356,493 results match your criteria Cognitive Impairment Mild


Comparison of level of cognitive process between case-based items and non-case-based items of the interuniversity progress test of medicine in the Netherlands.

J Educ Eval Health Prof 2018 12;15:28. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, and Department of Educational Development and Research, and Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Purpose: It is assumed that case-based questions require higher order cognitive processing, whereas questions that are not case-based require lower order cognitive processing. In this study, we investigated to what extent case-based questions and questions that are not case-based, relate to Bloom's taxonomy.

Methods: In this article, 4800 questions of the Progress Test were classified whether it was a case-based question and the level of Bloom's taxonomy. Read More

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December 2018

[A Reversible Case of Korsakoff Syndrome in an Alcohol Dependent Patient].

Psychiatr Prax 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

LVR-Klinikum Düsseldorf, Kliniken der Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Medizinische Fakultät Düsseldorf.

Alcohol dependent patients represent a high-risk group for vitamin deficiency, which could lead to variable cognitive dysfunctions and, as an extreme example, to an amnestic-confabulatory syndrome. In this case report, we report about an alcohol dependent 58-year-old patient without focal neurological symptoms with an amnestic-confabulatory syndrome. After substitution of thiamine, vitamin B12 and folic acid, cognitive symptoms completely vanish within a 22-month period of observation. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Sleep Quality on aMCI Vulnerable Brain Regions in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Study Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacts amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)-related brain regions in a cognitively normal cohort of individuals.

Methods: Seventy four participants were rigorously evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests and a detailed clinical assessment to verify normal cognitive status. We then screened for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Read More

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December 2018

Older HIV+ and HIV- Adults Provide Similar Definitions of Successful Aging: A Mixed-Methods Examination.

Gerontologist 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego.

Background And Objective: As HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals age, there is a need to understand successful aging (SA) from the patient perspective. This study compared SA definitions between HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) older adults and then examined correlates of SA categories.

Research Design And Methods: Ninety-three HIV+ and 46 HIV- older (aged 50+) adults provided brief definitions of SA, which was examined using content analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018

Characterizing the Motor Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

Folia Phoniatr Logop 2018 Dec 12;71(1):42-55. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background/aims: Specific language impairment (SLI) is characterized by deficits in language ability. However, studies have also reported motor impairments in SLI. It has been proposed that the language and motor impairments in SLI share common origins. Read More

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December 2018

Sh3rf2 Haploinsufficiency Leads to Unilateral Neuronal Development Deficits and Autistic-Like Behaviors in Mice.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2963-2971.e6

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Parkinson's Disease Center, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include a variety of developmental brain disorders with clinical findings implicating the dysfunction of the left hemisphere. Here, we generate mice lacking one copy of Sh3rf2, which was detected in ASD patients, to determine whether Sh3rf2 is involved in brain development and whether mutation of SH3RF2 is causative for ASD and the mechanisms linking it to ASD traits. We find that mice with Sh3rf2 haploinsufficiency display significant deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity and seizures. Read More

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December 2018

Development and implementation of a pediatric adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and other determinants of health questionnaire in the pediatric medical home: A pilot study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208088. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Center for Youth Wellness, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor health outcomes, underlining the significance of early identification and intervention. Currently, there is no validated tool to screen for ACEs exposure in childhood. To fill this gap, we designed and implemented a pediatric ACEs questionnaire in an urban pediatric Primary Care Clinic. Read More

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December 2018

Eye blinks are perceived as communicative signals in human face-to-face interaction.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208030. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

In face-to-face communication, recurring intervals of mutual gaze allow listeners to provide speakers with visual feedback (e.g. nodding). Read More

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December 2018

Validation of a single factor representing the indicators of metabolic syndrome as a continuous measure of metabolic load and its association with health and cognitive function.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208231. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Lipid Clinic at the Interdisciplinary Metabolism Center, Berlin, Germany.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease associated with reduced physical fitness, higher disease burden, and impaired cognitive functions. Little is known about the operation of these risk factors in older adults when considered comprehensively without relying on the cut-off values of the single MetS components. The three main aims of the current study were to: (i) establish a latent metabolic load factor (MetL), using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and representing a continuous measure of MetL, defined by indicators that are commonly used to separate MetS groups from healthy individuals; (ii) examine the associations of this MetL factor with objective health, and cognitive function in men and women; (iii) compare the magnitude of these associations to those observed for the individual indicators used to define the MetL factor as well to the classical categorized MetS vs. Read More

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December 2018

Increased Alzheimer's risk during the menopause transition: A 3-year longitudinal brain imaging study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207885. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America.

