356,038 results match your criteria Cognitive Psychology [Journal]


Posttraumatic Headache.

Authors:
Brigid Dwyer

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):619-626. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Posttraumatic headaches are among the most challenging complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). They are a debilitating problem experienced by patients after TBI of all severities. Up to 90% of mild TBI patients experience headache, particularly if female and with a premorbid history of primary headache. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Getting "Stuck" in the Future or the Past: Relationships between Dimensions of Time Perspective, Executive Functions, and Repetitive Negative Thinking in Anxiety.

Psychopathology 2018 Dec 6:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Background/aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Behavioral problems are associated with cognitive and language scores in toddlers born extremely preterm.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 3;128:48-54. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the relationship of parent-reported child behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to cognition, language, and motor skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (Bayley-III) in toddlers born extremely preterm.

Study Design: Toddlers born extremely preterm (gestational ages 22 0/7 to 26 6/7 weeks) were tested at 22-26 months corrected age with Bayley-III while parents completed the CBCL. Socio-demographic variables and medical history were recorded. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Disruption of function: Neurophysiological markers of cognitive deficits in retired football players.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):111-121. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Linguistics and Languages, McMaster University, Togo Salmon Hall 513, 1280 Main Street, West Hamilton, ON L8S 4M2, Canada; ARiEAL Research Centre, McMaster University, L.R. Wilson Hall, 1280 Main Street, West Hamilton, ON L8S 4M2, Canada; School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, ETB-406, 1280 Main St., West Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada; MaRS Centre, Vector Institute, Canada; McMaster University, Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Recent studies demonstrate that sports-related concussions can have negative consequences on long-term brain health. The goal of the present study was to determine whether retired Canadian Football League (CFL) athletes with a history of concussions exhibit alterations in neurocognitive functioning, along with changes in physical, social, and psychological health.

Methods: Our study compared nineteen retired CFL athletes' concussion histories to eighteen healthy age-matched controls with no history of concussion. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A multifunctional compound ebselen reverses memory impairment, apoptosis and oxidative stress in a mouse model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Nov 27;109:107-117. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratório de Síntese, Reatividade e Avaliação Farmacológica e Toxicológica de Organocalcogênios, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Alzheimer 's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline including memory impairment, cortical dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric disturbances. The drug discovery to treat AD consists to develop compounds able to act in multiple molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and the repositioning of old drugs for new application. This way, the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) has been used as a metabolic model of sporadic AD. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Freely chosen and instructed actions are terminated by different neural mechanisms revealed by kinematics-informed EEG.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, 50924, Cologne, Germany.

Neurophysiological accounts of human volition are dominated by debates on the origin of voluntary choices but the neural consequences that follow such choices remain poorly understood. For instance, could one predict whether or not an action was chosen voluntarily based only on how that action is motorically executed? We investigated this possibility by integrating scalp electroencephalograms and index-finger accelerometer recordings acquired while people chose between pressing a left or right button either freely or as instructed by a visual cue. Even though freely selected and instructed actions were executed with equal vigor, the timing of the movement to release the button was comparatively delayed for freely selected actions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Adaptive task difficulty influences neural plasticity and transfer of training.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Neuroscience, University of California at Davis, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA, 95618, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The efficacy of cognitive training is controversial, and research progress in the field requires an understanding of factors that promote transfer of training gains and their relationship to changes in brain activity. One such factor may be adaptive task difficulty, as adaptivity is predicted to facilitate more efficient processing by creating a prolonged mismatch between the supply of, and the demand upon, neural resources. To test this hypothesis, we measured behavioral and neural plasticity in fMRI sessions before and after 10 sessions of working memory updating (WMU) training, in which the difficulty of practiced tasks either adaptively increased in response to performance or was fixed. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The allosteric dopamine D1 receptor potentiator, DETQ, ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine-induced object recognition memory deficits and enhances cortical acetylcholine efflux in male humanized D1 receptor knock-in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Diminished dopamine D1 stimulation may contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, orthosteric D1 receptor (D1R) agonists produce receptor desensitization and an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve, but positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) do not. We examined the cognitive effects of DETQ, a D1R PAM, in mice genetically modified to express the human D1 receptor ("hD1 mice"). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Enhancing effects of acute exposure to cannabis smoke on working memory performance.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Center for Addiction Research and Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Numerous preclinical studies show that acute cannabinoid administration impairs cognitive performance. Almost all of this research has employed cannabinoid injections, however, whereas smoking is the preferred route of cannabis administration in humans. The goal of these experiments was to systematically determine how acute exposure to cannabis smoke affects working memory performance in a rat model. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Winning smiles: Signalling reward by overlapping and non-overlapping emotional valence differentially affects performance and neural activity.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University.

