1,308 results match your criteria Comparative medicine[Journal]


A Bird's-Eye View of Regulatory, Animal Care, and Training Considerations Regarding Avian Flight Research.

Comp Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

A thorough understanding of how animals fly is a central goal of many scientific disciplines. Birds are a commonly usedmodel organism for flight research. The success of this model requires studying healthy and naturally flying birds in a laboratory setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000033DOI Listing
February 2019

A Comprehensive Protocol for Laparotomy in Swine to Facilitate Ultrasound‑guided Injection into the Fetal Intraperitoneal Space.

Comp Med 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Swine are a commonly used animal model for biomedical research. One research application of swine models is the inutero injection of human or pig cells into the fetal liver (FL) or intraperitoneal space. In utero injections can be accomplishedthrough laparotomy procedures in pregnant swine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000098DOI Listing
February 2019

Mammosphere Culture of Mammary Cells from Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Comp Med 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal. Although these cells hold an important rolein the biology and pathology of the breast, the studies of mammary stem cells are few due to the difficulty of acquiring andexpanding undifferentiated adult stem cell populations. In this study, we developed mammosphere cultures from frozen mammary cells of nulliparous cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) as a culture system to enrich mammary stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000030DOI Listing
February 2019

Immunomodulatory Effects of Stress and Environmental Enrichment in Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

Comp Med 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Stress can influence the secretion of neuroendocrine mediators, thereby exposing immune cells to altered signaling andinteractions. Here we investigated the synergetic effect of stress and environmental enrichment on the immune response ofLong-Evans rats. Subjects (n = 46) were assigned to 5 treatment groups: acute compared with chronic stress with or withoutenvironmental enrichment, plus an unmanipulated control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000025DOI Listing
February 2019

Development of an Orthotopic Intrasplenic Xenograft Mouse Model of Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma and Its Use in Evaluating the Efficacy of Treatment with Dasatinib.

Comp Med 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Canine histiocytic sarcoma is a highly aggressive and metastatic hematopoietic neoplasm that responds poorly to currentlyavailable treatment regimens. Our goal was to establish a clinically relevant xenograft mouse model to assess the preclinical efficacy of novel cancer treatment protocols for histiocytic sarcoma. We developed an intrasplenic xenograft mouse model characterized by consistent tumor growth and development of metastasis to the liver and other abdominal organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000065DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Characterization of Baboon Cytomegalovirus Infection in Healthy Adult Baboons (Papio anubis).

Comp Med 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common chronic herpesvirus found in humans and numerous other mammalian species. In people, chronic viruses like CMV can alter overall health and immunity and pose a serious risk for those with an inadequate immune system. In addition, CMV plays an important role in animal health, and could affect the health of vulnerable populations, like endangered species. Read More

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https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000050DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Ketamine Tolerance in Sprague-Dawley Rats after Chronic Administration of Ketamine, Morphine, or Cocaine.

Comp Med 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Ketamine is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in human and veterinary medicine, but its clinical effectiveness isoften compromised due to tolerance to its anesthetic effects. Although ketamine tolerance has been demonstrated in a numberof behavioral measures, no published work has investigated tolerance to ketamine's anesthetic effects other than durationof anesthesia. In addition, a reported practice in anesthesiology is to alter anesthetic doses for procedures when the patienthas a history of drug abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000053DOI Listing
January 2019

Comparison of Reproductive Function in Female TgMISIIR‑TAg Transgenic and Wildtype C57BL/6 Mice.

Comp Med 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Transgenic TgMISIIR-TAg (TAg) mice express the oncogenic virus SV40 in Mullerian epithelial cells. Female TAg micespontaneously develop epithelial ovarian carcinoma, the most common type of ovarian cancer in women. Female TAg miceare infertile, but the reason has not been determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000008DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
0.760 Impact Factor

Factors Affecting Growth Kinetics and Spontaneous Metastasis in the B16F10 Syngeneic Murine Melanoma Model.