Two thirds of all persons with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) are women. Identification of sex-based molecular mechanisms underpinning the female-based prevalence of AD would advance development of therapeutic targets during the prodromal AD phase when prevention or delay in progression is most likely to be effective. This 3-year brain imaging study examines the impact of the menopausal transition on Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker changes [brain β-amyloid load via 11C-PiB PET, and neurodegeneration via 18F-FDG PET and structural MRI] and cognitive performance in midlife. Read More

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December 2018

Retail-based healthy food point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) increase healthy food choices in a rural, low-income, minority community.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207792. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Rosebud Food Sovereignty Initiative, Mission, South Dakota, United States of America.

This study examines the potential for point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) to promote healthier food choices among shoppers in a rural, low-income, minority community. We hypothesized that a narrowly defined PDP (focused on fresh produce) would be easier for shoppers to remember than a broadly defined PDP (focused on any healthy items), resulting in a higher proportion of healthy items purchased. PDPs were placed at the entrance to a supermarket in Mission, South Dakota, United States of America, on the Rosebud Sioux Reservation for alternating time periods, July 9-10, 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Chimpanzees' understanding of social leverage.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207868. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Social primates can influence others through the control of resources. For instance, dominant male chimpanzees might allow subordinates access to mate with females in exchange for social support. However, little is known about how chimpanzees strategically use a position of leverage to maximize their own benefits. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of language proficiency on proactive occulo-motor control among bilinguals.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207904. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India.

We examined the effect of language proficiency on the status and dynamics of proactive inhibitory control in an occulo-motor cued go-no-go task. The first experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of second language proficiency on proactive inhibitory cost and adjustments in control by evaluating previous trial effects. This was achieved by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming event (go or no-go stimulus). Read More

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December 2018

Chasing red herrings: Can visual distracters extend the time children take to open child resistant vials?

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207738. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States of America.

Background: Unintentional exposure to medications is a noted problem in pediatric populations despite the prevalent use of child-resistant (CR) packaging and educational campaigns informing consumers about appropriate storage.

Objective: Conduct a proof-of concept study that evaluates how package designs that engage the attention of children in meaningless ways affect opening time and number of openings.

Study Design: Non-CR vials with or without distracters were provided to 108 children (24-51 months) in pairs. Read More

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December 2018

Susceptibility and resilience to cyber threat: Findings from a scenario decision program to measure secure and insecure computing behavior.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207408. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Interest in the individual differences underlying end user computer security behavior has led to the development of a multidisciplinary field of research known as behavioral information security. An important gap in knowledge and the motivation for this research is the development of ways to measure secure and insecure cyber behavior for research and eventually practice. Here we report a study designed to develop a technique for assessing secure and insecure cyber behavior for broad research use. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of Brain Signatures to Add Precision to Self-Management Health Information Interventions.

Nurs Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Edward J. and Louise Mellen Professor of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH PhD Student, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Professor, Kent State University, Kent, OH Assistant Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Assistant Professor, Chief Diversity Officer, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Although many of the proposed mediating processes of self-management interventions are operationally defined as cognitive processes (e.g., acquiring and using information, self-efficacy, motivation, decision-making), little is known about their underlying brain mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Development and Usability Testing of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Pedi Crisis Mobile Application.

Anesth Analg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

When life-threatening, critical events occur in the operating room, the fast-paced, high-distraction atmosphere often leaves little time to think or deliberate about management options. Success depends on applying a team approach to quickly implement well-rehearsed, systematic, evidence-based assessment and treatment protocols. Mobile devices offer resources for readily accessible, easily updatable information that can be invaluable during perioperative critical events. Read More

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December 2018

Observational Study Examining the Association of Baseline Frailty and Postcardiac Surgery Delirium and Cognitive Change.

Anesth Analg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland†Division of Medical Psychology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome thought to identify the most vulnerable older adults, and morbidity and mortality has been reported to be higher for frail patients after cardiac surgery compared to nonfrail patients. However, the cognitive consequences of frailty after cardiac surgery have not been well described. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that baseline frailty would be associated with postoperative delirium and cognitive change at 1 and 12 months after cardiac surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Cannabis-related cognitive impairment: a prospective evaluation of possible influences on patients with cancer during chemotherapy treatment as a pilot study.