It is well-known that both emotional and motivational events greatly impact our behaviour. Based on previous work on the interplay between these two constructs, the present study aimed to test whether and how concurrent emotion and reward signals interact in terms of their basic valence, when both are equally relevant to the task. To this end, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm in which reward availability was explicitly signalled by positive, neutral, or negative facial expressions (using block-wise instructions). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Study of tau pathology in male rTg4510 mice fed with a curcumin derivative Shiga-Y5.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208440. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Intracellular inclusions of aggregated tau appear in neurons and glial cells in a range of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. Inhibition of pathological changes in tau is a therapeutic target for tauopathy. We recently synthesized a novel curcumin derivative, named Shiga-Y5, and showed that Shiga-Y5 inhibited cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Non-professional caregiver burden is associated with the severity of patients' cognitive impairment.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0204110. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, United States of America.

Background/objectives: To analyse the relationship between caregiver burden and severity of patients' cognitive impairment.

Design: Data were drawn from the cross-sectional 2015/2016 Adelphi Real World Dementia Disease-Specific Programme.

Setting: This research was multi-national and studied physicians and their consulting patients with cognitive impairment. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Workload and Performance: Associations, Insensitivities, and Dissociations.

Hum Factors 2018 Dec 6:18720818809590. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Central Florida, Orlando.

Objective:: The aim of this study was to distill and define those influences under which change in objective performance level and the linked cognitive workload reflections of subjective experience and physiological variation either associate, dissociate, or are insensitive, one to another.

Background:: Human factors/ergonomics frequently employs users' self-reports of their own conscious experience, as well as their physiological reactivity, to augment the understanding of changing performance capacity. Under some circumstances, these latter workload responses are the only available assessment information to hand. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The nature of decision-making in people living with dementia: a systematic review.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Faculty of Brain Sciences , University College London , London , UK.

Objective: The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) understand how people living with dementia are involved in making decisions; 2) explore the different decisional styles and domains of decision-making that people living with dementia experience and 3) identify what influences the level of decisional involvement of people living with dementia.

Methods: A systematic review of literature identified studies from Medline, PsycINFO, HAPI and CINAHL databases. Search terms related to decision-making and dementia. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Reply to "Cognitive Health and Incarceration among Older Adults".

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Predicting Progression to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Despite much attention to the use of biomarkers for predicting Alzheimer's disease, little information is available at the individual level. We used the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging to estimate absolute risk of cognitive impairment by biomarker group. Risk increased with age and any biomarker abnormality. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Challenges of Differential Placebo Effects in Contemporary Medicine: The Example of Brain Stimulation.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

'Differential placebo effects' is the concept that different types of placebos (e.g. inert pill versus sham device) may yield different magnitudes of placebo effects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cognitive Health and Incarceration among Older Adults.

Authors:
Shawnta L Lloyd

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Medicine, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Heart Rate Variability Predicts Older Adults' Avoidance of Negativity.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Objectives: The ability to produce situation-appropriate cognitive and emotional responses is dependent on autonomic nervous system (ANS) functionality. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an index of ANS functionality, and resting HRV levels have been associated with cognitive control and inhibitory capacity in young adults, particularly when faced with emotional information. As older adults' greater preference for positive and avoidance of negative stimuli (positivity effect) is thought to be dependent on cognitive control, we hypothesized that HRV could predict positivity-effect magnitude in older adults. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A databank for intracellular electrophysiological mapping of the adult somatosensory cortex.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurophysiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen - the Netherlands.

