2,032,948 results match your criteria Comparative Effectiveness Research [Journal]
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Population Health, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, Georgia.
Zoonoses, diseases transmitted between animals and humans, have been a concern in laboratory animal medicine for decades. Exposure to zoonotic organisms not only poses health risks to personnel and research animals but may also affect research integrity. Early laboratory animal programs were ineffective at excluding and preventing transmission of zoonotic diseases: the health status of the animals were often unknown, endemic diseases occurred frequently, housing conditions were less controlled, and veterinary care programs were decentralized. Read More
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Radiology, Miller Research Building Molecular Imaging Service Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Preclinical noninvasive imaging can be an indispensable tool for studying animal models of disease. In vivo imaging to assess anatomical, functional, and molecular features requires verification by a comparison to the macroscopic and microscopic morphological features, since all noninvasive in vivo imaging methods have much lower resolution than standard histopathology. Comprehensive pathological evaluation of the animal model is underutilized; yet, many institutions have veterinary or human pathologists with necessary comparative pathology expertise. Read More
Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Motivation: Likelihood ratio tests are commonly used to test for positive selection acting on proteins. They are usually applied with thresholds for declaring a protein under positive selection determined from a chi-square or mixture of chi-square distributions. While it is known that such distributions are not strictly justified due to the statistical irregularity of the problem, the hope has been that the resulting tests are conservative and do not lose much power in comparison with the same test using the unknown, correct threshold. Read More
Aesthet Surg J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Background: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is a herb used in Chinese medicine formulations for promoting blood circulation and minimizing vascular stasis. It has been successfully utilized in treating cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, and angina.
Objective: To study the effect of SM injections in autologous fat grafting to the breast. Read More
Pain Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
Objective: To determine if intra-articular (IA) injection of corticosteroids is effective in reducing the need for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in those with dual comparative medial branch block (MBB)-confirmed lumbar z-joint pain.
Design: This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.
Setting: Two academic medical centers. Read More
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Research using laboratory animals has been revolutionized by the creation of humanized animal models, which are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human cells, tissues, or organs. These animal models provide the research community a unique and promising opportunity to mimic a wide variety of disease conditions in humans, from infectious disease to cancer. A vast majority of these models are humanized mice like those injected with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and patient-derived xenografts. Read More
Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 12;51(3):1193-1206. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen,
Background/aims: Periosteal tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue engineering. To characterize these cells in detail, we generated an immortalized human cranial periosteal cell line and observed an increased MSCA-1 and CD146 expression, as well as an earlier and stronger mineralization compared to the parental cells. Further, we detected a higher osteogenic potential of MSCA-1high compared to MSCA-1low cranial periosteal cell (CPC) fractions. Read More
J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 16;232:270-283. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
College of Life Science, Capital Normal University, 100048, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
Main Conclusion: Integrated proteome analyses revealed differentially accumulated proteins in the non-leaf green organs in wheat glume and awn that play important roles in photosynthesis and drought resistance. Two non-leaf green organs in wheat, glume and awn, have photosynthetic potential, contribute to grain yield, and also play roles in resistance to adverse conditions. We performed the first integrated proteome analysis of wheat glume and awn in response to water deficit. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208796. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.
Background: The number of patients with diabetes is increasing particularly in Asia-Pacific region. Many of them are treated with antidiabetics. As the basis of the studies on the benefit and harm of antidiabetic drugs in the region, the information on patterns of market penetration of new classes of antidiabetic medications is important in providing context for subsequent research and analyzing and interpreting results. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207868. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
Social primates can influence others through the control of resources. For instance, dominant male chimpanzees might allow subordinates access to mate with females in exchange for social support. However, little is known about how chimpanzees strategically use a position of leverage to maximize their own benefits. Read More
PLoS Genet 2018 Dec 12;14(12):e1007821. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Cancer Genomics Unit, Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. Read More
J Glaucoma 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Glaucoma Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Coimbatore, India.
Purpose: To compare the effect of mannitol in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in vitrectomized and non-vitrectomized eyes.