Anticancer Drugs 2019 Jan;30(1):91-97

Neuro-Cognitive Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus.

Objectives: In patients with cancer, the use of medical cannabis has increased significantly during the recent years. There is evidence that cannabis consumption may affect cognitive performance; however, this potential effect has not been investigated prospectively in patients with cancer to date. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cannabis consumption on cognitive abilities as well as on symptom relief in patients with cancer during chemotherapy treatment. Read More

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January 2019

Preinjury and Postinjury Factors That Predict Sports-Related Concussion and Clinical Recovery Time.

Clin J Sport Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between preinjury risk factors (RFs) and subsequent occurrence of concussion and examine whether preinjury RFs or postinjury assessments predict clinical recovery in collegiate athletes.

Methods: Risk factors (sex, sport, and self-report history of concussion, migraine, attention-deficit disorder, learning disability, depression, and anxiety) and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), depression/anxiety screenings, and neuropsychological testing were obtained before the season. For athletes who sustained concussion, RFs, postinjury SCAT, neuropsychological assessment, and clinical recovery were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Poor estimates of motor variability are associated with longer grooved pegboard times for middle-aged and older adults.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, United States.

Goal-directed movements that involve greater motor variability are performed with an increased risk that the intended goal will not be achieved. The ability to estimate motor variability during such actions varies across individuals and influences how people decide to move about their environment. The purpose of our study was to identify the decision-making strategies used by middle-aged and older-adults when performing two goal-directed motor tasks and to determine if these strategies were associated with the time to complete the grooved pegboard test. Read More

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December 2018

Phase shifts in high beta and low gamma band local field potentials predict the focus of visual spatial attention.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine, United States.

The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-relevant behavior or cognitive processes, such as attention. We sought to determine whether LFP amplitude or phase modulations were predictive of the allocation of visual spatial attention. Read More

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December 2018
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Virtual Reality for Teletherapy: Avatars May Combine the Benefits of Face-to-Face Communication with the Anonymity of Online Text-Based Communication.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney , Sydney, Australia .

Self-disclosure is an essential component of social communication that has been associated with trust, liking, and ultimately strong relationships. As technology continues to develop, so do the number of methods to create and maintain relationships. While speaking face-to-face (FtF) remains the primary way to communicate, computer-mediated communication has become more common, meaning that research into self-disclosure has expanded to new domains, including virtual reality (VR). Read More

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December 2018

Serial position effects differ between Alzheimer's and vascular features in mild cognitive impairment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore 308433, Singapore.

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit varying serial position effect (SPE) performances. The relationship between SPE performance in word list recall and clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of MCI requires elucidation. 119 MCI and 68 cognitively normal (CN) participants underwent cognitive assessment, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping, and volumetric MRI brain scans processed via voxel-based morphometry. Read More

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December 2018

[Close-to-win evaluations are affected by the outcome and delay between stopping the wheels in slot machines].

Psychiatr Hung 2018 ;33(4):340-346

Debreceni Egyetem, Pszichologiai Intezet, Szemelyiseg- es Klinikai Pszichologia Tanszek, Debrecen, Hungary, E-mail:

Introduction: Distinct structural characteristics of gambling may affect the development of gambling addiction differently. The current study is dealing with the frequency of near-miss outcomes which works like secondary reinforcement and thus may contribute to gambling addiction. Authors of this paper argue that different near miss configurations should specifically alter the experiences of the player and this phenomenon can be proved experimentally Methods: Participants played with a computer-simulated slot machine. Read More

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January 2018

Parkinson's disease: a short story of 200 years.

Histol Histopathol 2018 Dec 12:18073. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience Group (NiCE-IMIB), Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Institute for Aging Research, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Read More

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December 2018

USEFULNESS OF GASTRIC SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION DEPTH TO EVALUATE SKILL ACQUIREMENT IN SHORT TERM TRAINING COURSES IN ESD: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):221-229

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Endoscopia Gastrointestinal, SP, Brasil.

Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a complex endoscopic procedure, with high rates of adverse events and technical difficulties. To overcome that problem, many training centers published the importance of animal models for skill acquirement in ESD. However, no study has used the submucosal dissection depth (DSUB) as a parameter to evaluate the learning curve in ESD, which might be a relevant factor since an optimal resection plane is important to achieve a curative resection and avoid intraoperative complications. Read More

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February 2018

A prospective longitudinal evaluation of cognition and depression in postoperative patients with high-grade glioma following radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S1048-S1051

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250117, China.

