724 results match your criteria Cognitive Psychology [Journal]


Do modals identify better models? A comparison of signal detection and probabilistic models of inductive reasoning.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Apr 8;112:1-24. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

US Naval Research Laboratory, United States.

The nature of the relationship between deductive and inductive reasoning is a hotly debated topic. A key question is whether there is a single dimension of evidence underlying both deductive and inductive judgments. Following Rips (2001), Rotello and Heit (2009) and Heit and Rotello (2010) implemented one- and two-dimensional models grounded in signal detection theory to assess predictions for receiver operating characteristic data (ROCs), and concluded in favor of the two-dimensional model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Sample size, number of categories and sampling assumptions: Exploring some differences between categorization and generalization.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Apr 1;111:80-102. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.

Categorization and generalization are fundamentally related inference problems. Yet leading computational models of categorization (as exemplified by, e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Variable time preference.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 27;111:53-79. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

University of Pennsylvania, United States.

We re-examine behavioral patterns of intertemporal choice with recognition that time preferences may be inherently variable, focusing in particular on the explanatory power of an exponential discounting model with variable discount factors - the variable exponential model. We provide analytical results showing that this model can generate systematically different choice patterns from an exponential discounting model with a fixed discount factor. The variable exponential model accounts for the common behavioral pattern of decreasing impatience, which is typically attributed to hyperbolic discounting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Language ERPs reflect learning through prediction error propagation.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 25;111:15-52. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Japan; ESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide a window into how the brain is processing language. Here, we propose a theory that argues that ERPs such as the N400 and P600 arise as side effects of an error-based learning mechanism that explains linguistic adaptation and language learning. We instantiated this theory in a connectionist model that can simulate data from three studies on the N400 (amplitude modulation by expectancy, contextual constraint, and sentence position), five studies on the P600 (agreement, tense, word category, subcategorization and garden-path sentences), and a study on the semantic P600 in role reversal anomalies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.03.002DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Looking for Mr(s) Right: Decision bias can prevent us from finding the most attractive face.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Feb 28;111:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom.

In realistic and challenging decision contexts, people may show biases that prevent them from choosing their favored options. For example, astronomer Johannes Kepler famously interviewed several candidate fiancées sequentially, but was rejected when attempting to return to a previous candidate. Similarly, we examined human performance on searches for attractive faces through fixed-length sequences by adapting optimal stopping computational theory developed from behavioral ecology and economics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

The grammaticality asymmetry in agreement attraction reflects response bias: Experimental and modeling evidence.

Cogn Psychol 2019 May 22;110:70-104. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States.

Memory access mechanisms such as cue-based retrieval have come to dominate theories of the processing of linguistic dependencies such as subject-verb agreement. One phenomenon that has been regarded as demonstrating the role of such mechanisms is the grammaticality asymmetry in agreement attraction, which is the observation that nouns other than the grammatical controller of agreement can influence the computation of subject-verb agreement in ungrammatical, but not grammatical, sentences. This asymmetry is most often accounted for via the dynamics of retrieval interference. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.01.001DOI Listing

How the input shapes the acquisition of verb morphology: Elicited production and computational modelling in two highly inflected languages.

Cogn Psychol 2019 May 18;110:30-69. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

University of Manchester, UK; ESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development (LuCiD), UK.

The aim of the present work was to develop a computational model of how children acquire inflectional morphology for marking person and number; one of the central challenges in language development. First, in order to establish which putative learning phenomena are sufficiently robust to constitute a target for modelling, we ran large-scale elicited production studies with native learners of Finnish (N = 77; 35-63 months) and Polish (N = 81; 35-59 months), using a novel method that, unlike previous studies, allows for elicitation of all six person/number forms in the paradigm (first, second and third person; singular and plural). We then proceeded to build and test a connectionist model of the acquisition of person/number marking which not only acquires near adult-like mastery of the system (including generalisation to unseen items), but also yields all of the key phenomena observed in the elicited-production studies; specifically, effects of token frequency and phonological neighbourhood density of the target form, and a pattern whereby errors generally reflect the replacement of low frequency targets by higher-frequency forms of the same verb, or forms with the same person/number as the target, but with a suffix from an inappropriate conjugation class. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.02.001DOI Listing

Caution in decision-making under time pressure is mediated by timing ability.

