256,967 results match your criteria Colonic Polyps
J Gastrointest Cancer 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Medical Oncology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
Background: Adhesions and infiltration into adjacent tissues are present in about 12% of gastrointestinal (GIT) cancers. These adhesions have high potential risk of malignancy. Free resection margin is a predictor of good survival in such patients. Read More
Cureus 2018 Oct 9;10(10):e3432. Epub 2018 Oct 9.
Otolaryngology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, IND.
Cecal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of smooth muscle arising from the colonic muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria. They are usually asymptomatic in nature and, if symptomatic, may present as pain in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding. In some cases, leiomyoma can cause free perforation leading to peritonitis. Read More
Cureus 2018 Oct 9;10(10):e3430. Epub 2018 Oct 9.
Colorectal Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, AUS.
This report is of a rare case involving a 27-year-old female who presented to the hospital with the pathological couplet of colocolic intussusception and cecal bascule causing bowel obstruction. Up to the time of presentation to the hospital, this patient had not undergone a full investigation for a known iron deficiency, anemia. Subsequently, during the emergency admission and after having an operative surgical procedure, the patient was found to have both a congenitally malpositioned cecum and a benign colonic polyp-forming condition. Read More
Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 4;9(6):697-701. Epub 2018 Oct 4.
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
The present study aimed to clarify the risk factors for recurrence of stage II colon cancer in patients and to determine possible treatment options for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. A prediction model for recurrence in patients with stage II colon cancer after curative surgical resection was developed. The present study retrospectively investigated 436 patients who underwent curative resection for stage II colon cancer at Osaka International Cancer Institute and Yao Municipal Hospital between 2004 and 2012. Read More
Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 5;9(6):661-665. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo 113-0021, Japan.
Primary gastric undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a rare disease with insufficient long-term follow-up data. In the present study, a 70-year-old male complained of abdominal fullness and visited our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the upper part of the stomach, which was accompanied by smaller tumors in the small intestinal mesentery. Read More
Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 5;9(6):587-591. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Department of Surgical Oncology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.
Pathological complete response is achievable with mFOLFOX6 plus cetuximab therapy for unresectable colorectal cancer with multiple paraaortic lymph node metastases (mCRC) despite right-sided colonic origin. A 62-year-old woman with synchronous paraaortic lymph node metastases of transverse colon cancer was treated with mFOLFOX6 plus cetuximab as first-line therapy. The tumor size was markedly decreased following 6 courses of chemotherapy, and all lymph node metastases had disappeared. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36166-36184. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Bioscience, Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
As we learn more about how immune responses occur , it is becoming clear that each organ/tissue is characterized with its own anatomy and microenvironment which may affect and even determine the outcome of the immune responses. With emerging data from animal studies showing that regulatory T cells infiltrating non-lymphoid tissues exhibit unique phenotypes and transcriptional signatures and display functions beyond their well-established suppressive roles, there is an urgent need to explore the function of tissue Treg cells in humans. Here we characterized the transcriptome of Treg residing at the human mucosal tissue obtained from the normal area of cancer resections and their peripheral blood counterparts, identifying human lung and colon tissue Treg signature genes and their upstream regulators. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36102-36109. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Emory Institute for Drug Development, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Synthetic monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs) are cytotoxic against several cancers including head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Mechanisms of action include depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of NF-κB, leading to apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that UBS109 (MAC), has preventive effects on bone loss induced by breast cancer cell lines. Read More
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 28;16(6):7264-7270. Epub 2018 Sep 28.
Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama 224-8503, Japan.
With recent advances in endoscopic treatment, many T1 colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are resected endoscopically with a negative margin. However, some lesions exhibit skip lymphovascular invasion (SLVI), which is defined as the discontinuous foci of the tumor cells within the colon wall. The aim of the present study was to reveal the clinicopathological features of T1 CRCs with SLVI and validate the Japanese guidelines regarding SLVI. Read More
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 28;16(6):7175-7179. Epub 2018 Sep 28.
Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, P.R. China.
This study investigated the role of miR-214 in modulating proliferation and invasion of human colon cancer SW620 cells. Fifty-five patients with colon cancer who were treated in China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from March 2014 to March 2015 were enrolled into this study. Their cancer and corresponding paracancerous tissues were collected and the expression levels of miR-214 were determined by RT-qPCR. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 28;16(6):4824-4830. Epub 2018 Sep 28.
Department of Nursing, Chenzhou No. 1 People's Hospital, Chenzhou, Hunan 423000, P.R. China.
A previous study implied that long intergenic non-coding RNA 1410 (LINC01410) promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. However, the role of LINC01410 in colon cancer (CC) has remained elusive. In the present study, LINC01410 was identified to be highly expressed in CC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4445-4456. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, P.R. China.
