94,285 results match your criteria Communication Disorders


Characterization and Prediction of Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Autism Center, Department of Pediatrics, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 70300, Zerifin, Israel.

Anxiety is one of the most common comorbidities in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study's aims were: To examine the frequency of elevated anxiety symptoms in adolescents diagnosed with ASD in toddlerhood; To explore the impact of comorbid anxiety in adolescents on clinical presentation; To evaluate variables in toddlerhood that associate with anxiety symptom severity in adolescence. The study included 61 adolescents (mean age = 13:8y) diagnosed with ASD in toddlerhood (T1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00673-0DOI Listing

Aging, Vestibular Function, and Balance: Proceedings of a National Institute on Aging/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Workshop.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Balance impairment and falls are among the most prevalent and morbid conditions affecting older adults. A critical contributor to balance and gait function is the vestibular system; however, there remain substantial knowledge gaps regarding age-related vestibular loss and its contribution to balance impairment and falls in older adults. Given these knowledge gaps, the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders convened a multidisciplinary workshop in April 2019 that brought together experts from a wide array of disciplines, such as vestibular physiology, neuroscience, movement science, rehabilitation, and geriatrics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa097DOI Listing

Of logos and men: semantic memory impairment for unique entities in a case of semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia.

Neurocase 2020 Jul 2:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University , Montreal, Canada.

In this study, an individual (NG) with the semantic varient of primary progressive aphasis (svPPA) was assessed with tasks designed to investigate the recognition and activation of semantic knowledge about unique entities. NG had significant difficulties in the recognition of brand names and famous names but was largely unimpaired in the recognition of logos and famous faces. However, she was impaired in tasks requiring the activation of semantic representations of logos, brand names, famous faces, and famous names. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2020.1772311DOI Listing

The Effect of Pitch Auditory Feedback Perturbations on the Production of Anticipatory Phrasal Prominence and Boundary.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 Jul 2:1-17. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Purpose In this study, we investigated how the direction and timing of a perturbation in voice pitch auditory feedback during phrasal production modulated the magnitude and latency of the pitch-shift reflex as well as the scaling of acoustic production of anticipatory intonation targets for phrasal prominence and boundary. Method Brief pitch auditory feedback perturbations (±200 cents for 200-ms duration) were applied during the production of a target phrase on the first or the second word of the phrase. To replicate previous work, we first measured the magnitude and latency of the pitch-shift reflex as a function of the direction and timing of the perturbation within the phrase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00043DOI Listing

Short report: Social communication difficulties and restricted repetitive behaviors as predictors of anxiety in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2020 Jul 2:1362361320934218. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder and anxiety are highly comorbid conditions. Understanding the underlying traits of anxiety in autism spectrum disorder is crucial to prevent and treat it efficiently. Hence, this study determined whether social communication difficulties or restricted repetitive behaviors are stronger risk factors for anxiety symptoms in autistic adults in a large cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320934218DOI Listing

Unwitting Accomplices: Endocrine Disruptors Confounding Clinical Care.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Burgeoning evidence over the last 25 years has identified myriad synthetic chemicals with the capacity to alter various aspects of hormone synthesis and action. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been linked to various diseases, including reproductive disorders, metabolic diseases, and developmental abnormalities among others. Exposure to EDCs arises from industrial activity, use of personal and home care products, and consumption of contaminated food and water; however, the role of healthcare in exposing individuals to EDCs is grossly underappreciated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa358DOI Listing

[Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness].

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2020 Jul;48(4):289-302

Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Klinische Neuropsychologie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen.

Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness Previous studies reported increased rates of autistic symptoms in children with impaired visual abilities (IV). However, the application of existing screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) proved problematic, as intact visual abilities are typically required. The current study examines the general applicability of three autism-screening questionnaires in children with congenital blindness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1422-4917/a000738DOI Listing

Role of Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Emergence of Brain Histaminergic System. Lessons Also for BPSD?