Cogn Psychol 2019 May 5;110:16-29. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129-B, 1018 WT Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The time available to inform decisions is often limited, for example because of a response deadline. In such circumstances, accurate knowledge of the amount of time available for a decision is crucial for optimal choice behavior. However, the relation between temporal cognition and decision-making under time pressure is poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100285183024
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.01.002DOI Listing
May 2019
9 Reads

Is the most representative skunk the average or the stinkiest? Developmental changes in representations of biological categories.

Cogn Psychol 2019 May 21;110:1-15. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, New York University, USA.

People often think of categories in terms of their most representative examples (e.g., robin for BIRD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.12.004DOI Listing

Relations between numerical, spatial, and executive function skills and mathematics achievement: A latent-variable approach.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 4;109:68-90. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Psychology, Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

Current evidence suggests that numerical, spatial, and executive function (EF) skills each play critical and independent roles in the learning and performance of mathematics. However, these conclusions are largely based on isolated bodies of research and without measurement at the latent variable level. Thus, questions remain regarding the latent structure and potentially shared and unique relations between numerical, spatial, EF, and mathematics abilities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.12.002DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Preference accumulation as a process model of desirability ratings.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 2;109:47-67. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

University of Kansas, United States; Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.

In desirability rating tasks, decision makers evaluate objects on a continuous response scale. Despite their prominence, full process models of these rating tasks have not been developed. We investigated whether a preference accumulation process, a process often used to model discrete choice, might explain ratings as well. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.12.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cancellation, negation, and rejection.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Feb 26;108:42-71. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In this paper, new evidence is presented for the assumption that the reason-relation reading of indicative conditionals ('if A, then C') reflects a conventional implicature. In four experiments, it is investigated whether relevance effects found for the probability assessment of indicative conditionals (Skovgaard-Olsen, Singmann, & Klauer, 2016a) can be classified as being produced by (a) a conversational implicature, (b) a (probabilistic) presupposition failure, or (c) a conventional implicature. After considering several alternative hypotheses, and the accumulating evidence from other studies as well, we conclude that the evidence is most consistent with the Relevance Effect being the outcome of a conventional implicature. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.11.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Subliminal syntactic priming.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 26;109:26-46. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DSV/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, 91191 Gif/Yvette, France; Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France.

Subliminally presented words have been shown to cause priming at orthographic and semantic levels. Here, we investigate whether subliminal priming can also occur at the syntactic level, and use such priming as a tool to probe the architecture for processing the syntactic features of written words. We studied the impact of masked and unmasked written word primes on response times to a subsequent visible target that shared or did not share syntactic features such as grammatical category and grammatical number. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.12.001DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Thinking outside of the box II: Disrupting the cognitive map.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Feb 11;108:22-41. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Nottingham, UK.

A number of influential spatial learning theories posit that organisms encode a viewpoint independent (i.e. allocentric) representation of the global boundary shape of their environment in order to support spatial reorientation and place learning. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.11.001DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Distinguishing experts from novices by the Mind's Hand and Mind's Eye.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Mar 10;109:1-25. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States.

Tetris is a complex task notable for the increasingly substantial demands it makes on perception, decision-making, and action as the game is played. To investigate these issues, we collected data on 39 features of Tetris play for each Tetris zoid (piece), for up to 16 levels of difficulty, as each of 240 players played an hour of Tetris under laboratory conditions. Using only early (level 1) data, we conducted a Principle Component Analysis which found intriguing differences among its three, statistically significant, principle components. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.11.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

How language and event recall can shape memory for time.

Cogn Psychol 2019 Feb 16;108:1-21. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology, University of York, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

How do we represent the duration of past events that we have conceptualized through language? Prior research suggests that memory for duration depends on the segmental structure perceived at encoding. However, it remains unclear why duration memory displays characteristic distortions and whether language-mediated encoding can further distort duration memory. Here we examine these questions and specifically ask whether the amount of event information recalled relative to the stimulus duration explains temporal distortions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.10.003DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Dynamics and development in number-to-space mapping.