Aim Of Study: The survival rate in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients receiving a combined regimen of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide after tumor resection was increased. However, cognitive deficits and depression after the treatments challenge the treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognition and depression in postoperative patients with HGG following RT and chemotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Paternal physical exercise modulates global DNA methylation status in the hippocampus of male rat offspring.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):491-500

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências; Laboratório de Histofisiologia Comparada, Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

It is widely known that maternal physical exercise is able to induce beneficial improvements in offspring cognition; however, the effects of paternal exercise have not been explored in detail. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity and DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus of male offspring. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: sedentary or exercised fathers. Read More

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Sodium valproate suppresses abnormal neurogenesis induced by convulsive status epilepticus.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):480-484

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing, China.

Status epilepticus has been shown to activate the proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the brain, while also causing a large amount of neuronal death, especially in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. Simultaneously, proliferating stem cells tend to migrate to areas with obvious damage. Our previous studies have clearly confirmed the effect of sodium valproate on cognitive function in rats with convulsive status epilepticus. Read More

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An enriched environment promotes synaptic plasticity and cognitive recovery after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):462-469

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synaptic remodeling in a mouse model of chronic cerebral ischemia, produced by subjecting adult male C57BL/6 mice to permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Three days postoperatively, mice were randomly assigned to the environmental enrichment and standard housing groups. Read More

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Essential oils and functional herbs for healthy aging.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):441-445

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Read More

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March 2019
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Terpenoid-rich Elettaria cardamomum extract prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced in diabetic rats via inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:405-416. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Purpose: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). Read More

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January 2019

Beneficial effects of leptin substitution on impaired eating behavior in lipodystrophy are sustained beyond 150 weeks of treatment.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:400-404. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Aim: Metreleptin treatment in lipodystrophy patients improves eating behavior with increased satiety and reduced hunger. However, no data are available whether effects are maintained beyond 52 weeks of treatment.

Methods: A prospective study with measurements at baseline and at >150 weeks of metreleptin treatment was performed. Read More

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January 2019

Hippocampal volume and vasculature before and after exercise in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 29;202:158-165. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Schizophrenia is associated with poor cognitive function and elevated cardiometabolic disease risk. These health concerns may exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction associated with hippocampal abnormalities, particularly hippocampal volume reductions. Regular exercise is thought to improve symptom severity, reduce depression, and improve cognition in schizophrenia, and may trigger exercise-mediated hippocampal growth. Read More

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December 2018

Neurobiology of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: Effects of EAAT2 polymorphism.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 29;202:106-110. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Cognitive deficits represent core features of schizophrenia, affecting quality of life and functioning. The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate reuptake and its activity is crucial for glutamatergic neurotransmission, prevention of excitotoxic damage and cerebral metabolism. Different studies reported that EAAT2 rs4354668 (-181 T/G) influences cognitive functions and brain structures in patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018

Functional magnetic resonance imaging with encoding task in patients with mild cognitive impairment and different severity of leukoaraiosis.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 30;282:126-131. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, Pisa 56126, Italy.

Leukoaraiosis is one of the main contributors to mild cognitive impairment due to vascular damage (vascular MCI, VMCI), whose pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated yet. We aimed to shed light on such issue using functional MRI (fMRI). Sixteen patients with VMCI were enrolled and compared with twenty-five patients with MCI but without significant vascular damage (non-vascular MCI, NVMCI) and with fifteen healthy controls (HC). Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive and Emotional Components of Rejection Sensitivity: Independent Contributions to Adolescent Self- and Interpersonal Functioning.

Assessment 2018 Dec 12:1073191118817866. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

4 LUMSA University, Rome, Italy.

In this article, we focus on rejection sensitivity (RS) in adolescents. Although the RS model distinguishes clearly between the emotional (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Does the recall of caregiver eating messages exacerbate the pathogenic impact of shame on eating and weight-related difficulties?