Food allergy prevalence has steadily increased worldwide over the past decades and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are gaining attention. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) exhibit similar immune regulatory properties to bone marrow-derived MSCs. hUC-MCSs can be prepared with fewer ethical constraints and are potential candidates for allergic disorder therapies. Read More
Pathologica 2018 Sep;110(2):111-115
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies, G.F. Ingrassia, Anatomic Pathology, Policlinico Universitario-Vittorio Emanuele, University of Catania, Italy.
Perineurioma is a relatively rare benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of cells resembling to normal perineurium. Although this tumor may arise in the context of a nerve (intraneural perineurioma), extraneural perineurioma does occur, frequently involving the soft tissues of the lower and upper extremities, trunk and head and neck. Rarely it has also been reported in visceral organs, including gastrointestinal tract. Read More
Am J Case Rep 2018 Dec 14;19:1488-1494. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Digestive Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan.
BACKGROUND Colostomy creation via intraperitoneal route is often performed during laparoscopic Hartmann's operation or abdominoperineal resection (APR). Herein, we report 3 rare cases of internal hernia associated with colostomy (IHAC). CASE REPORT The first case involved a 70-year-old man with IHAC after laparoscopic APR. Read More
Lancet Oncol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
Background: Survival from colorectal cancer has been shown to be lower in Denmark and England than in comparable high-income countries. We used data from national colorectal cancer registries to assess whether differences in the proportion of patients receiving resectional surgery could contribute to international differences in colorectal cancer survival.
Methods: In this population-based study, we collected data from all patients aged 18-99 years diagnosed with primary, invasive, colorectal adenocarcinoma from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, in Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden, from national colorectal cancer registries. Read More
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Physiology and Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:
Gut-derived 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is well known for its role in mediating colonic motility function. However, it is not very clear whether brain-derived 5-HT is involved in the regulation of colonic motility. In this study, we used central 5-HT knockout (KO) mice to investigate whether brain-derived 5-HT mediates colonic motility, and if so, whether it involves oxytocin (OT) production in the hypothalamus and OT receptor in the colon. Read More
Comp Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Here we characterized the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute colitis. Specifically, we evaluated azithromycinand metronidazole treatment regimens to assess their effects on animal wellbeing, pathologic changes, barrier function,cytokine and chemokine profiles, and neutrophil migration in colon tissue. Azithromycin treatment significantly reduced theseverity of colitis, as assessed through body weight change, water consumption, macroscopic lesions, and animal behaviors(activity level, climbing, and grooming), but did not alter food consumption or feeding behavior. Read More
Nutr Hosp 2018 Apr 3;0(0):18-26. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
Set of resident microorganisms in our body that are responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of health is named microbiota. The microbiota´s role is protective, trophic and metabolic. Different groups of microbiota intestinal name enterotypes, each one of them are in relation to specific dietary habits. Read More
Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Dec 14;111. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol.
Background: the aim of this study was to analyze the clinical results of the multidisciplinary management of elderly patients with colorectal cancer in a single center and to describe postoperative quality of life.
Methods: a comparative study was designed to compare the results and quality of life of patients treated in our center for colon cancer, aged from 80 to 84 years (study group) compared to a control group (aged form 75 to 79 years of age). Morbidity, mortality, oncological results and quality of life were analyzed. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 12;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biophysics and Pharmacology, Biosciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970, Brazil.
Inflammatory bowel disease is triggered by an uncontrolled immune response associated with genetic, environmental, and intestinal microbiota imbalance. Ipomoea asarifolia (IA), popularly known as "salsa" or "brave salsa", belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. The aim of this approach was to study the preventive effect of IA aqueous extract in 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Read More
Noncoding RNA 2018 Dec 12;4(4). Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged into exosomes to provide intercellular communication by the transmission of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to cells locally or systemically. Read More
Diseases 2018 Dec 11;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC) in both animal models and human studies. It is now generally accepted that bacteria are ubiquitous colonizers of all exposed human body surfaces, including the entire alimentary tract (5). Recently, the concept that a normal bacterial microbiota is essential for the development of inflammation-induced carcinoma has emerged from studies of well-known colonic bacterial microbiota. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 9;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
The p38 MAPK pathway is known to influence the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutics, including that of organometallic drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated the important role of p38 both as a regulator and a sensor of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Investigating the anti-cancer properties of novel 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives containing Rh(I) and Ru(II) -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, we observed a profound induction of ROS by the complexes, which is most likely generated from mitochondria (mtROS). Read More
Cells 2018 Dec 10;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Cancer Research Center and Translational Laboratory, Department of Medical Research, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly increased in recent decades, and this disease has become an important health issue worldwide. Currently, there is no useful prognostic or diagnostic biomarker for CRC. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a chaperone that interacts with many proteins. Read More
Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Dec 10;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Division of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Abor, MI 48109, USA.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, but despite advances in treatment, it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Prevention may, therefore, be a key strategy in reducing colorectal cancer deaths. Given reports of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption with colorectal cancer risk, there has been significant interest in understanding the metabolism and bioactivity of flavonoids, which are highly abundant in fruits and vegetables and account for their pigmentation. Read More
Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Region 2, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ 08837-3679, USA.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is involved in the discovery, evaluation, and application of low-cost air quality (AQ) sensors to support citizen scientists by directly engaging with them in the pursuit of community-based interests. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13532
Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School.
