356,827 results match your criteria Cognitive Development [Journal]
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Background And Aim: Notwithstanding multiple recommendations in guidelines, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube placement is still performed in patients with dementia. In this study we aim to investigate survival in patients with and without dementia after (PEG)-tube placement.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in four different hospitals in The Netherlands. Read More
Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition.
Aims And Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined. Read More
Res Dev Disabil 2018 Dec 11;85:116-130. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
Introduction: The cognitive discrepancy approach to loneliness is often used to describe loneliness in ageing populations, but to date, it has never been used to explore loneliness in older people with an intellectual disability. An analysis is needed utilising a refined list of causes of loneliness in this population.
Method: Using data from a nationally representative dataset of people aged over 40 with an intellectual disability (N = 708), this analysis runs repeated regressions of variables grouped into conceptual blocks, organised from sociodemographic to network quality. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Nov 26;271:510-515. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
During the euthymic state in bipolar disorder, cognitive functions often remain affected. Specifically, subjective and objective cognitive impairment might distinctly affect patients' quality of life (QoL); however, this question had not been examined previously in Japanese patients. Therefore, the current study investigated the associations between cognitive complaints, QoL, and objective cognitive functions. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 5;271:502-509. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Studiestraede 6, 1455 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Danish WEMWBS and its short version (SWEMWBS) in a Danish population sample, and compared scores in Denmark with scores representative of three other European settings. A total of 3,508 Danish men and women aged 16-95 filled out an electronic survey. Face validity was examined by cognitive interviews. Read More
Cognition 2018 Dec 11;183:282-302. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
In working memory research, individual items are sometimes said to be in the "focus of attention". According to one view, this occurs for the last item in a sequentially presented list (last-item benefit). According to a second view, this occurs when items are externally cued during the retention interval (retro-cue benefit). Read More
J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 1;109:145-155. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Psychology, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.
Difficulty in clinical antidepressant treatment leads to the pursuit of alternative treatments, such as cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). CBT combined with regular antidepressants have indicated an optimal therapeutic effect in clinic. Attentional bias is important in the occurrence and remission of depression, however, few studies have explored the effect of attentional bias modification (ABM) on depression, and inconsistent results have been obtained due to the heterogeneity in the targeted populations, training tasks, strategies, and materials. Read More
J Anxiety Disord 2018 Nov 20;62:53-60. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 E River Rd, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) for PTSD at all of its facilities, but little is known about systematic differences between patients who do and do not initiate these treatments. VA administrative data were analyzed for 6,251 veterans receiving psychotherapy over one year in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty clinics at nine VA medical centers. CPT and PE were initiated by 2,173 (35%) patients. Read More
Neural Netw 2018 Nov 27;110:116-130. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.
Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Kocaeli, Turkey; Kocaeli University, Experimental Medical Research and Application Centre, Kocaeli, Turkey.
Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the development of vascular dementia (VD), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The previous studies have also reported that resveratrol improves cognitive and vascular endothelial functions in several pathological conditions. Read More
J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances, is caused by CAG-repeat expansion in exon 1 of Huntingtin (HTT). However, in addition to the neurological disease, mutant HTT (mHTT), which is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, impairs other organ systems. Not surprisingly, cardiovascular dysautonomia as well as the deterioration of circadian rhythms are among the earliest detectable pathophysiological changes in individuals with HD. Read More
Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; email:
One-session treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 14;12:CD011710. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cardiff, UK, CF24 4HQ.
Background: Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Read More
J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)
German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ), University Hospital of Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame. Read More
J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13):10
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
Angle perception is an important middle-level visual process, combining line features to generate an integrated shape percept. Previous studies have proposed two theories of angle perception-a combination of lines and a holistic feature following Weber's law. However, both theories failed to explain the dual-peak fluctuations of the just-noticeable difference (JND) across angle sizes. Read More
J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)
School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
We previously demonstrated that perceptual learning of Vernier discrimination, when paired with orientation learning at the same retinal location, can transfer completely to untrained locations (Wang, Zhang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2014; Zhang, Wang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2011). However, Hung and Seitz (2014) reported that the transfer is possible only when Vernier is trained with short staircases, but not with very long staircases. Here we ran two experiments to examine Hung and Seitz's conclusions. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208653. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Anthropology and Center for Behavior, Evolution and Culture, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
Conservatives and liberals have previously been shown to differ in the propensity to view socially-transmitted information about hazards as more plausible than that concerning benefits. Given differences between conservatives and liberals in threat sensitivity and dangerous-world beliefs, correlations between political orientation and negatively-biased credulity may thus reflect endogenous mindsets. Alternatively, such results may owe to the political hierarchy at the time of previous research, as the tendency to see dark forces at work is thought to be greater among those who are out of political power. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209256. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Dyscalculia, a specific learning disability that impacts arithmetical skills, has previously been associated to a deficit in the precision of the system that estimates the approximate number of objects in visual scenes (the so called 'number sense' system). However, because in tasks involving numerosity comparisons dyscalculics' judgements appears disproportionally affected by continuous quantitative dimensions (such as the size of the items), an alternative view linked dyscalculia to a domain-general difficulty in inhibiting task-irrelevant responses. To arbitrate between these views, we evaluated the degree of reciprocal interference between numerical and non-numerical quantitative dimensions in adult dyscalculics and matched controls. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.
Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.
Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. Read More
Medwave 2018 Dec 14;18(8):e7376. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Proyecto Epistemonikos, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Email: Address: Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 476, Santiago, Chile.
Introduction: The usual supplementation for hypothyroidism is based on monotherapy with levothyroxine. However, some patients persist with symptoms attributable to the deficit of thyroid hormone. It has been suggested that the a combined treatment with liothyronine and levothyroxine would provide a greater benefit. Read More
Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Purpose: The aim was to determine the minimum secondary exhaustion criteria cut-offs (i.e. max respiratory exchange ratio [RERmax], max heart rate [HRmax], max rating of perceived exertion [RPEmax], and max blood lactate concentration [BLmax]) necessary to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) during cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET), by balancing type I and type II errors. Read More
J Dev Behav Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.
Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) can adversely affect children's cognitive development, but links between IPV exposure and language development in the earliest years of life remain unknown. The present study examined the effects of IPV and the quality of the home environment on children's language development at age 3 years.
Methods: In a prospective, 5-panel, longitudinal study of 79 mother-child dyads assessed prenatally to age 3 years, we examined standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development at age 3 years. Read More
Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System.
Purpose Of Review: Various groups have explored the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on neurodegeneration through nutritional and metabolic alterations. In this review, we hope to summarize recent findings in humans as well as preclinical APOE models.
Recent Findings: Metabolic pathways including lipid metabolism appear to play a large role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Read More
Med Care 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco.
Background: Existing approaches to measuring women's pregnancy intentions suffer important limitations, including retrospective assessment, overly simple categories, and a presumption that all women plan pregnancies. No psychometrically valid scales exist to prospectively measure the ranges of women's pregnancy preferences.
Materials And Methods: Using a rigorous construct modeling approach, we developed a scale to measure desire to avoid pregnancy. Read More
J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychology.
Interpersonal accuracy refers to the ability to make accurate perceptions about others' social and emotional qualities. Despite this broad definition, the measurement of interpersonal accuracy remains narrow, as most studies focus on the accurate perception of others' emotional states. Moreover, previous research has relied primarily upon traditional tasks consisting of posed, prototypic expressions and behaviors as stimuli. Read More
J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Experimental Psychology.
We monitored the progress of 40 children when they first started to acquire a second language (L2) implicitly through immersion. Employing a longitudinal design, we tested them before they had any notions of an L2 (Time 0) and after 1 school year of L2 exposure (Time 1) to determine whether cognitive abilities can predict the success of L2 learning. Task administration included measures of intelligence, cognitive control, and language skills. Read More
J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
UMR CNRS 8240.
Building on the old adage that the deliberate mind corrects the emotional heart, the influential dual process model of moral cognition has posited that utilitarian responding to moral dilemmas (i.e., choosing the greater good) requires deliberate correction of an intuitive deontological response. Read More
Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1215-1222
Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University.
Subtle changes in everyday tasks precede and predict future disability in older adults. Eye tracking may provide a sensitive tool for detecting subtle disruption of everyday task performance and informing the mechanism(s) of breakdown. We tracked eye movements of healthy older adults (OA, n = 24) and younger adults (YA, n = 25) while they passively viewed a naturalistic scene (Passive Viewing condition) and then verbally reported the necessary steps for achieving a task goal (e. Read More
Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1195-1201
Institute of Training and Computer Science in Sport.
To examine the effect of short-term video presentation intervention (VPI) on stair self-efficacy and on stair-climbing ability, 90 participants age 65 and above were randomly assigned to 3 groups: The first intervention group watched role models descending the same staircase used for testing, the second intervention group watched role models descending an unfamiliar staircase, and the control group watched an irrelevant control video. This study found that stair-climbing duration was shortened compared with the pretest without affecting movement fluency as supported by the social-cognitive theory. We interpret this outcome as evidence for improved self-efficacy: the intervention strengthened our participants' belief that they can successfully complete the task. Read More
Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1168-1180
Department of Psychology.