Front Pharmacol 2020 16;11:886. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Many behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) share similarities in executive functioning and communication deficits with those described in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy, schizophrenia (SCH), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Numerous studies over the last four decades have documented altered neuroinflammation among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that central histamine (HA) plays a significant role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes of microglia functions in numerous neuropsychiatric diseases, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309953PMC

Development of a Battery to Assess Perceptual-Motor, Cognition, Language, and Scholastic Skills among Bengali Children with Neuro Developmental Disorders.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):238-249. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Speech and Language Pathologist, Speech Plus, 69/T3 Prince Baktiar Shah Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: School failure or poor academic performance is often found in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD); however, there is a dearth of a comprehensive assessment tool to evaluate various underlying deficits, including perceptual-motor, cognitive, language, and scholastic skills of those who have NDD. The study aimed to develop a test to fill-up this gap.

Materials And Methods: The study followed three phases: the construction of an assessment battery in both Bengali and English languages, separately, incorporating tasks on perceptual-motor, cognitive, language, and scholastic skills; doing a pilot study, and finally, standardization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_198_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320737PMC

Sustainable workforce: South African Audiologists and Speech Therapists.

Hum Resour Health 2020 Jul 1;18(1):47. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Health Systems and Public Health, Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, 7505, South Africa.

Background: Audiologists and Speech Therapists play a vital role in addressing sustainable development goals by supporting people who are marginalised due to communication challenges. The global burden of disease and poor social living conditions impact negatively on the development of healthy communication, therefore requiring the services of Audiologist and Speech therapists. Against this background, we examined the demographic profile and the supply, need and shortfall of Audiologists and Speech Therapists in South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00488-6DOI Listing

Recognition of foreign-accented speech in noise: The interplay between talker intelligibility and linguistic structure.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Jun;147(6):3765

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

Foreign-accented speech recognition is typically tested with linguistically simple materials, which offer a limited window into realistic speech processing. The present study examined the relationship between linguistic structure and talker intelligibility in several sentence-in-noise recognition experiments. Listeners transcribed simple/short and more complex/longer sentences embedded in noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001194DOI Listing

Down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin 43 expression by bisphenol A in human granulosa cells.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kuo General Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is the transfer of ions, metabolites and second messengers between neighboring cells through intercellular junctions. Connexin 43 (Cx43) was found to be the type of gap junction protein responsible for human granulosa cells (GCs) and oocyte communication, which is required for folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic-like endocrine-disrupting chemical, is one of the most widely produced chemicals around the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1979DOI Listing

Cognitive-Linguistic Functions in Adults With Epilepsy: Preliminary Electrophysiological and Behavioral Findings.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 Jul 1:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Purpose Cognition and language difficulties are frequently reported in both children and adults with epilepsy. The majority of the existing research has focused on pediatric epilepsy, documenting impairments in learning, academics, and social-emotional functioning. In comparison, language deficits in younger and older adults with epilepsy have received less empirical attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00351DOI Listing

Efferent Synaptic Transmission at the Vestibular Type II Hair Cell Synapse.

J Neurophysiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, United States.

In the vestibular peripheral organs, type I and type II hair cells (HCs) transmit incoming signals via glutamatergic quantal transmission onto afferent nerve fibers. Additionally, type I HCs transmit via 'non-quantal' transmission to calyx afferent fibers, by accumulation of glutamate and potassium in the synaptic cleft. Vestibular efferent inputs originating in the brainstem contact type II HCs and vestibular afferents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00143.2020DOI Listing

A randomised clinical pilot trial to test the effectiveness of parent training with video modelling to improve functioning and symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Social Cognition Clinic - TEAMM, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Poor eye contact and joint attention are early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and important prerequisites for developing other socio-communicative skills. Teaching parents evidence-based techniques to improve these skills can impact the overall functioning of children with ASD. We aimed to analyse the impact of conducting a group parent-training intervention with video modelling to improve the intelligent quotient (IQ), social and communication functioning and to minimise symptoms in children with ASD and intellectual disability (ID). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12759DOI Listing

Statistically Induced Chunking Recall: A Memory-Based Approach to Statistical Learning.

Cogn Sci 2020 Jul;44(7):e12848

Department of Psychology, Cornell University.

The computations involved in statistical learning have long been debated. Here, we build on work suggesting that a basic memory process, chunking, may account for the processing of statistical regularities into larger units. Drawing on methods from the memory literature, we developed a novel paradigm to test statistical learning by leveraging a robust phenomenon observed in serial recall tasks: that short-term memory is fundamentally shaped by long-term distributional learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12848DOI Listing

Distinct rhythmic abilities align with phonological awareness and rapid naming in school-age children.