Background: Neurons in the supragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex integrate sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive/perceptual (top-down) information as they orchestrate communication across cortical columns. It has been inferred, based on intracellular recordings from juvenile animals, that supragranular neurons are electrically mature by the fourth postnatal week. However, the dynamics of the neuronal integration in the adulthood is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

APOE-ε4 Genotype is Associated with Elevated Post-Concussion Symptoms in Military Veterans with a Remote History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS); San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: We evaluated the influence of the APOE-ε4 allele on post-concussive symptoms in military Veterans with a remote history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

Method: Participants (N = 77) were administered neuropsychiatric measures, on average, approximately 5 years following their most recent mTBI and provided a DNA sample for APOE genotyping. Veterans were divided into two groups based on their ε4 status (n = 14 ε4+, n = 63 ε4-). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning: A Structural Equation Modelling approach.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aims at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.

Method: 3,508 individuals aged 60 and over from the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Simultaneous quantification of thirteen cannabinoids and metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in adult epilepsy patients.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and.

Background: A sensitive, robust method was developed and validated to quantitate thirteen major natural cannabinoid parent and metabolite compounds in human plasma at or below 0.5 ng/mL.

Methods: A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to measure thirteen cannabinoid compounds: cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabichromene (CBC), Δ-tetrahydocannabinol (THC), Δ-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), Δ-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), 11-hydroxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannbinol (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC-COOH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-glucuronide (THC-COOH-glu). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Outcomes Analysis of Children Diagnosed With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in the PICU.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Critical Care, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC.

Objectives: Describe a single center experience of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a PICU over a 10-year period, to identify clinical features that may be associated with worse outcomes, including mortality, hospital and ICU length of stay, and functional and cognitive impairments on discharge.

Design: Retrospective electronic medical record review, 2007-2017.

Setting: PICU located in a large urban academic quaternary care children's hospital. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Does lifestyle matter? Individual lifestyle factors and their additive effects associated with cognitive function in older men and women.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Social Work and Social Administration , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong.

Objectives: This study investigated the association between healthy lifestyle comprised of multiple domains, gender, and cognitive function in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with data from 1,831 community-dwellers aged 65 years and above. Participants' basic demographics, comorbidity, and six lifestyle factors: diet; smoking; alcohol drinking; and physical, mental, and social activities were surveyed. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Brain Health: Impact on Long-Range Cortical Connections and Cognitive Performance.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Dec;7(23):e010054

1 Department of Neurology Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC.

Background Cardiovascular risk factor burden in the absence of clinical or radiological "events" is associated with mild cognitive impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques exploring the integrity of neuronal fiber connectivity within white matter networks supporting cognitive processing could be used to measure the impact of cardiovascular disease on brain health and be used beyond bedside neuropsychological tests to detect subclinical changes and select or stratify participants for entry into clinical trials. Methods and Results We assessed the relationship between verbal IQ and brain network integrity and the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on network integrity by constructing whole-brain structural connectomes from magnetic resonance imaging diffusion images (N=60) from people with various degrees of cardiovascular risk factor burden. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Psychological benefits of attending the theatre associated with positive affect and well-being for subscribers over age 60.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Dept. of Psychological & Brain Sciences , University of Louisville , Louisville , KY , USA.

Objectives: Although late adulthood may be a time of greater well-being, optimal aging still characterizes a minority of older adults. Understanding how individuals achieve well-being across adulthood is important for intervention and social policy. We focused on how attending live theatre might enhance the well-being of a sample of 53 season ticket holders aged 60 and older. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The brain network in a model of thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia.

Brain Connect 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Saratovskij nacional'nyj issledovatel'skij gosudarstvennyj universitet imeni N G Cernysevskogo, 64958 , Astrakhanskaya str., 83 , Saratov, Russian Federation , 410012.

Sensory information processing and higher cognitive functions rely on the interactions between thalamus and cortex. Many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders are accompanied or driven by alterations in the brain connectivity. In the present study putative changes in functional and effective cortico-cortical (CC), thalamo-cortical (TC) and cortico-thalamic (CT) connectivity during wakefulness and slow-wave sleep in a model of thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia (TCD), TRIP8b-/- mice and in control (WT) mice are described. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Cloning, function, and localization of human, canine and Drosophila Zip10 (Slc39a10), a Zn transporter.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, United States.

