrogating transcriptional heterogeneity in the intact tissue has been challenging. Here, we developed an optimized protocol for single-molecule transcript imaging in the intact pancreas and used it to identify a sub-population of "extreme" beta cells with elevated mRNA levels of insulin and other secretory genes. Read More

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November 2018

Compartimental harvesting of dual lymph node flap from the right supraclavicular area for the treatment of lower extremity lymphedema: A case series.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Centre for Surgical Treatment of Lymphedema, Università Cattolica del "Sacro Cuore" - Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli" IRCSS - Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00169 Rome, Italy.

Background: We report our clinical experience of a supraclavicular lymph node flap (LNF) using a novel method of harvesting based on the compartimental lymphatic and vascular anatomy of the right posterior neck triangle, which allows to harvest two independent LNFs from the same donor site.

Patients And Methods: We report a case series of 10 consecutive patients affected by cancer-related lower extremity lymphedema, who underwent compartimental dual LNF transfer from the right supraclavicular area to the affected lower limb, from August 2015 to March 2017. The superficial compartment flap (venous flap along the external jugular vein) was anastomosed in a flow-through fashion along the course of the great saphenous vein in the knee region, whereas the deep compartment flap (transverse cervical artery/vein flap) was anastomosed in an end-to-end fashion to the medial sural artery and comitantes vein. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Imaging flow cytometry and confocal microscopy-based examination of F-actin and phosphoinositide dynamics during leukocyte immune-type receptor-mediated phagocytic events.

Dev Comp Immunol 2018 Nov 30;92:199-211. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Cells of the innate immune system rapidly detect and eliminate invading microbes using surface-expressed immunoregulatory receptors that translate extracellular binding events into potent effector responses. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) are a family of immunoregulatory proteins that have been shown to regulate several innate immune cell effector responses including the phagocytic process. The mechanisms by which these receptors regulate phagocytosis are not entirely understood but we have previously shown that different IpLITR-types use ITAM-dependent as well as ITAM-independent pathways for controlling target engulfment. Read More

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November 2018

Nonoperative management of giant omphalocele leading to early fascial closure.

J Pediatr Surg 2018 Dec 2;53(12):2404-2408. Epub 2018 Sep 2.

Sunrise Children's Hospital, Las Vegas, NV.

Purpose: We describe our series of giant omphalocele patients treated with a serial taping method for gradual reduction of the abdominal contents and early fascial closure.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2017 we cared for ten newborns with giant omphaloceles. The average gestational age was 35. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

DXA-Based 3D Analysis of the Cortical and Trabecular Bone of Hip Fracture Postmenopausal Women: A Case-Control Study.

J Clin Densitom 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Cetir Grup Mèdic, Barcelona, Spain.

Methods using statistical shape and appearance models have been proposed to analyze bone mineral density (BMD) in 3D from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. This paper presents a retrospective case-control study assessing the association of DXA-derived 3D measurements with osteoporotic hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Patients who experienced a hip fracture between 1 and 6 years from baseline and age-matched controls were included in this study. Read More

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November 2018

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Controlled Trial Comparing Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen Versus Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen for Soft Tissue Hand Procedures.

J Hand Surg Am 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of opioid versus nonopioid analgesic regimens after elective, soft tissue hand surgery. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in patient-perceived pain relief between these 2 groups.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trial included patients undergoing elective soft tissue hand procedures (carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, first dorsal compartment release, or ganglion cyst excision). Read More

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November 2018

Distinct communication patterns of trophoblastic miRNA among the maternal-placental-fetal compartments.

Placenta 2018 Dec 22;72-73:28-35. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Magee-Womens Research Institute, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The placenta produces microRNAs (miRNA) that may traffic to the maternal or fetal compartments and influence the physiology of pregnancy. The trafficking patterns of miRNA expressed from the large human chromosome 19 and chromosome 14 clusters (C19MC and C14MC), remains unclear. We interrogated the cross-sectional landscape of miRNA expression within the human placenta, fetal and maternal plasma to elucidate miRNA trafficking. Read More

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December 2018

YAP Activation Drives Liver Regeneration after Cholestatic Damage Induced by Deletion.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 29;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

Liver cholestasis is a chronic liver disease and a major health problem worldwide. Cholestasis is characterised by a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or by obstruction of bile flow through intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts. Thereby cholestasis can induce ductal proliferation, hepatocyte injury and liver fibrosis. Read More

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November 2018

More diversity in epithelial cell polarity: A fruit flies' gut feeling.