Comp Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor that can metastasize quickly to proximal and distal sites, thus complicating the applicationof therapeutic modalities. Numerous mouse model systems have been used to gain understanding of the immunobiology and metastatic potential of melanoma. Here, we report the optimization of a syngeneic mouse melanoma model protocol using the mouse B16-derived melanoma cell line B16F10 that ensures the production of tumors on mice pinnae that are similar in size between animals and that enlarge in a time-dependent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000036DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of Azithromycin on Behavior, Pathologic Signs, and Changes in Cytokines, Chemokines, and Neutrophil Migration in C57BL/6 Mice Exposed to Dextran Sulfate Sodium.

Comp Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Here we characterized the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute colitis. Specifically, we evaluated azithromycinand metronidazole treatment regimens to assess their effects on animal wellbeing, pathologic changes, barrier function,cytokine and chemokine profiles, and neutrophil migration in colon tissue. Azithromycin treatment significantly reduced theseverity of colitis, as assessed through body weight change, water consumption, macroscopic lesions, and animal behaviors(activity level, climbing, and grooming), but did not alter food consumption or feeding behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000001DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Longitudinal Evaluation of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of HIV Infection.

Comp Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease with higher incidence in HIV-infected compared withnoninfected patients. SIV-infected NHP develop clinical manifestations of HIV infection, including PAH. To understand thepathogenesis of PAH and determine the relationship between hemodynamic changes and clinical characteristics associatedwith SIV infection, we performed right heart catheterization and echocardiographic imaging of 21 rhesus macaques before andafter SIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310202PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Spontaneous Spongiform Brainstem Degeneration in a Young Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) with Conspicuous Behavioral, Motor, Growth, and Ocular Pathologies.

Comp Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Here we report a case of severe growth retardation and neurologic abnormalities in a female gray mouse lemur (Microcebusmurinus), a small NHP species for which the genomic sequence recently became available. The female lemur we present heredied on postnatal day 125. This lemur had impaired development of motor skills and showed severe ataxia and tremors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310204PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Identifying and Implementing Endpoints for Geriatric Mice.

Authors:
Linda A Toth

Comp Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The types of changes in physical appearance and behavior that occur in elderly people similarly develop in elderly animals.Signs and symptoms that might cause concern in younger people or mice may be normal in their elderly but generally healthy counterparts. Although numerous scoring methods have been developed to assess rodent health, these systems wereoften designed for young adults used in specific types of research, such as cancer or neurologic studies, and therefore may be suboptimal for assessing aging rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310203PMC
November 2018
18 Reads

Longitudinal MRI Evaluation of Ischemic Stroke in the Basal Ganglia of a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with Seizures.

Comp Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

An adult rhesus macaque developed seizures after the induction of ischemic stroke. Initially, on the day of surgery, a focalischemic lesion was present exclusively in the right caudate nucleus. By 48 h after stroke induction, the lesion had extendedinto the putamen, when a seizure was observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310199PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Effects of Rodent Thermoregulation on Animal Models in the Research Environment.

Comp Med 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

To best promote animal wellbeing and the efficacy of biomedical models, scientific, husbandry, and veterinary professionalsmust consider the mechanisms, influences, and outcomes of rodent thermoregulation in contemporary research environments.Over the last 2 decades, numerous studies have shown that laboratory mice and rats prefer temperatures that are several degrees warmer than the environments in which they typically are housed within biomedical facilities. Physiologic changes torodents that are cage-housed under standard temperatures (20 to 26 °C) are attributed to 'cold stress' and include alterationsin metabolism, cardiovascular parameters, respiration, and immunologic function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310197PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Effects of Intraoperative Vagal Nerve Stimulation on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Comp Med 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) plays a fundamental role in health and disease and contributes to the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal system and brain. The direct line of communication between these organ systems is through the vagus nerve. Therefore, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), a commonly used technique for multiple disorders, has potential to modulate the enteric microbiota, enabling investigation and possibly treatment of numerous neurologic disorders in which the microbiota has been linked with disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310200PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

System for Scoring Severity of Acute Radiation Syndrome Response in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

Comp Med 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

We developed a clinical assessment tool for use in an NHP radiation model to 1) quantify severity responses for subsyndromes of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS; that is, hematopoietic and others) and 2) identify animals that required enhanced monitoring. Our assessment tool was based primarily on the MEdical TREatment ProtocOLs for Radiation AccidentVictims (METREPOL) scoring system but was adapted for NHP to include additional indices (for example, behaviors) for usein NHP studies involving limited medical intervention. Male (n = 16) and female (n = 12) rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta;5 groups: sham and 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310201PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Comparison of Aerosol- and Percutaneous-acquired Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Humans and Nonhuman Primates for Suitability in Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the Animal Rule.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 3;68(5):380-395. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, Medical Countermeasure Systems, Fort Detrick, Maryland.