Cogn Process 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

Difficulty in performing rhythmic tasks often co-occurs with literacy difficulties. Motivated by evidence showing that people can vary in their performance across different rhythmic tasks, we asked whether two rhythmic skills identified as distinct in school-age children and young adults would reveal similar or different relationships with two literacy skills known to be important for successful reading development. We addressed our question by focusing on 55 typically developing children (ages 5-8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-020-00984-6DOI Listing

Blast-induced hearing impairment in rats is associated with structural and molecular changes of the inner ear.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10652. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Blast-Induced Neurotrauma Branch, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Auditory dysfunction is the most prevalent injury associated with blast overpressure exposure (BOP) in Warfighters and civilians, yet little is known about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. To gain insights into these injuries, an advanced blast simulator was used to expose rats to BOP and assessments were made to identify structural and molecular changes in the middle/inner ears utilizing otoscopy, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and histopathological analysis. Deficits persisting up to 1 month after blast exposure were observed in the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and the auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) across the entire range of tested frequencies (4-40 kHz). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67389-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327022PMC

Evaluation of Awareness, Adherence, and Barriers of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Pregnant Women: A Cross-sectional Study.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shahid Beheshti Iran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Research, Mahdiyeh Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Adherence to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) may be enhanced when the women become aware of its preventive/therapeutic role in pelvic floor disorders.

Objective: This study is conducted to evaluate the PFMT awareness, adherence, and barriers in pregnant women.

Method: We studied the awareness, adherence, and barriers of PFMT in 200 pregnant women attended in prenatal care clinic in their third trimester of pregnancy using semistructured interviews with open and closed questions derived from recent literature review on PFMT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000852DOI Listing

Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Dynamics During Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Versus Hearing Adults.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 Jun 30:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Communication Disorders, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

Purpose Studies on reading in individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss (deaf) raise the possibility that, due to deficient phonological coding, deaf individuals may rely more on orthographic-semantic links than on orthographic-phonological links. However, the relative contribution of phonological and semantic information to visual word recognition in deaf individuals was not directly assessed in these studies. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the interplay between orthographic, phonological, and semantic representations during visual word recognition, in deaf versus hearing adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00285DOI Listing

Use of a Mild-Gain Hearing Aid by Middle-Age Normal-Hearing Adults Who Do and Do Not Self-Report Trouble Hearing in Background Noise.

Am J Audiol 2020 Jun 30:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, NY.

Purpose The aim of the study was to assess how the use of a mild-gain hearing aid can affect hearing handicap, motivation, and attitudes toward hearing aids for middle-age, normal-hearing adults who do and do not self-report trouble hearing in background noise. Method A total of 20 participants (45-60 years of age) with clinically normal-hearing thresholds (< 25 dB HL) were enrolled in this study. Ten self-reported difficulty hearing in background noise, and 10 did not self-report difficulty hearing in background noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJA-19-00051DOI Listing

Therapeutic application of extracellular vesicles for musculoskeletal repair & regeneration.

Connect Tissue Res 2020 Jun 30:1-16. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University , Augusta, GA, USA.

Traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are common in both the civilian and combat care settings. Significant barriers exist to repairing these injuries including fracture nonunion, muscle fibrosis, re-innervation, and compartment syndrome, as well as infection and inflammation. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have attracted attention in the field of musculoskeletal regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03008207.2020.1781102DOI Listing

Sleep problems worsen health-related quality of life and participation during the first 12 months of stroke rehabilitation.

Clin Rehabil 2020 Jun 30:269215520935940. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Objective: Evaluate the impact of self-reported sleep problems on post-stroke recovery.

Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) rehabilitation and recovery study (phase-III single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial). Group medians were compared for three sleep problem groups across three time points. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269215520935940DOI Listing

Implementation of health education interventions at Dutch music schools.

Health Promot Int 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229 ER, Postal Box 616, 6200 Maastricht, The Netherlands.

A randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing the effects of a biopsychosocial course (PRESTO-Play) vs. physical activity promotion (PRESTO-Fit) to reduce disability related to musculoskeletal disorders in music students. The current study provides an external validation and a formative and process evaluation, allowing for a better interpretation of results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daaa050DOI Listing

The North American mitochondrial disease registry.