Authors:
H-Arno J Müller

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 5;16(12):e3000082. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Developmental Genetics, Institute for Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.

Multicellular animals face the principle challenge to deal with two distinct compartments: the internal organismal compartment and the external environment. This challenge is met by the differentiation of cell sheets into epithelia, which provide a dynamic barrier in tissues, organs, and organisms. Cell polarity is key to all functions of epithelia, and compromising polarity causes many severe diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Rationale for Study of the Deep Subfascial Lymphatic Vessels During Lymphoscintigraphy for the Diagnosis of Peripheral Lymphedema.

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: The current study aimed to determine the utility of including the study of deep subfascial lymphatic vessels in a 2-compartment lymphoscintigraphy for the diagnosis of lymphedema in patients with limb swelling. Lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable imaging tool for the timely diagnosis of peripheral lymphedema. However, there is a lack of standardization in its application, especially regarding which type of lymphatic vessels to examine (superficial, deep, or both). Read More

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December 2018

Immunosenescence of Natural Killer Cells, Inflammation, and Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Alzheimers Dis 2018 1;2018:3128758. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although the aetiology of AD is not clear, both environmental factors and heritable predisposition may contribute to disease occurrence. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Defining Memory CD8 T Cell.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2692. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

CD8 T cells comprising the memory pool display considerable heterogeneity, with individual cells differing in phenotype and function. This review will focus on our current understanding of heterogeneity within the antigen-specific memory CD8 T cell compartment and classifications of memory CD8 T cell subsets with defined and discrete functionalities. Recent data suggest that phenotype and/or function of numerically stable circulatory memory CD8 T cells are defined by the age of memory CD8 T cell (or time after initial antigen-encounter). Read More

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November 2018
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Disruption of IL-33 Signaling Limits Early CD8+ T Cell Effector Function Leading to Exhaustion in Murine Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2642. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Rheumatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Danger signals mediated through ST2, the interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor, amplify CD8 T cell-mediated inflammation in the murine model of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL2), and blockade of ST2 provides a potential therapeutic strategy in this disease. However, the long-term effects of disrupting IL-33/ST2 signaling on the CD8 T cell compartment are unknown. Here, we examined the evolution of the T cell response in murine FHL type 2 in the absence of ST2 signaling and found that CD8 T cells gradually undergo exhaustion, similar to a related nonfatal FHL model. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Giant Depolarizing Potentials Trigger Transient Changes in the Intracellular Cl Concentration in CA3 Pyramidal Neurons of the Immature Mouse Hippocampus.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 20;12:420. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Physiology, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) represent a typical spontaneous activity pattern in the immature hippocampus. GDPs are mediated by GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs and their initiation requires an excitatory GABAergic action, which is typical for immature neurons due to their elevated intracellular Cl concentration ([Cl]). Because GABA receptors are ligand-gated Cl channels, activation of these receptors can potentially influence [Cl]. Read More

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November 2018

Reactive Oxygen Species: the Dual Role in Physiological and Pathological Conditions of the Human Body.

Eurasian J Med 2018 Oct;50(3):193-201

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jordan School of Pharmacy, Amman, Jordan.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-known for playing a dual role as destructive and constructive species. Indeed, ROS are engaged in many redox-governing activities of the cells for the preservation of cellular homeostasis. However, its overproduction has been reported to result in oxidative stress, which is considered as a deleterious process, and is involved in the damage of cell structures that causes various diseased states. Read More

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October 2018
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Membrane reorganization after photochemical internalization to release transferrin-biofunctionalized polystyrene microparticles.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 4;8(1):17617. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Unitat de Biologia Cel·lular, Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain.

Therapeutic drug carriers can drive their cargo to their target cells. However, an obstacle is usually the entrapment of the drug inside the endolysosomal compartment, which physically impedes its actuation by the impossibility of reaching its molecular site of action. To overcome this hurdle, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been proposed, but the extent of PCI-induced membrane disruption and its capability to allow the release of microparticles is unknown. Read More

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December 2018