Licensure of medical countermeasure vaccines to protect against aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) requires the use of the Animal Rule to assess vaccine efficacy, because human studies are not feasible or ethical. We therefore performed a retrospective study of VEE cases that occurred in at-risk laboratory workers and support personnel during the United States Biowarfare Program (1943-1969) to better define percutaneous- and aerosol-acquired VEE in humans and to compare these results with those described for the NHP model (in which high-dose aerosol VEEV challenge led to more severe encephalitis than parenteral challenge). Record review and analysis of 17 aerosol- and 23 percutaneous-acquired human cases of VEE included incubation period, symptoms, physical examination findings, and markers of infection. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200028PMC
October 2018
11 Reads

Identification of Carboxylesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase, Paraoxonase, and Albumin Pseudoesterase in Guinea Pig Plasma through Nondenaturing Gel Electrophoresis.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 2;68(5):367-374. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska;, Email:

Drugs to protect against nerve agent toxicity are tested in animals. The current preferred small animal model is guinea pigs because their plasma bioscavenging capacity resembles that of NHP. We stained nondenaturing polyacrylamide slab gels with a variety of substrates, inhibitors, and antibodies to identify the esterases in heparinized guinea pig plasma. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200033PMC
October 2018
9 Reads
0.760 Impact Factor

Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 as an Immunohistochemical Marker for Macrophages in Multiple Tissues and Laboratory Animal Species.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 18;68(5):341-348. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Departments of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa;, Email:

Allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF1) is a commonly used marker for microglia in the brains of humans and some animal models but has had limited applications elsewhere. We sought to determine whether AIF1 can be used as a macrophage marker across common laboratory animal species and tissues. We studied tissues (that is, spleen, liver, and lung) with defined macrophage populations by using an AIF1 immunostaining technique previously validated in human tissue. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200031PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Supernumerary Incisors in CB6F1 Mice Conditioned with Chemotherapy and Total Body Irradiation before Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):349-352. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

University Animal Care, Medicine, and Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Multiple adult female CB6F1 mice presented with supernumerary incisors after preconditioning with chemotherapy and total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Mice received nonmyeloablative total body irradiation (3 Gy) and either cyclophosphamide or bendamustine, followed by BMT and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide or bendamustine. Here we describe the clinical presentation, μCT findings, and histopathologic evaluation of the affected mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200027PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Outbreak of Opportunistic Ascending Pyelonephritis with Numerous Yeast after Experimental Humanization Surgery in NOD.Cg-/SzJ and NOD.Cg-/SzJ Immunodeficient Mice.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):353-359. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Division of Applied Regulatory Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland;, Email:

Unexpected mortality occurred in a group of 12 NOD.Cg-NOD.Cg-/SzJ (NSG) and 12 NOD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200026PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of a Swine () Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):375-379. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Cyanide is a readily available and potentially lethal substance. Oral exposure can result in larger doses, compared with other routes. Currently, there are no antidotes specific for use in the treatment of oral cyanide poisoning, and studies cannot be done in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200030PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Physiologic Aspects of Pig Kidney Transplantation in Nonhuman Primates.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):332-340. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Alabama.