Eat Weight Disord 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CINEICC, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioural Intervention, Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua do Colégio Novo, Apartado 6153, 3001-802, Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: The central role of caregiver eating messages has been recognized on later individual's eating behaviour, body image and weight status. Additionally, shame is a painful emotion also associated with the development and maintenance of body image and eating-related difficulties. The main aim of the present study was to explore the moderator effect of the recall of caregiver eating messages on the associations between external shame, body weight and shape-related concerns, and the adoption of inflexible eating rules. Read More

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December 2018

TGF-β1 Restores Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Alzheimer Model via the PI3K/Akt/Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, No. 89-9 Dongge Road, Nanning, 530023, Guangxi, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disturbances. Dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and decline in cognitive functions are the most prominent features of AD, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been well elucidated. In this paper, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was found to be reduced in the hippocampus of AD mouse which was accompanied by impaired pine density, synaptic plasticity, and memory function. Read More

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December 2018

Autism and Religious Beliefs: Clues from Kafka Research.

Authors:
Jerry Stuger

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Independent Researcher, Overvoorde 19, 1082GA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Religious beliefs and faith in high-functioning autistic persons are analyzed by discussing the work and biography of Franz Kafka. It enables researchers to differentiate between how autistic and non-autistic persons experience and express religious beliefs and spiritual issues because Kafka as an autistic person also wrote about these topics in his philosophical-religious writings. This Franz Kafka case study provides additional inner (cognitive) state input to better understand high-functioning autism. Read More

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December 2018

Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Experience of Traumatic Events: Review of the Current Literature to Inform Modifications to a Treatment Model for Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Children with autism incur trauma and have increased vulnerabilities for experiencing trauma. This paper summarizes the current literature in the study of trauma in typically developing children and those with autism. A treatment model for children with autism, drawing on components from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), trauma-focused CBT, and CBT to teach emotion regulation and treat anxiety in children with autism is suggested. Read More

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December 2018

What is a cognitive map? Unravelling its mystery using robots.

Cogn Process 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Despite years of research into cognitive mapping, the process remains controversial and little understood. A computational theory of cognitive mapping is needed, but developing it is difficult due to the lack of a clear interpretation of the empirical findings. For example, without knowing what a cognitive map is or how landmarks are defined, how does one develop a computational theory for it? We thus face the conundrum of trying to develop a theory without knowing what is computed. Read More

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December 2018

Oxytocin reactivity to an emotional challenge paradigm and its relation to social-cognitive functions in healthy volunteers.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychiatry Psychotherapy and Preventive Medicine, LWL University Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Alexandrinenstr 1-3, 44791, Bochum, Germany.

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is known to be an important modulator of social cognition. It has been shown that lower OT plasma concentrations are linked to impairments in social cognition. Studies have also shown that intranasal OT may enhance social-cognitive abilities in healthy subjects. Read More

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December 2018

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the effects of repeated-dose caffeine on neurobehavioral performance during 48 h of total sleep deprivation.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Sleep and Performance Research Center and Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USA.

Rationale: Caffeine is widely used as a countermeasure against neurobehavioral impairment during sleep deprivation. However, little is known about the pharmacodynamic profile of caffeine administered repeatedly during total sleep deprivation.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of repeated caffeine dosing on neurobehavioral performance during sleep deprivation, we conducted a laboratory-based, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, multi-dose study of repeated caffeine administration during 48 h of sleep deprivation. Read More

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December 2018

Helping Parents Understand Applied Behavior Analysis: Creating a Parent Guide in 10 Steps.

Behav Anal Pract 2018 Dec 24;11(4):496-503. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

2Department of Educational Studies, The Ohio State University, A356 PAES Bldg, 305 Annie & John Glenn Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.

Interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be effective for children with a wide range of cognitive, adaptive, and functional abilities. Many special education teachers understand the principles of ABA and are adept at implementing ABA interventions for students. However, as the principles of ABA can be complex, communicating with parents about ABA interventions can be challenging. Read More

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December 2018

Non-pharmacological Approaches for Headaches in Young Age: An Updated Review.

Front Neurol 2018 27;9:1009. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Neurology, Public Health and Disability Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Neurology, Milan, Italy.

Headache disorders are common in children and adolescents. Most of the studies on non-pharmacological treatments have however been carried out on adults. In this review we provide information on recent studies examining non-pharmacological approaches for managing headache in children and adolescents. Read More

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November 2018

High-Order Visual Processing, Visual Symptoms, and Visual Hallucinations: A Possible Symptomatic Progression of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2018 27;9:999. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

To determine whether Parkinson disease (PD) patients with (VH) have different clinical characteristics and gray-matter volume than those with visual misperceptions (VM) or other visual symptoms (OvS). The spectrum of visual complaints in PD is broad and complex. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 525 PD patients to identify the frequency of visual symptoms and the association with clinical and radiological features. Read More

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November 2018