J Transl Genet Genom 2020 28;4:81-90. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Aim: The North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) comprises a network of 17 clinical centers with a mission to conduct translational research on mitochondrial diseases. NAMDC is a part of the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. To foster its mission, NAMDC has implemented a comprehensive Mitochondrial Disease Clinical Registry (hereafter NAMDC Registry), collected biosamples deposited into the NAMDC Biorepository, defined phenotypes and genotypes of specific disorders, collected natural history data, identified outcome measures, characterized safety and long-term toxicity and efficacy of promising therapies, and trained young investigators interested in patient-oriented research in mitochondrial disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/jtgg.2020.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323997PMC

Psychological Stress and Vocal Symptoms Among University Professors in Israel: Implications of the Shift to Online Synchronous Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Voice 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Psychology, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Psychological stress may have an adverse impact on the voice. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between the change in levels of perceived psychological stress and vocal symptoms among Israeli academic college professors required to shift to synchronous online teaching during the global COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: An online questionnaire was completed by 313 professors (156 men and 157 women) from 14 academic colleges in Israel at the end of the first week of online synchronous teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was assumed to be the most burdened and stressful week of the transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2020.05.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274605PMC

Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Plovdiv. Bulgaria.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a severe childhood psychiatric condition with an array of cognitive, language and social impairments that can significantly impact on family life. ASD is classically characterized by reduced communication skills and social interactions, with limitations imposed by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The pathophysiology of ASD is thought to arise from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors within the context of individual development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666200628015039DOI Listing

Interaction between Mitochondrial DNA Variants and Mitochondria/Endoplasmic Reticulum Contact Sites: A Perspective Review.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), essential to support their fundamental intracellular role in ATP production and other key metabolic and homeostatic pathways. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that communicate with all the other cellular compartments, through sites of high physical proximity. Among all, their crosstalk with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) appears particularly important as its derangement is tightly implicated with several human disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.5614DOI Listing

Vestibular function after cochlear implantation: A test battery and case-by-case approach.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 4;5(3):560-571. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences Duke University School of Medicine Durham North Carolina USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of cochlear implantation on the functional integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal using multiple methodologies, and to discuss and highlight the limitations of using isolated vestibular tests to assess vestibular function in surgical ears.

Methods: Ten cochlear implant patients were consented to undergo a preoperative and 3-month postoperative vestibular assessment. The horizontal semicircular canal (SCC) was assessed using three different vestibular test measures that assess function using different stimuli and at different frequencies ranges: caloric testing, sinusoidal harmonic acceleration testing in the rotary chair, and video head impulse testing in the plane of the horizontal SCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314491PMC

Applications of single-cell sequencing for the field of otolaryngology: A contemporary review.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 27;5(3):404-431. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Division of Intramural Research, Section on Auditory Development and Restoration, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Otolaryngology Surgeon-Scientist Program National Institutes of Health Bethesda Maryland USA.

Objectives: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) is a new technique used to interrogate the transcriptome of individual cells within native tissues that have already resulted in key discoveries in auditory basic science research. Rapid advances in scRNA-Seq make it likely that it will soon be translated into clinical medicine. The goal of this review is to inspire the use of scRNA-Seq in otolaryngology by giving examples of how it can be applied to patient samples and how this information can be used clinically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314468PMC

Prevalence and comorbidity of the ICD-11 and DSM-5 for PTSD caseness with previous diagnostic manuals among the Japanese population.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2020 19;11(1):1753938. Epub 2020 May 19.

National Center for Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Research, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

: The diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differ between DSM-5 and ICD-11, which may affect the estimation of prevalence. : To investigate the concordance of ICD-11 and DSM-5, as compared to ICD-10 and DSM-IV, regarding PTSD caseness among Japanese people who had experienced different potentially traumatic events. In addition, we estimated the comorbidity with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder according to these four diagnostic manuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2020.1753938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301694PMC

Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Muscle Larvae Ameliorate TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice.