Xenotransplantation can provide a solution to the current shortage of human organs for patients with terminal renal failure. The increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, effective immunosuppressive therapy, and antiinflammatory therapy help to protect pig tissues from the primate immune response and can correct molecular incompatibilities. Life-supporting pig kidney xenografts have survived in NHP for more than 6 mo in the absence of markers of consumptive coagulopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200029PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Breeding Characteristics and Dose-dependent Blood Pressure Responses of Transgenic Cyp1a1-Ren2 Rats.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 5;68(5):360-366. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. A new rodent model (transgenic male Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats) provides reversible induction of hypertension through the addition of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) to the diet, without the need for surgical intervention, thus giving researchers control over both the onset of hypertension and its magnitude (I3C dose-dependency). We here report the breeding performance and productivity of Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-18000026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200032PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Acute Abdominal Distension Due to Disseminated Peritoneal Neoplasia in a Rhesus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2018 Oct 23;68(5):403-410. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut;, Email:

This report describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in a female rhesus macaque that presented with acute abdominal distension and tympany. The macaque was euthanized after evidence of severe colonic distension on radiography and observation of widespread peritoneal adhesions on exploratory laparotomy. Gross and histopathologic evaluation revealed extensive entrapment of gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts by serosal fibrovascular proliferative tissue containing foci of endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200034PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Development and Characterization of a Model for Inducing Fetal Hemoglobin Production in Cynomolgus Macaques ().

Comp Med 2018 Oct 9;68(5):396-402. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Haemoglobin DPU, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Collegeville, Pennsylvania.

Hydroxyurea induces production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), a tetramer of α and γ globin proteins and corresponding heme molecules, normally found in less than 1% of adult RBC. Increases in circulating HbF are correlated with clinical improvement of patients with hemoglobinopathies, and hydroxyurea, as a daily medication, is the standard treatment for sickle cell anemia. Although olive baboons () are considered a key model species for HbF induction, cynomolgus macaques () are another species that conserves the ability to produce HbF into maturity. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200035PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Primary Myxoid Liposarcoma of the Greater Omentum in a Rhesus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2018 Aug 2;68(4):308-313. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, California.

We here report a spontaneous case of primary myxoid liposarcoma of the greater omentum with subsequent transperitoneal recurrence. The primary mass was incidentally found during an exploratory laparotomy for a presumed diagnosis of trichobezoar or phytobezoar and was removed surgically. Histopathologic examination of the mass revealed the presence of a myxoid liposarcoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103427PMC
August 2018
16 Reads

Changes in Plasma Protein Expression Indicative of Early Diet-induced Metabolic Disease in Male Pigs ().

Comp Med 2018 Aug 31;68(4):286-293. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC), Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Recognition of the preclinical stages of metabolic diseases such as diabetes helps to prevent full development of the disease. In our research, we alter the diet composition of pigs to create a model of human metabolic disease. The objective of the current study was to identify plasma proteins and biologic mechanisms that differed in expression between pigs fed a 'cafeteria diet' (considered unhealthy; high in saturated fats) and those fed a 'Mediterranean diet' (considered healthy; high in unsaturated fats). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103420PMC
August 2018
15 Reads

Crossmatching Maternal and Fetal Blood in Sheep.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 23;68(4):294-297. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia.

We investigated the incidence of ex vivo incompatibility between ovine maternal RBC and fetal plasma. Time-mated singleton pregnant ewes (n = 8) underwent cesarean delivery of the fetus; at the time of delivery, paired maternal and fetal blood samples were collected and subsequently separated for storage as packed RBC and fresh frozen plasma. Gel column crossmatching was performed 3 to 4 wk later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103419PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Refinement and Successful Implementation of a Scoring System for Myxomatosis in a Susceptible Rabbit () Model.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 17;68(4):280-285. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina;, Email:

Myxoma virus is a member of Leporipoxviridae whose tropism is tightly restricted to lagomorphs. In susceptible Oryctolagus rabbits, the virus causes a highly lethal disease known as myxomatosis, which begins as a localized infection but rapidly disseminates throughout the animal, leading to immune compromise, mucosal infections, multiorgan failure, and death. In a research setting, myxoma infection of susceptible Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits is used as a model of poxviral disease progression and represents one of only a few means to study the pathogenesis of this viral family in a native host species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103426PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Cystitis and Struvite Urolithiasis in Nude Mice Implanted with Sustained-release Estrogen Pellets.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 17;68(4):256-260. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Female nude mice (J:NU-Foxn1nu; age, 6 wk) were injected with 1 million MCF7 human breast cancer cells in the fourth mammary fat pads and received a 21-d sustained-release estrogen pellet (0.25 mg) subcutaneously in the dorsum of the neck. All mice were maintained in sterile housing and provided sterile water and irradiated rodent chow. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103421PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Lung Lobe Torsion in an Adult Male Common Marmoset ().