Methods: Prospective comparative case study. Eyes with IOP ≥40▒mm Hg were included. Read More
Anesth Analg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.
Background: Patients with narcolepsy may be at increased perioperative risk due to the interactions among anesthesia, narcolepsy, and narcolepsy medications. This study sought to determine the perioperative experience of narcoleptic patients undergoing anesthesia or sedation, the frequency of perioperative counseling, and self-reported surgical complications.
Methods: A 22-question survey was developed by expert consensus and distributed by the Narcolepsy Network. Read More
Echo Res Pract 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
G Collins, Cardiology, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) highlights the importance of patient questionnaires as part of the quality improvement process, To this end, we implemented a novel system whereby paired surveys were completed by patients and physiologists for transthoracic echocardiography scans, allowing for parallel comparison of the experiences of service providers and end users. Anonymised questionnaires were completed for each scan by the patient and physiologist for outpatient echocardiographic scans in a teaching hospital. In 26% of the responses, patient found the scans at least slightly painful, and in 24% of scans physiologists were in discomfort. Read More
Biomed Tech (Berl) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Ottobock SE & Co. KGaA, Clinical Research and Services, Research Biomechanics, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.
Safety-relevant gait situations (walking on stairs and slopes, walking backwards, walking with small steps, simulated perturbations of swing phase extension) were investigated in a motion analysis laboratory with six unilateral transfemoral amputees using two different microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (Rheo Knee XC, C-Leg). A randomized crossover design was chosen. The study results imply that the performance and safety potential of a microprocessor-controlled knee joint can be associated with the individual control algorithms and the technological concepts that are implemented to generate motion resistances for controlling flexion and extension movements. Read More
Environ Health Perspect 2018 Dec;126(12):125001
16 School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, California, USA.
Background: The Life Cycle Initiative, hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme, selected human toxicity impacts from exposure to chemical substances as an impact category that requires global guidance to overcome current assessment challenges. The initiative leadership established the Human Toxicity Task Force to develop guidance on assessing human exposure and toxicity impacts. Based on input gathered at three workshops addressing the main current scientific challenges and questions, the task force built a roadmap for advancing human toxicity characterization, primarily for use in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Read More
J Phys Chem A 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
In nanocatalysis a growing attention has recently been given to investigation of energetically low-lying structural isomers of atomic clusters, because some isomers can demonstrate better catalytic activity than the most stable structures. In this study, we present a comparative investigation of a catalytic activity for NO dissociation of a pair of the energetically degenerated isomers of Cu13 cluster having C2 and Cs symmetries. It is shown that although these isomers have similar structural, electronic, and optical properties, they can possess very different catalytic activity. Read More
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Faculty of Science Education, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea.
A novel Gram-reaction-negative bacterium, designated strain GH1-34, was isolated from a sample of tidal mudflat collected at the seashore of Gangwha Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of the bacterium were strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile by means of a polar flagellum and rod shaped. It was found to grow at 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, 20-45 °C and pH 6-10. Read More
AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637.
Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of different MRI sequences for the estimation of index lesion volume in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) compared with ground truth volume measured on whole-mount pathology.
Materials And Methods: Patients with PCa underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) on a 3-T MRI scanner before radical prostatectomy. Forty PCa index lesions were identified and outlined on histology by a pathologist. Read More
Rev Col Bras Cir 2018 Dec 10;45(6):e2016. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Cirurgia, Recife, PE, Brasil.
Objective: to compare the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in patients submitted to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux- en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
Methods: this is a comparative study of 576 patients submitted to bariatric surgery, 338 to SG and 238 to RYGB, and evaluated for hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, zinc and vitamin B12 serum levels. We performed these dosages in the preoperative period and at three, six, 12 and 24 months after surgery, for analysis and comparison of micronutrient deficiencies among the techniques. Read More
Arq Bras Cir Dig 2018 Dec 6;31(4):e1408. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Introduction: Inguinal hernia is one of the most frequent surgical diseases. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what will be the best approach for correction of inguinal hernia? Is there real benefit to the robotic approach?