Cogn Psychol 2018 Dec 12;107:44-66. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

The Ohio State University, 255 Psychology Building, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Young children's estimates of numerical magnitude increase approximately logarithmically with actual magnitude. The conventional interpretation of this finding is that children's estimates reflect an innate logarithmic encoding of number. A recent set of findings, however, suggests that logarithmic number-line estimates emerge via a dynamic encoding mechanism that is sensitive to previously encountered stimuli. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100285173030
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Corrigendum to "Clear evidence for item limits in visual working memory" [Cogn. Psychol. 97 (2017) 79-97].

Cogn Psychol 2018 Dec 3;107:67. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Institute for Mind and Biology, University of Chicago, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, United States; Grossman Institute for Neuroscience, Quantitative Biology, and Human Behavior, University of Chicago, United States. Electronic address:

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Structure-function fit underlies the evaluation of teleological explanations.

Cogn Psychol 2018 Dec 12;107:22-43. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA. Electronic address:

Teleological explanations, which appeal to a function or purpose (e.g., "kangaroos have long tails for balance"), seem to play a special role within the biological domain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Does articulatory rehearsal help immediate serial recall?

Cogn Psychol 2018 Dec 4;107:1-21. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Articulatory rehearsal is assumed to benefit verbal working memory. Yet, there is no experimental evidence supporting a causal link between rehearsal and serial-order memory, which is one of the hallmarks of working memory functioning. Across four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that rehearsal improves working memory by asking participants to rehearse overtly and by instructing different rehearsal schedules. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.09.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

How deep do we dig? Formal explanations as placeholders for inherent explanations.

Cogn Psychol 2018 11 4;106:43-59. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Stanford University, USA.

Formal explanations (e.g., "Mittens has whiskers because she's a cat") pose an intriguing puzzle in human cognition: they seem like little more than tautologies, yet they are surprisingly commonplace and natural-sounding. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.08.002DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Cross-dimensional magnitude interactions arise from memory interference.

Cogn Psychol 2018 11 28;106:21-42. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, UK.

Magnitudes from different dimensions (e.g., space and time) interact with each other in perception, but how these interactions occur remains unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.08.001DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

How who is talking matters as much as what they say to infant language learners.

Cogn Psychol 2018 11 16;106:1-20. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA. Electronic address:

Human vocalizations contain both voice characteristics that convey who is talking and sophisticated linguistic structure. Inter-talker variation in voice characteristics is traditionally seen as posing a challenge for infant language learners, who must disregard this variation when the task is to detect talkers' shared linguistic conventions. However, talkers often differ markedly in their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.04.003DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Models of lineup memory.

Cogn Psychol 2018 09 19;105:81-114. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, United States.

Face recognition memory is often tested by the police using a photo lineup, which consists of one suspect, who is either innocent or guilty, and five or more physically similar fillers, all of whom are known to be innocent. For many years, lineups were investigated in lab studies without guidance from standard models of recognition memory. More recently, signal detection theory has been used to conceptualize lineup memory and to motivate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of lineup performance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.06.001DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Set-shifting and place-keeping as separable control processes.

Cogn Psychol 2018 09 19;105:53-80. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, United Kingdom.

We present three experiments using a sequential binary choice task that explore the relationship between two proposed cognitive control functions: set-shifting and place-keeping (i.e., keeping track of one's place within a sequential task). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.07.001DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

The developing role of transparent surfaces in children's spatial representation.

Cogn Psychol 2018 09 17;105:39-52. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daehak-ro 291, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 31, Rovereto, Italy. Electronic address:

Children adeptly use environmental boundaries to navigate. But how do they represent surfaces as boundaries, and how does this change over development? To investigate the effects of boundaries as visual and physical barriers, we tested spatial reorientation in 160 children (2-7 year-olds) in a transparent rectangular arena (Condition 1). In contrast with their consistent success using opaque surfaces (Condition 2), children only succeeded at using transparent surfaces at 5-7 years of age. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.05.003DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Intuitive experimentation in the physical world.

Cogn Psychol 2018 09 6;105:9-38. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, NYU, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Many aspects of our physical environment are hidden. For example, it is hard to estimate how heavy an object is from visual observation alone. In this paper we examine how people actively "experiment" within the physical world to discover such latent properties. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100285173034
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.05.001DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Failure of self-consistency in the discrete resource model of visual working memory.