Comp Med 2018 Aug 16;68(4):314-318. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts;, Email:

A 6-y-old, intact, pair-housed male common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) presented with acute onset dyspnea and tachypnea immediately after sedation with alfaxalone; a history of gradual weight loss initiated the examination under sedation. Thoracic radiographs revealed significant right-lung consolidation, with a vesicular gas pattern in the right caudodorsal lung field, pleural effusion, and dorsal displacement of the heart. The marmoset was euthanized due to his unstable condition and poor prognosis. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103417PMC
August 2018
12 Reads

Pancreatitis and Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Ferret ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun;68(3):208-211

Departments of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

A 1-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for additional diagnostic evaluation after physical examination by the referring veterinarian revealed a cranial abdominal mass. The ferret had a 2-wk history of inappetence, weight loss, and lethargy. On presentation, the ferret was thin, and an approximately 3-cm mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008714PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Idiopathic Dermal Necrosis in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun;68(3):204-207

Department of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Because black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used as a model for research on gallstones and bacterial infections, performing urinary evaluations can provide invaluable data. This case report involves 5 prairie dogs that developed moist necrotic skin lesions after urine collection by cystocentesis. The information presented here serves as a resource regarding a potential adverse event that may develop after cystocentesis in black-tailed prairie dogs. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008713PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

Management of Ocular Infection in a White-faced Saki Monkey ().

Comp Med 2018 Aug 15;68(4):319-323. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Animal Care Sciences, Smithsonian Institution National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC.

A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the right eye. Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs were positive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103422PMC
August 2018
16 Reads

Culture-independent Profiling of the Fecal Microbiome to Identify Microbial Species Associated with a Diarrheal Outbreak in Immunocompromised Mice.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 13;68(4):261-268. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;, Email:

Immunocompromised mice are used frequently in biomedical research, in part because they accommodate the engraftment and study of primary human cells within a mouse model; however, these animals are susceptible to opportunistic infections and require special husbandry considerations. In 2015, an outbreak marked by high morbidity but low mortality swept through a colony of immunocompromised mice; this outbreak rapidly affected 75% of the colony and ultimately required complete depopulation of the barrier suite. Conventional microbiologic and molecular diagnostics were unsuccessful in determining the cause; therefore, we explored culture-independent methods to broadly profile the microbial community in the feces of affected animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103423PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Effect of Daytime Blue-enriched LED Light on the Nighttime Circadian Melatonin Inhibition of Hepatoma 7288CTC Warburg Effect and Progression.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 6;68(4):269-279. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Departments of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane, Louisiana.

Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Metabolic pathways within the liver and liver cancers are highly regulated by the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Daily light and dark cycles regulate the SCN-driven pineal production of the circadian anticancer hormone melatonin and temporally coordinate circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103418PMC
August 2018
35 Reads
0.760 Impact Factor

Systemic Iron Deficiency in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis.

Comp Med 2018 Aug 5;68(4):298-307. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Departments of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina;, Email:

Endometriosis is characterized by endometrial tissue development outside the uterus. Anemia and iron depletion do not commonly accompany endometriosis in women, despite chronic abdominal inflammation and heavy menstrual bleeding. The objective of this study was to examine iron kinetics associated with endometriosis by using a NHP model, to better understand the underlying mechanism of abnormal hematogram values in women with endometriosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103425PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Spontaneous Urinary Bladder Leiomyoma in a Rhesus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 1;68(3):243-247. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Here we report the case of a urinary bladder leiomyoma in a rhesus macaque. The animal was clinically normal and had a lipoma localized to the stifle. Endovesicular leiomyomas are the most common form of urinary bladder leiomyoma in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008718PMC
June 2018
22 Reads

Thyroid Adenoma and Ectopic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Guinea Pig ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 31;68(3):212-214. Epub 2018 May 31.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan.