Rationale: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe and effective local treatment modality with a low complication rate and is commonly used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical outcome of RFA may be closely related to the location, size, and shape of index tumors, and major complications, including hemorrhage, liver abscess, infarction, visceral organ perforation, hemothorax, pneumothorax, tumoral seeding, and hepatic failure. Cardiac tamponade is a rare and serious life-threatening complication associated with RFA. Read More
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Gastro-Intestinal Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Objectives: After oesophagectomy, stomach grafts are most frequently used to restore intestinal continuity. Less frequently, a colonic graft is used. There is quite a large body of literature addressing the functional outcome after gastric pull-up, but little is known about the functional results of colonic interposition (CI). Read More
Eur Surg Res 2018 Dec 13;59(5-6):371-379. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
The progression of colon cancer (CC) involves hematogenous and lymphatic spread to locoregional lymph nodes (LN), distant LN, and metastatic sites including the liver. The biological mechanisms that govern CC progression remain elusive. The Halsted model assumes an orderly, stepwise progression from the primary tumor to nearby nodes, henceforth to anatomically more distant nodes, and ultimately to distant organs. Read More
Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 10;67:129-137. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Jiang Su Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:
Gallic acid (GA), as an active component, has been found in many fruits and plants, and it exhibits potential protective effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer. However, the effects of GA on ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GA on IL-1β-induced HIEC-6 cells and TNBS-induced UC in mice. Read More
Eur J Cancer 2018 Dec 10;107:53-59. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Epidemiology and Evaluation Department, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain; REDISSEC (Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network), Madrid, Spain.
Introduction: Increased values in the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are correlated with increasingly severe colorectal neoplasia, but little attention has been given to FIT values below the cut-off point (negative FIT, nFIT). We analysed the relationship between the concentrations of two consecutive nFIT and the risk of following screen-detected advanced neoplasia and interval cancer (IC) in a population-based colorectal cancer screening program.
Methods: FIT results were categorised into non-detectable nFIT (0-3. Read More
Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Institute for Biotechnology, Faculty of Environment and Natural Sciences, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Universitätsplatz 1, 01968 Senftenberg, Germany. Electronic address:
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily increasing. IBD is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is classified into the two main groups Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Genetic predispositions, environmental factors and a dysregulated immune response are known to part take in the onset of IBD. Read More
J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110 Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Oils and extracts of Eugenia uniflora have been reported as antimicrobial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and cytotoxic.
Aim Of The Study: The oils of five specimens (E1 to E5) that occur in the Brazilian Amazon were extracted, analyzed for their chemical composition, and submitted to antioxidant and cytotoxic assays.
Material And Methods: Oils were hydrodistilled, analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and submitted to PCA and HCA analyses. Read More
J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec 13:JOP1800315. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.
Purpose:: A shift in outpatient oncology care from the physician's office to hospital outpatient settings has generated interest in the effect of practice setting on outcomes. Our objective was to examine whether medical oncologists' prescribing of drugs and services for older adult patients with advanced cancer is used more in physicians' offices compared with hospital outpatient departments.
Methods:: This was a retrospective comparative study. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208750. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an inflammatory maker, and high PLR is associated with mortality in several diseases. The predictors of mortality in individuals with high PLR is still lacking. Our aims were to assess if mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) can predict all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with high PLR. Read More
Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Neonatology, Sydney Medical School Nepean, The University of Sydney, Kingswood, NSW, Australia.
Background: Obstetric anal sphincter injury is the primary modifiable risk factor for anal incontinence in women. Currently, endoanal ultrasound is most commonly used to detect residual anal sphincter defects after childbirth. Translabial ultrasound has recently been introduced as a noninvasive alternative. Read More
Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Background: Prolonged postoperative ileus is a common major complication after abdominal surgery. Retrospective data suggest that ileus doubles the cost of inpatient stay. However, current economic impact data are based on retrospective studies that rely on clinical coding to diagnose ileus. Read More
Histol Histopathol 2018 Dec 13:18074. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a frequent, but potentially life-threatening condition. Although much has been learned about its pathophysiology from animal IR models, the translation to the human setting is imperative for better understanding of its etiology. This could provide us with new insight into development of early detection and potential new therapeutic strategies. Read More
Elife 2018 Dec 13;7. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Center for Genomics and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, United States.