Zinc (Zn) is the second most abundant trace element, but is considered a micronutrient as it is a cofactor for many enzymes and transcription factors. While Zn deficiency can cause cognitive immune or metabolic dysfunction and infertility, excess Zn is nephrotoxic. As for other ions and solutes, Zn is moved into and out of cells by specific membrane transporters: ZnT, Zip, and NRAMP/DMT proteins. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Getting help for others: An examination of indirect helping in young children.

Dev Psychol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, Concordia University.

When young children recruit others to help a person in need, media reports often treat it as a remarkable event. Yet it is unclear how commonly children perform this type of pro-social behavior and what forms of social understanding, cognitive abilities, and motivational factors promote or discourage it. In this study, 48 three- to four-year-old children could choose between two actors to retrieve an out-of-reach object for a third person; during this event, one actor was physically unable to provide help. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine for vascular dementia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 6;12:CD010284. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cochrane Singapore, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Nanos Building #02-01, 31 Biopolis Way, Singapore, Singapore, 138669.

Background: Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is widely used for treating vascular dementia (VaD) in China. Recent studies of a number of TCHMs have demonstrated in vitro biological activity and therapeutic effects in animals, but the published clinical evidence has not been systematically appraised.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCHMs listed in either the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP) or the Chinese National Essential Drug List (NEDL) that are used to treat VaD. Read More

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December 2018

A meta-analysis of neuropsychological, social cognitive, and olfactory functioning in the behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia.

Psychol Med 2018 Dec 6:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,Baltimore, MD,USA.

Background: Though meta-analyses of neuropsychological and social cognitive deficits in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have been conducted, no study has comprehensively characterized and compared the neuropsychological, social cognitive, and olfactory profiles in the behavioral and language variants of FTD.

Methods: Our search yielded 470 publications meeting inclusion criteria representing 11 782 FTD patients and 19 451 controls. For each domain, we calculated Hedges' g effect sizes, which represent the mean difference between the patient and control group divided by the pooled standard deviation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Are medical doctors in Latin America prepared to deal with the dementia epidemic?

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 6:1-2. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCyT), INECO Foundation,Favaloro University,Pacheco de Melo, Buenos Aires,Argentina.

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December 2018
3 Reads

Evaluation of macrolinguistic aspects of the oral discourse in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 6:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Speech Therapy,São Paulo Federal University,São Paulo,Brazil.

ABSTRACTIntroduction:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative syndrome that impairs cognitive functioning, including speech and language. Discourse can be used to analyze language processing, which is organized into microlinguistic and macrolinguistic dimensions.

Objectives: To identify the occurrence of changes in the macrolinguistic dimension of oral discourse in AD patients. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Neural correlates of the effect of implementation intention on prospective memory.

Psych J 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to do something in the future. Implementation intention refers to a self-regulatory strategy in the form of "If …, then …" planning that can improve PM performance. However, the neural basis of the effect of implementation intention on PM remains unclear, as do the phases of PM that are affected by implementation intention. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Caring for the older person with cognitive impairment in hospital: qualitative analysis of nursing personnel reflections on fall events.

J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Nursing & Midwifery and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University and Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, 2.05c, G01, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland.

Aims And Objectives: To explore nurse and nursing assistant reflections on the care of older patients with cognitive impairment who have experienced a fall.

Background: While there are evidence-based clinical guidelines for the prevention and management of falls and for the care of older people with cognitive impairment, the falls rates for older people with cognitive impairment is three times as high as those without.

Design: Critical incident technique. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Reduced capacity for empathy in corticobasal syndrome and its impact on carer burden.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre.

Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is clinically characterised by a wide range of motor, cognitive, and behavioural features but remains challenging to diagnose accurately. Despite recent evidence supporting the presence of social cognition and emotion processing disturbances, few studies have explored the nature of empathic ability in CBS. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the extent to which cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy are affected in CBS, and (ii) to determine the impact of such changes on carer burden. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

II. MEASURES: SECURE BASE BEHAVIOR, CO-CONSTRUCTION, AND ATTACHMENT SCRIPTS.

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):22-34

In order to examine the interplay between behavioral and cognitive representations of attachment during early childhood, we compiled both behavior-based and more cognitive-based attachment measures for this age range. The behavior-based measures were observational Q-set methodologies already established in the literature. Measures of attachment representations for the children and mothers were narrative-based procedures, that is, established storytelling tasks for obtaining attachment narratives from children and adults. Read More

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December 2018
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THE MOTHER-CHILD ATTACHMENT PARTNERSHIP IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: SECURE BASE BEHAVIORAL AND REPRESENTATIONAL PROCESSES.