Objective: To compile results of the published studies that used the robot-assisted technique in the repair of inguinal hernia, analyzing its limitations, complications and comparing it with those of the pre-existing techniques.
Method: The review was performed from the Medline database with the following descriptors: (inguinal hernia repair OR hernioplasty OR hernia) AND (robot OR robotic OR robotic assisted) being retrieved 391 articles. Read More
Acta Biomed 2018 Dec 7;89(7-S):19-24. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Parma University, Italy.
Background And Aim Of The Work: Numerous negative outcomes of inadequate pain management among children have been cited in the literature. Inadequate pain management may be particularly detrimental to children and adolescents facing life-threatening injury or illness on a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). It is therefore absolutely necessary that professionals utilize effective and efficient tools in order to evaluate a person's sensations of pain in the most objective way possible. Read More
Indian J Public Health 2018 Oct-Dec;62(4):271-276
Senior Resident, Oral Health Sciences Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Union Territory, India.
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is very common in Asia. It has many deleterious effects on individual's oral functions. Thus, there is a need to assess the effect of oral submucous fibrosis on quality of life. Read More
Qual Health Res 2018 Dec 12:1049732318816298. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
1 Universidad de Navarra, ICS, Grupo ATLANTES, Pamplona, Spain.
Literature suggests that it is possible to live well with advanced cancer but little is known about the process. In this article, we present a secondary analysis of experiences of living with advanced cancer ( n = 22) that refines the theory of "Living Well with Chronic Illness" for a different context and population. The refined theory explains the experience of living well with advanced cancer illuminating a five-phase iterative process: struggling, accepting, living with advanced cancer, sharing the illness experience, and reconstructing life. Read More
Eur J Gen Pract 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
g Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium.
Background: In 2017, the European Commission (EC) identified as a policy priority the performance assessment of primary care systems, which relates to a country's primary care structure, services delivery and outcomes. The EC requested its Expert Panel on Effective Ways of Investing in Health (Expert Panel) to provide an opinion on ways for improving performance assessment of primary care.
Objectives: To provide an overview of domains and dimensions to be taken into consideration in assessing primary care and specific indicators to be collected and analysed to improve understanding of primary care performance. Read More
J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Bottom-fermented and top-fermented beers, both either late or dry hopped with Huell Melon hops, and respective reference beers without late or dry hopping were subjected to a comparative odorant screening by aroma extract dilution analyses. On the basis of differences in the FD factors, 14 odorants were identified as hop-derived. Among them were ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, propyl 2-methylbutanoate, myrcene, linalool, and geraniol. Read More
Hepatol Int 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
Background And Aims: While the association between platelet activation and hepatic fibrosis has been previously demonstrated in animal studies; the utility of anti-platelet agents in reversing the progression of hepatic fibrosis requires further review. Utilizing systematic review methods, we provide to our knowledge the first meta-analysis combining evidence from all studies aimed to establish the effect of anti-platelet agents in the prevention of hepatic fibrosis.
Methods: We searched Medline, EMBASE and PubMed databases from inception to October 2018 to identify all studies aimed at evaluating the role of anti-platelet agents in the prevention of hepatic fibrosis. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:403-416
Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer's Disease Research, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Analyses of bloodborne nanoscale extracellular vesicles (nsEVs) have shown tremendous promise in enabling the development of noninvasive blood-based clinical diagnostic tests, predicting and monitoring the efficacy of treatment programs, and identifying new drug targets in the context of health conditions such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we present a protocol for generating global nsEV proteomic profiles that can further the utility of nsEV analysis for the above biomedical applications by enlightening us of differences in protein abundance across normal and disease state nsEVs. This protocol features the use of magnetic particle-based immunoprecipitation to enrich highly purified populations of nsEVs directly from plasma or serum samples. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:313-323
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Tissue microarray (TMA) is a widely used, high-throughput, cost-effective, and tissue and reagent-conserving method of performing molecular analysis. Multiple donor tissue cores are procured and transferred into a recipient TMA block for simultaneous differential and comparative molecular profiling under theoretically identical performance conditions. Described herein is a discussion of the theory behind the TMA, an overview of the concepts and principles of TMA design and construction, a brief summary of its advantages and disadvantages, and a sample protocol of TMA construction. Read More
Adv Ther 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of adding long-term micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) to standard treatment of femoropopliteal deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Methods: This pilot, comparative, open-label study with blinded outcome assessor enrolled patients with a first episode of femoropopliteal DVT confirmed by duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS). All participants were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: (1) control that received a standard treatment with oral rivaroxaban, and (2) experimental that involved additional treatment with MPFF 1000 mg/day. Read More
Nanoscale Res Lett 2018 Dec 11;13(1):403. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047, Japan.