Inflammation often induces regeneration to repair the tissue damage. However, chronic inflammation can transform temporary hyperplasia into a fertile ground for tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA acts as a central safeguard to protect the inflammatory stem cell niche and reparative regeneration. Read More
World J Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
Background: The present study is to set up a standardized approach for complete mobilization of colonic splenic flexure using da Vinci Xi robotic system, based on clarification of the mesenteric structures of distal transverse colon.
Methods: The surgical outcomes and relevant anatomic structures of 104 consecutive patients undergoing robotic resection of primary colorectal cancer with the intent of complete mobilization of colonic splenic flexure using da Vinci Xi robotic system were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: Complete mobilization of colonic splenic flexure can be efficiently performed by the Xi robotic system, as demonstrated by short operation time, minimal intra-operative blood loss, and few surgical complications. Read More
Tech Coloproctol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Surgery, Ålborg University Hospital, Ålborg, Denmark.
Background: The aim of the present multicenter study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative morbidity in patients who had colorectal resection for colonic Crohn's disease.
Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing colorectal resection for colonic Crohn's disease at seven surgical units in 1992-2017 were included. Exclusion criteria were: proctectomy for perianal disease, surgery for cancer, previous colectomies, surgery before 1998. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1907:91-102
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
The tissue engineering method of decellularization and recellularization has been successfully used in a variety of regenerative medicine applications. The protocols used to de/recellularize various organs and tissues are largely different. Here we describe a method to effectively engineer a bioartificial colon by completely removing original cells from human intestinal tissues followed by repopulating the acellular tissue matrix with cell cultures. Read More
Updates Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
The median overall survival of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients is still approximately 2 years. This is even lower in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with concomitant lung metastases. These patients are often not suitable for surgery and not responsive to systemic chemotherapy. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):35891-35906. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden 67405, France.
Vaccinia virus, a member of the family, has been extensively used as an oncolytic agent and has entered late stage clinical development. In this study, we evaluated the potential oncolytic properties of other members of the family. Numerous tumor cell lines were infected with ten non-vaccinia poxviruses to identify which virus displayed the most potential as an oncolytic agent. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 12;16(6):5350-5358. Epub 2018 Oct 12.
Tianjin Institute of Integrative Medicine for Acute Abdominal Diseases, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin 300100, P.R. China.
The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment limits the application of adoptive immunotherapy for solid tumors. Hypoxia is closely associated with the formation of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional activator that drives the transcription of several immunosuppressive molecules. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2764. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Macrophages are pivotal in coordinating a range of important processes in the intestines, including controlling intracellular infections and limiting damaging inflammation against the microbiota. However, it is not clear how gut macrophages, relative to recruited blood monocytes and other myeloid cells, contribute to the intestinal inflammatory milieu, nor how macrophages and their monocyte precursors mediate recruitment of other immune cells to the inflamed intestine. Myeloid cell populations isolated from colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or murine dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced colitis were assessed using flow cytometry and compared to healthy controls. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17780. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Molecular Biology and The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå, Sweden.
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), a protein toxin produced by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, activates the Rho-family small GTPases in eukaryotic cell, thereby perturbing multiple cellular functions. Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests a link between CNF1 and human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. At the cellular level, CNF1 has been hypothesized to reprogram cell fate towards survival due to the role in perturbing cell cycle and apoptosis. Read More
Mucosal Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U995-LIRIC-Lille Inflammation Research International Center, F-59000, Lille, France.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestinal tract. IBD are believed to result from an inappropriate immune response against the intestinal flora in genetically predisposed patients. The precise etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, therefore treatments rely on the dampening of symptoms, essentially inflammation, rather than on the cure of the disease. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Shanghai Institute of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025 Shanghai, China;
Dendritic cells (DCs) play pivotal roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, but how the DCs regulate diverse immune networks on homeostasis breakdown remains largely unknown. Here, we report that, in response to epithelial barrier disruption, colonic DCs regulate the differentiation of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells through p38α-dependent IL-27 production to initiate an effective immune response. Deletion of p38α in DCs, but not in T cells, led to increased Tr1 and protected mice from dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis and chronic colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Read More
J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) Unit F100, Heidelberg, Germany
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the oropharynx but surprisingly frequently induces B-cell proliferations in the gut of immunosuppressed individuals. We found that EBV infection induces the expression of the LPAM-1 integrin on tonsillar B cells and increases it on peripheral blood cells. Similarly, LPAM-1 was induced in the tonsils of patients undergoing primary infectious mononucleosis. Read More