A 56-mo-old male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) presented with gradual weight loss from 757 to 691 g during the preceding month. Cardiac-specific diagnostics detected decreased cardiac contractility, moderate cardiomegaly, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary edema. At 1 mo after presentation, the guinea pig died while under treatment. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008719PMC
June 2018
12 Reads

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spontaneous Hepatic Neoplasia in a Cynomolgus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 29;68(3):233-238. Epub 2018 May 29.

Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Japan.

Although the number of reports describing tumors in aged NHP has increased, spontaneous neoplasias in NHP are extremely rare, with the notable exception of prosimians, in which spontaneous hepatic neoplasms arise. In addition to radiography and ultrasonography, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI tends to be applied in human practice to non-invasively locate, identify, and size liver tumors and to define the border between neoplastic and normal tissues. Here we report a 13-y-old female cynomolgus monkey with anorexia and serologically normal liver enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008711PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Developing a Model of Vitamin A Deficiency in a Hibernating Mammal, the 13-Lined Ground Squirrel ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 25;68(3):196-203. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA.

Retinoic acid, a bioactive metabolite of vitamin A, plays key roles in immune function and vision and adipose tissue development. Our goal was to study the effect of vitamin A deficiency in physiologic changes seen in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). In this study, we first developed a model of vitamin A deficiency that was based on published mouse models; we then examined the role of RA in the circannual cycle of and adipose accumulation in this hibernating species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008715PMC
June 2018
17 Reads

Hydrocephalus after Intrathecal Administration of Dextran to Rhesus Macaques ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 18;68(3):227-232. Epub 2018 May 18.

Division of Immunology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA.

Dextrans have been used extensively as medical therapies and labeling agents in biomedical research to investigate the blood-brain barrier and CSF flow and absorption. Adverse effects from dextrans include anaphylactic reaction and dilation of the cerebral ventricles due to administration into the subarachnoid space. This retrospective study describes 51 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that received dextran intrathecally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008720PMC
June 2018
6 Reads

Pancreatitis and Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Ferret ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 18;68(3):208-211. Epub 2018 May 18.

Departments of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

A 1-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for additional diagnostic evaluation after physical examination by the referring veterinarian revealed a cranial abdominal mass. The ferret had a 2-wk history of inappetence, weight loss, and lethargy. On presentation, the ferret was thin, and an approximately 3-cm mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000109DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Scar Size and Other Parameters for Tracking Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Induction of Myocardial Infarcts in Sheep ().

Comp Med 2018 Jun 10;68(3):215-220. Epub 2018 May 10.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine, Mt Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

In humans, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of heart failure due to myocardial impairment, yet the progression of the resultant dysfunction is often undetected after incidental or induced myocardial infarction. In this study we tracked the progression of left-sided heart failure in 6-mo-old male castrated sheep in which we created 2 models of myocardial infarction, small and large. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008712PMC
June 2018
13 Reads
0.760 Impact Factor

Neurologic Complications Associated with Transdermal Placement of Intrathecal Catheters in Sheep.

Comp Med 2018 Jun 19;68(3):221-226. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

A study using an ovine model of transdermal intrathecal catheterization was planned to investigate the neurotoxicity of magnesium sulfate. Nonpregnant Merino cross ewes (n = 8; age, 5 y; weight, 55.0 ± 6. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008716PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

Silicon Foreign Body in the Cerebrum of a Rhesus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2018 Apr;68(2):182-186

University Animal Care, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897976PMC
April 2018
41 Reads

Repair of a Large Ventral Hernia in a Rhesus Macaque () by Using an Abdominal Component Separation Technique.

Comp Med 2018 04;68(2):177-181

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with interposition of mesh. Hernia recurrence at 1 y resulted in a defect measuring 7 × 13 cm, with loss of abdominal domain. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897975PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Retrospective Review of Surgical Outcomes and Pair-housing Success in Vasectomized Rhesus Macaques ().

Comp Med 2018 Apr;68(2):168-176

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Department of Comparative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA., Email:

Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the male or female. Vasectomy is a simple, highly effective, and minimally invasive method of contraception that is used at our institution to facilitate social housing. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897974PMC
April 2018
7 Reads