Authors:
Paul M Bays

Cogn Psychol 2018 09 3;105:1-8. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

University of Cambridge, Department of Psychology, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. Electronic address:

The discrete resource model of working memory proposes that each individual has a fixed upper limit on the number of items they can store at one time, due to division of memory into a few independent "slots". According to this model, responses on short-term memory tasks consist of a mixture of noisy recall (when the tested item is in memory) and random guessing (when the item is not in memory). This provides two opportunities to estimate capacity for each observer: first, based on their frequency of random guesses, and second, based on the set size at which the variability of stored items reaches a plateau. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120059PMC
September 2018
24 Reads

Modeling the dynamics of recognition memory testing with an integrated model of retrieval and decision making.

Cogn Psychol 2018 08 17;104:106-142. Epub 2018 May 17.

University of Tasmania, Australia.

A robust finding in recognition memory is that performance declines monotonically across test trials. Despite the prevalence of this decline, there is a lack of consensus on the mechanism responsible. Three hypotheses have been put forward: (1) interference is caused by learning of test items (2) the test items cause a shift in the context representation used to cue memory and (3) participants change their speed-accuracy thresholds through the course of testing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.04.002DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Learning homophones in context: Easy cases are favored in the lexicon of natural languages.

Cogn Psychol 2018 08 25;104:83-105. Epub 2018 May 25.

Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, DEC-ENS/EHESS/CNRS, Ecole normale supérieure - PSL Research University, Paris, France; Maternité Port-Royal, AP-HP, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, France.

Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.04.001DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Learning physical parameters from dynamic scenes.

Cogn Psychol 2018 08 11;104:57-82. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.

Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.05.006DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Dynamic cognitive models of intertemporal choice.

Cogn Psychol 2018 08 26;104:29-56. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Center for Adaptive Rationality, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Traditionally, descriptive accounts of intertemporal choice have relied on static and deterministic models that assume alternative-wise processing of the options. Recent research, by contrast, has highlighted the dynamic and probabilistic nature of intertemporal choice and provided support for attribute-wise processing. Currently, dynamic models of intertemporal choice-which account for both the resulting choice and the time course over which the construction of a choice develops-rely exclusively on the framework of evidence accumulation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.03.001DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

The role of domain-general cognitive resources in children's construction of a vitalist theory of biology.

Cogn Psychol 2018 08 26;104:1-28. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.03.002DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

Cogn Psychol 2018 06 23;103:85-109. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States.

Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.02.003DOI Listing
June 2018
11 Reads

Beyond Markov: Accounting for independence violations in causal reasoning.

Authors:
Bob Rehder

Cogn Psychol 2018 06 6;103:42-84. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Psychology, New York University, United States. Electronic address:

Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.01.003DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

The role of sensorimotor processes in social group contagion.

Cogn Psychol 2018 06 23;103:23-41. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Although it is well known that action observation triggers an imitative response, not much is known about how these responses develop as a function of group size. Research on social contagion suggests that imitative tendencies initially increase but then stabilize as groups become larger. However, these findings have mainly been explained in terms of interpretative processes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.02.001DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Modeling 2-alternative forced-choice tasks: Accounting for both magnitude and difference effects.

Cogn Psychol 2018 06 23;103:1-22. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

University of Haifa, Israel.

We present a model-based analysis of two-alternative forced-choice tasks in which two stimuli are presented side by side and subjects must make a comparative judgment (e.g., which stimulus is brighter). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911219PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 6;102:127-144. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

University College London, United Kingdom; The Alan Turing Institute, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886040PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Some inferences still take time: Prosody, predictability, and the speed of scalar implicatures.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 6;102:105-126. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, United States.

Experimental pragmatics has gained many insights from understanding how people use weak scalar terms (like some) to infer that a stronger alternative (like all) is false. Early studies found that comprehenders initially interpret some without an upper bound, but later results suggest that this inference is sometimes immediate (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5857475PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Planning to speak in L1 and L2.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 8;102:72-104. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; University of Toronto, Canada.

The leading theories of sentence planning - Hierarchical Incrementality and Linear Incrementality - differ in their assumptions about the coordination of processes that map preverbal information onto language. Previous studies showed that, in native (L1) speakers, this coordination can vary with the ease of executing the message-level and sentence-level processes necessary to plan and produce an utterance. We report the first series of experiments to systematically examine how linguistic experience influences sentence planning in native (L1) speakers (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.12.003DOI Listing
May 2018
4 Reads

How people learn about causal influence when there are many possible causes: A model based on informative transitions.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 8;102:41-71. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

University of Pittsburgh, United States.