Front Immunol 2020 11;11:1174. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Helminths are masters at modulating the host immune response through a wide variety of versatile mechanisms. These complex strategies facilitate parasite survival in the host and can also be exploited to prevent chronic immune disorders by minimizing excessive inflammation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound structures secreted by helminths which mediate immune evasion during parasite infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300183PMC

Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular vesicles: promising immunomodulators against autoimmune, autoinflammatory disorders and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Turk J Biol 2020 21;44(3):273-282. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Therapeutic Oligodeoxynucleotide Research Laboratory (THORLAB), Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, Ankara Turkey.

Discovery of novel and broad-acting immunomodulators is of critical importance for the prevention and treatment of disorders occurring due to overexuberant immune responseincluding SARS-CoV-2 triggered cytokine storm leading to lung pathology and mortality during the ongoing viral pandemic. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), highly regarded for their regenerative capacities, also possessesremarkable immunoregulatory functions affecting all types of innate and adaptive immune cells. Owing to that, MSCs have been heavily investigated in clinic for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases along with transplant rejection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/biy-2002-79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314505PMC

Factors associated with enrollment into a clinical trial of caregiver-implemented intervention for infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2020 Jun 29:1362361320928829. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Florida State University, USA.

Lay Abstract: Early intervention helps to address developmental delays in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Yet, research suggests there are barriers to enrollment into research studies that test the effectiveness of these interventions for infants at risk. This study identifies family characteristics that were associated with agreement to enroll in a clinical trial of early intervention for 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320928829DOI Listing

Prevalence of Tinnitus and Association with Self-Rated Health among Military Personnel Injured on Combat Deployment.

Mil Med 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Medical Modeling, Simulation, and Mission Support Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA 92106.

Introduction: Tinnitus is an auditory problem frequently reported by military personnel and is currently responsible for 1 billion dollars annually in disability compensation. Recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan saw high levels of combat exposure coupled with a surge in blast weaponry, both of which can adversely affect hearing. The present study explored the prevalence of tinnitus and the association with self-rated health among military personnel injured during combat deployment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa103DOI Listing

Content and functionality features of voiding diary applications for mobile devices in Brazil: a descriptive analysis.

Int Urogynecol J 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Physiotherapy, Communication Sciences & Disorders and Occupational Therapy. Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Cipotânea, 51 - Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, ZIP Code: 05360-000, Brazil.

Introduction And Hypothesis: A voiding diary is a method to investigate lower urinary tract symptoms. The purpose was to elaborate a descriptive analysis of nonpaid voiding diaries for mobile applications and to compare them regarding their quality.

Methods: We searched the platforms of iTunes (Apple Inc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-020-04382-6DOI Listing

Nonverbal Intelligence Predicts Performance of Preschool Children With Hearing Loss on Norm-Referenced Language Measures But Not Language Sample Analysis.

Ear Hear 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of nonverbal intelligence on spoken language performance in children with hearing loss who use amplification and spoken language. Specifically, we compared language performance measured by norm-referenced measures compared with spontaneous language sample measures.

Design: Nonverbal intelligence and spoken language skills were analyzed using norm-referenced nonverbal intelligence and language assessments and language sample analyses in 92 children ages 3 to 6 who varied by hearing and nonverbal intelligence status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000897DOI Listing

Interventions in Post-Intensive Care Syndrome-Family: A Systematic Literature Review.

Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: Data show that family members of ICU patients may have high levels of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorders, and/or complicated grief. This was previously referred to as post-intensive care syndrome-family. We systematically review randomized controlled trials for post-intensive care syndrome-family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004450DOI Listing

SnapShot: Jak-STAT Signaling II.

Cell 2020 Jun;181(7):1696-1696.e1

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The JAK-STAT pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction paradigm, providing mechanisms for rapid receptor-to-nucleus communication and transcription control. Discoveries in this field provided insights into primary immunodeficiencies, inherited autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, and hematologic and oncologic disorders, giving rise to a new class of drugs, JAK inhibitors (or Jakinibs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.052DOI Listing

FARP-1 deletion is associated with lack of response to autism treatment by early start denver model in a multiplex family.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Jun 25:e1373. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Interdepartmental Program "Autism 0-90", "G. Martino" University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display impressive clinical heterogeneity, also involving treatment response. Genetic variants can contribute to explain this large interindividual phenotypic variability.

Methods: Array-CGH (a-CGH) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on a multiplex family with two small children diagnosed with ASD at 17 and 18 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1373DOI Listing

Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury- a clinical study.