Inefficient Mg-induced p-type doping has been remained a major obstacle in the development of GaN-based electronic devices for solid-state lighting and power applications. This study reports comparative structural analysis of defects in GaN layers on freestanding GaN substrates where Mg incorporation is carried out via two approaches: ion implantation and epitaxial doping. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of pyramidal and line defects only in Mg-implanted sample whereas Mg-doped sample did not show presence of these defects which suggests that nature of defects depends upon incorporation method. Read More
Sci China Life Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China.
Environ Manage 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Waste Management (ISAH), Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, Hannover, 30167, Germany.
A multi-stage optimization approach for sustainable collection system design for urban municipal solid waste is developed for megacities in Asia's newly industrialized countries. The approach combines four methods-analysis of waste and area characteristics, data acquisition and evaluation by GIS, mathematical projection of existing and future collection systems, and identification of most suitable alternatives through comparative multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The approach is applied in Bangalore, India with 1. Read More
BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 23;3(1):e000174. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Dipartimento Neuromuscoloscheletrico e Organi di Sensi, Università degli Study di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
Objective: Intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning using a closed-eye approach could be carried out in some selected cases. Our study focuses on the efficacy and safety of a IOL closed-eye repositioning technique using scleral suture, which is performed using a trocar as an intrastromal limbal guide.
Methods And Analysis: Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients with late IOL dislocation operated on between January 2015 and May 2017 were included in this retrospective non-comparative consecutive case series study. Read More
Virusdisease 2018 Dec 1;29(4):468-477. Epub 2018 Sep 1.
1Transfusion Transmitted Diseases Department, National Institute of Immunohaematology, 13th floor, New Multi-storeyed Bldg, KEM Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai, 400 012 India.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is mostly detected in advanced stage. Hence, its early detection is of paramount importance using a biomarker having sensitivity and specificity both. The present study highlights differentially expressed host proteins in response to HBV/HCV infection at different stages. Read More
Front Oncol 2018 27;8:543. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany.
The objective of this study was to obtain real-world information on gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist/antagonist (GnRHa) therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Anonymized, routine healthcare claims data from approx. 75 German statutory health insurance funds from 2010-2015 ( = 4,205,227) were analyzed. Read More
Open Vet J 2018 12;8(4):415-422. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of Biotechnology, Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore-524003 Andhrapradesh, India.
DNA is the prerequisite for life's inception that transfers hereditary information, past several years; various types of commercial kits are made available which vary depending on the type of the biological sample being used. The present study is focused on developing an improvised methodology for the isolation of genomic DNA from stored bovine blood samples. DNA was isolated by using the conventional Phenol: Chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol (PCI) method and Detergent method. Read More
Int J Hypertens 2018 12;2018:5492680. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of physiology, Addis Ababa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Background: Hypertension imposes stresses on many organs like heart and kidney. However, studies that show the effect of hypertension on the lungs are limited.
Objective: To assess pulmonary function status of hypertensive patients aged 30-64 years at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, 2017. Read More
J Ophthalmol 2018 14;2018:8620150. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Piazza Ospedale 1, 34129 Trieste, Italy.
Purpose: To compare the capsule edges ultrastructure obtained by two femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) platforms and manual continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Trieste, Italy.