Four experiments tested how people learn cause-effect relations when there are many possible causes of an effect. When there are many cues, even if all the cues together strongly predict the effect, the bivariate relation between each individual cue and the effect can be weak, which can make it difficult to detect the influence of each cue. We hypothesized that when detecting the influence of a cue, in addition to learning from the states of the cues and effect (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.01.002DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 11;102:21-40. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States.

In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.01.001DOI Listing
May 2018
4 Reads

Conditionals and inferential connections: A hypothetical inferential theory.

Cogn Psychol 2018 03 9;101:50-81. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.09.002DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Young infants expect an unfamiliar adult to comfort a crying baby: Evidence from a standard violation-of-expectation task and a novel infant-triggered-video task.

Cogn Psychol 2018 05 6;102:1-20. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States. Electronic address:

Do infants expect individuals to act prosocially toward others in need, at least in some contexts? Very few such expectations have been uncovered to date. In three experiments, we examined whether infants would expect an adult alone in a scene with a crying baby to attempt to comfort the baby. In the first two experiments, 12- and 4-month-olds were tested using the standard violation-of-expectation method. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.12.004DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

The detour problem in a stochastic environment: Tolman revisited.

Cogn Psychol 2018 03 30;101:29-49. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Indiana University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Bloomington, IN, United States.

We designed a grid world task to study human planning and re-planning behavior in an unknown stochastic environment. In our grid world, participants were asked to travel from a random starting point to a random goal position while maximizing their reward. Because they were not familiar with the environment, they needed to learn its characteristics from experience to plan optimally. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.12.002DOI Listing
March 2018
6 Reads

A neural model of retrospective attention in visual working memory.

Cogn Psychol 2018 02 19;100:43-52. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

University of Cambridge, Department of Psychology, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.

An informative cue that directs attention to one of several items in working memory improves subsequent recall of that item. Here we examine the mechanism of this retro-cue effect using a model of short-term memory based on neural population coding. Our model describes recalled feature values as the output of an optimal decoding of spikes generated by a tuned population of neurons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788052PMC
February 2018
9 Reads

The elimination of positive priming with increasing prime duration reflects a transition from perceptual fluency to disfluency rather than bias against primed words.

Cogn Psychol 2018 03 11;101:1-28. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, 01003 MA, USA.

With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.11.004DOI Listing
March 2018
10 Reads

The action is in the task set, not in the action.

Cogn Psychol 2018 02 6;100:17-42. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, United States.

In 7 experiments we contrasted two accounts for novel sources of attentional bias. According to the action-based account, executing a motor response towards an object causes people to allocate attention preferentially towards properties of that object in a subsequent task even when properties of the acted-on object are task irrelevant. This remarkable view entails that motor processing is in itself sufficient to affect later attentional processing, in the absence of stimulus evaluation and motor preparation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.11.005DOI Listing
February 2018
9 Reads

Invariants in probabilistic reasoning.

Cogn Psychol 2018 02 6;100:1-16. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Theoretical Physics, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland.

Recent research has identified three invariants or identities that appear to hold in people's probabilistic reasoning: the QQ identity, the addition law identity, and the Bayes rule identity (Costello and Watts, 2014, 2016a, Fisher and Wolfe, 2014, Wang and Busemeyer, 2013, Wang et al., 2014). Each of these identities represent specific agreement with the requirements of normative probability theory; strikingly, these identities seem to hold in people's judgements despite the presence of strong and systematic biases against the requirements of normative probability theory in those very same judgements. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.11.003DOI Listing
February 2018
10 Reads

Compositional inductive biases in function learning.

Cogn Psychol 2017 12 16;99:44-79. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Harvard University, United States.

How do people recognize and learn about complex functional structure? Taking inspiration from other areas of cognitive science, we propose that this is achieved by harnessing compositionality: complex structure is decomposed into simpler building blocks. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels, and compare this approach with other structure learning approaches. Participants consistently chose compositional (over non-compositional) extrapolations and interpolations of functions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.11.002DOI Listing
December 2017
9 Reads