Cell Regen (Lond) 2020 Jun 2;9(1). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Regenerative Laboratory Services, NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, Plot 19, Sector 40, Next to Seawood Grand Central Station [W], Off Palm Beach Road, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, 400706, India.

Background: Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of longterm disability worldwide. Cell transplantation has gained attention as a prospective therapeutic option for neurotraumatic disorders like TBI. The postulated mechanism of cell transplantation which includes angiogenesis, axonal regeneration, neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling, may tackle the pathology of chronic TBI and improve overall functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13619-020-00043-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306831PMC

Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Mouse Brain Morphological and Histopathological Profiling.

J Vet Res 2020 Jun 8;64(2):319-324. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-44307, Kaunas, Lithaunia.

Introduction: Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350-1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305646PMC

Non-coding RNAs in neuropathic pain.

Neuronal Signal 2020 Apr 23;4(1):NS20190099. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain in general, and members of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) family, specifically the short, 22 nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as master switches orchestrating both immune as well as neuronal processes. Several chronic disorders reveal unique ncRNA expression signatures, which recently generated big hopes for new perspectives for the development of diagnostic applications. lncRNAs may offer perspectives as candidates indicative of neuropathic pain in liquid biopsies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/NS20190099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306520PMC

Predictability modulates neurocognitive semantic processing of non-verbal narratives.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 25;10(1):10326. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Communication and Cognition, Tilburg School of Humanities and Digital Sciences, Tilburg Center for Cognition and Communication (TiCC), Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Predictability is known to modulate semantic processing in language, but it is unclear to what extent this applies for other modalities. Here we ask whether similar cognitive processes are at play in predicting upcoming events in a non-verbal visual narrative. Typically developing adults viewed comics sequences in which a target panel was highly predictable ("high cloze"), less predictable ("low cloze"), or incongruent with the preceding narrative context ("anomalous") during EEG recording. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66814-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316725PMC

Resting-state connectivity and network parameter analysis in alcohol-dependent males. A simultaneous EEG-MEG study.

J Neurosci Res 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

12 de Octubre Biomedical Research Institute, Madrid, Spain.

There is supporting evidence of alcohol negative effects on the brain: neuroimaging and psychophysiological studies finding anatomical and functional connectivity (FC) changes associated with the dependence process. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate brain FC and network characteristics of alcohol-dependent individuals in resting state. For this study, we included males diagnosed with alcohol dependence (N = 25) and a group of healthy individuals (N = 23). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24673DOI Listing

Autonomy and the Patient with Right Hemisphere Cognitive-Communication Deficits: Ethical Considerations in Rehabilitation Practice.

Semin Speech Lang 2020 Jun 25;41(3):232-240. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Think and SpeakLab, Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, Illinois.

Clinicians must often contend with ethical issues that arise during rehabilitation. When a patient has right hemisphere damage (RHD), these concerns may be exacerbated because of the presence of cognitive deficits. In this article, we focus on the ethical principle of respect for autonomy, which raises issues relevant to patients with RHD who have impaired executive control functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1710324DOI Listing

Moral Features of the Therapeutic Relationship with Adults: Dignity, Trust, Autonomy, Vulnerability, and Resilience.

Authors:
Jennifer Horner

Semin Speech Lang 2020 Jun 25;41(3):212-220. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

College of Health Sciences and Professions, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Using dignity as a foundational value of morality, this article defines trust, autonomy, vulnerability, and resilience in relational terms. A fictional narrative illustrates these attributes as well as solidarity and care, two core tenets of relational ethics. Medicine and rehabilitation are described as moral enterprises with at the core of our professional obligations to patients-namely, duties of care, trustworthiness, and loyalty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709203DOI Listing

Moral and Ethical Considerations….

Authors:
Kevin P Kearns

Semin Speech Lang 2020 Jun 25;41(3):209-211. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Communication Disorders and Sciences, SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1710325DOI Listing

Partner-Specific Communication Deficits in Individuals With Alzheimer's Disease.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 Jun 25:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Purpose Speakers adjust referential expressions to the listeners' knowledge while communicating, a phenomenon called "audience design." While individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show difficulties in discourse production, it is unclear whether they exhibit preserved partner-specific audience design. The current study examined if individuals with AD demonstrate partner-specific audience design skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00094DOI Listing