Design: Experimental comparative study. Read More
J Ophthalmol 2018 12;2018:5376235. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Ophthalmology Department, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare visual acuity, refractive results, safety, and efficacy of TPRK with AAPRK as primary outcomes and surgical time, pain scores, haze levels, and healing time as secondary outcomes in TPRK and AAPRK groups.
Setting: Security Forces Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Design: Prospective, nonrandomized case-control comparative study. Read More
Lupus Sci Med 2018 21;5(1):e000293. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Immunology and Allergy, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Background: SLE is an autoimmune condition affecting predominantly women. Little is known regarding infection in women with SLE, which may drive autoimmunity and contribute to obstetrical and vascular complications.
Methods: This single-centre, case-control study set primary endpoint in the comparative seropositivity rate to major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and chlamydial heat-shock protein-60 (cHSP60) in age-matched subjects. Read More
Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 26;52(6):420-429. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
4Department of Radiology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare response evaluation criteria in solid tumours 1.1 (RECIST 1.1), positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST), European organisation for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC), and MD Anderson (MDA) criteria for response assessment by Gallium 68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (Ga68-PSMA PET-CT) in metastatic adenocarcinoma prostate cancer (mPCa) patients with biochemical progression. Read More
Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2847. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Microorganisms drive most of the major biogeochemical cycles in the ocean, but the rates at which individual species assimilate and transform key elements is generally poorly quantified. One of these important elements is nitrogen, with its availability limiting primary production across a large proportion of the ocean. Nitrogen uptake by marine microbes is typically quantified using bulk-scale approaches, such as Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS), which averages uptake over entire communities, masking microbial heterogeneity. Read More
Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2820. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and other animals and is caused by bacteria from the complex (MTBC). Previous studies have shown that there are at least nine members of the MTBC infecting animals other than humans; these have also been referred to as ecotypes. However, the ecology and the evolution of these animal-adapted MTBC ecotypes are poorly understood. Read More
Mediators Inflamm 2018 14;2018:1640180. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
1st Otorhinolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy.
Nasal cytology is a precious tool to study nasal disorders, but in current literature, there is no consensus on the standardization of the processing procedure of the obtained samples. Therefore, we decided to test on specimens obtained by nasal scraping, a common way of nasal specimen sampling, two different processing techniques, smear and cytocentrifugation, and compare them in terms of inflammatory cell content, quality of slides, and validity on clinical assessment. We analyzed 105 patients with suspected sinonasal diseases, and in each patient, we performed nasal cytology with both techniques. Read More
Sarcoma 2018 13;2018:4065846. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.
Orthopedic oncologic surgery requires preservation of a functioning limb at the essence of achieving safe margins. With most bone sarcomas arising from the metaphyseal region, in close proximity to joints, joint-salvage surgery can be challenging. Intraoperative guidance techniques like computer-assisted surgery (CAS) and patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) could assist in achieving higher surgical accuracy. Read More
Cancer Manag Res 2018 22;10:6017-6028. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Oncology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China,
Background: Combined chemotherapy is the cornerstone treatment for patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The objective of our study was to perform a network meta-analysis of the efficacy of different chemotherapy regimens in adults with advanced-stage HL.
Materials And Methods: We searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in titles/abstracts in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Read More
Infect Drug Resist 2018 21;11:2335-2344. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden,
Purpose: To further analyze a clinical isolate originally identified as methicillin-resistant (MRSA) using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics.
Materials And Methods: Classical diagnostic methods such as cultivation, biochemical tests, and PCR were supplemented with whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics, to identify the isolate.
Results: The isolate was phenotypically similar to MRSA. Read More
Clin Interv Aging 2018 19;13:2375-2387. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa,
Background: The Beers Criteria were developed with the aim of improving the safety of medicines among older persons. While the association between the Beers' list of potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among older Caucasians is contentious, the ability of the Criteria to predict ADRs among older persons in Africa remains unexplored.
Objectives: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of PIMs and ADRs among hospitalized older persons in Nigeria and South Africa, and to determine the association between the 2015 American Geriatrics Society-Beers (AGS-Beers) PIMs and ADRs. Read More