Authors:
Brian E Vaughn

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):154-161

The chapters in this monograph describe the transition of attachment representations from a predominantly sensorimotor, in the moment, experience for the infant/toddler to internalized, mental representations of attachment that are transportable to new social contexts, in which attachment figures may not be present. The chapters focus on means that parents use to help their child effect this transition in terms of both behavioral support for the child's secure base behavior and for cognitive skills that underlie the child's construction of mental models of attachment. The results cohere across studies and make a compelling case for Bowlby's notion that internal models of how attachment "works" are co-constructed through social processes during early childhood. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Validation of the Targeted Metabolomic Pathway in the Hippocampus and Comparative Analysis with the Prefrontal Cortex of Social Defeat Model Mice.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The proportion of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients around the world has increased remarkably. Although many studies of MDD have been conducted based on classic hypotheses, like alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanisms underlying MDD remain unclear. Aiming to further investigate the mechanisms of MDD, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed to measure target metabolites in the hippocampus (HIPPO) of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model mice. Read More

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December 2018

Human paleoneurology: shaping cortical evolution in fossil hominids.

Authors:
Emiliano Bruner

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Spain.

Evolutionary neuroanatomy must integrate two different sources of information, namely from fossil and from living species. Fossils supply information concerning the process of evolution, while living species supply information on the product of evolution. Unfortunately, the fossil record is partial and fragmented, and often cannot support validations for specific evolutionary hypotheses. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Biology and Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

This proposed novel method consists of three levels of analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data: 1) voxel level analysis of fractional anisotropy of white matter tracks, 2) connection level analysis, based on fiber tracks between specific brain regions, and 3) network level analysis, based connections among multiple brain regions. Machine-learning techniques of (Fisher score) feature selection, (Support Vector Machine) pattern classification, and (Leave-one-out) cross-validation are performed, for recognition of the neural connectivity patterns for diagnostic purposes. For validation proposes, this multilevel approach achieved an average classification accuracy of 90% between Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls, 83% between Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment, and 83% between mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Morphological changes in subregions of hippocampus and amygdala in major depressive disorder patients.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 730000, Lanzhou, China.

Despite many neuroimaging studies in the past years, the neuroanatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) subcortical structures are still not well understood. Since hippocampus and amygdala are the two vital subcortical structures that most susceptible to MDD, finding the evidence of morphological changes in their subregions may bring some new insights for MDD research. Combining structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with novel morphometry analysis methods, we recruited 25 MDD patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), and investigated their volume and morphological differences in hippocampus and amygdala. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

White matter microstructure varies with post-traumatic stress severity following medical trauma.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CIRC 235H, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

The prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus are important components of the neural network that mediates the healthy learning, expression, and regulation of emotion. These brain regions are connected by white matter pathways that include the cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, and fornix/stria terminalis. Individuals with trauma and stress-related disorders show dysfunction of the cognitive-affective processes supported by the brain regions these white matter tracts connect. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Finnish Interprofessional Medication Assessment (FIMA): baseline findings from home care setting.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Purpose: Medication-related problems and declined functional capacity are closely associated factors among older people. The purpose of this study is to describe the procedure of interprofessional medication assessment in home care context and the baseline characteristics of the study population.

Methods: The FIMA study was a randomized, controlled intervention study comparing general practitioner-led interprofessional medication assessment and usual care. Read More

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December 2018
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eQTL of KCNK2 regionally influences the brain sulcal widening: evidence from 15,597 UK Biobank participants with neuroimaging data.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

UNATI, Institut Joliot, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Neurospin, CEA Saclay, Neurospin Bâtiment 145, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

The grey and white matter volumes are known to reduce with age. This cortical shrinkage is visible on magnetic resonance images and is conveniently identified by the increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the sulci between two gyri. Here, we replicated this finding using the UK Biobank dataset and studied the genetic influence on these cortical features of aging. Read More

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December 2018
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