Even though older adults are known to have difficulty at language processing when a secondary task has to be performed simultaneously, few studies have addressed how older adults process language in dual-task demands when linguistic load is systematically varied. Here, we manipulated surprisal, an information theoretic measure that quantifies the amount of new information conveyed by a word, to investigate how linguistic load affects younger and older adults during early and late stages of sentence processing under conditions when attention is split between two tasks. In high-surprisal sentences, target words were implausible and mismatched with semantic expectancies based on context, thereby causing integration difficulty. Read More
J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychology.
Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance. The goal of this project was (a) to comprehensively examine the structure of associations between multiple self-regulatory constructs stemming from the cognitive and personality psychology traditions; (b) to estimate how these constructs, individually and collectively, related to mathematics and reading ability beyond psychometric measures of processing speed and fluid intelligence; and (c) to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors mediated the observed associations. Read More
Hist Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. Read More
J Comp Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Universite Grenoble Alpes.
Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences in other humans and also in rhesus macaques and, if they do, whether such preferences would extend beyond conspecific faces. Read More
ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
In an increasingly complex information society, demands for cognitive functioning are growing steadily. In recent years, numerous strategies to augment brain function have been proposed. Evidence for their efficacy (or lack thereof) and side effects has prompted discussions about ethical, societal and medical implications. Read More
G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2018 Dec;40(4):224-247
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and Consiglio Direttivo AIRM.
Objectives: For several decades, the Italian Association of Medical Radioprotection (AIRM) is engaged in the promotion of scientific, technical, and methodological knowledge in the field of medical radioprotection.
Methods: Starting from the results of the previous study conducted in 2013, AIRM has carried out a new survey among its members. This survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire to be completed online on a platform set up on the association's website. Read More
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1422-1425
Department of Respiration of North China University of Science and Technology Affiliated Hospital, 063000, China.
To explore the effect of butylphthalide on oxidative stress and cognitive function in old obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS)patients.A total of 90 old OSAHS patients with cognitive impairment were choosed with Polysomnography（PSG）. By random number table method OSAHS patients were randomly divided into non-invasive ventilator group (=30), butylphthalide with non-invasive ventilator group(=30) and treatment group of butylphthalide(=30). Read More
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1414-1417
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Huainan First People's Hospital.
To analyze the correlation between cognitive function and serum NPY levels in OSAHS patients, and to explore biomarkers for evaluating cognitive function in adult patients with OSAHS. To verify the validity of MoCA in evaluating cognitive function in OSAHS patients.72 patients with OSAHS and 16 healthy controls were included. Read More
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1396-1399
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University; Shanxi Key Laboratory of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Cancer.
To study the differences in cognitive function between patients with laryngeal carcinoma and healthy volunteers. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma who have been first diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma, but not received treatment at the Department of Otolaryngology in two hospitals in Shanxi Province and healthy volunteers of the same age, gender-matched and similar education were studied for the purpose to evaluate the cognitive status by using the Wechsler memory scale.No significant difference of age, gender and educational level was found between both groups（>0. Read More
Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):488-489
Joven y Fuerte: Programa para la Atención e Investigación de Mujeres Jóvenes con Cáncer de Mama, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Ciudad de México.
J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Objective: Late-life depression has been associated with increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Predictors of increased risk are incompletely understood. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors could facilitate prevention of MCI and dementia. Read More
J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 20;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Melbourne, Australia.
Objective: To evaluate the extent to which cognitive measures in the recently developed THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it) are associated with global and domain specific psychosocial disability in patients with current and remitted major depressive disorder (MDD).
Methods: Cross-sectional data (N = 127) were obtained from participants with current (n = 105) or remitted (n = 22) MDD who completed the THINC-it between July 2014 and June 2018. Major depressive disorder was diagnostically assessed with DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Read More
Dev Sci 2018 Dec 14:e12787. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University, 2-1-15 Nishiai, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-8502, JAPAN.
The theory of natural pedagogy has proposed that infants can use ostensive signals, including eye contact, infant-directed speech, and contingency to learn from others. However, the role of bodily gestures, such as hand-waving, in social learning has been largely ignored. To address this gap in the literature, this study sought to determine whether 4-month-old infants exhibited a preference for horizontal or vertical (control) hand-waving gestures. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Groningen, Netherlands.
Sensorineural hearing loss is often accompanied by difficulties with understanding speech in fluctuating backgrounds, suggesting that neural coding of complex sound features, such as the sound envelope, is impaired. Here, we studied how temporal and rate coding of the envelope is affected in the inferior colliculus immediately after acoustic trauma. Neural activity in response to amplitude-modulated noise was recorded from the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig, before and immediately after a 1-hour 11-kHz acoustic trauma. Read More
Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Objective: To use digital histology in a large autopsy cohort of Lewy Body Disorder (LBD) patients with dementia to test the hypotheses that co-occurring Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology impacts the anatomic distribution of α-synuclein (SYN) pathology and that co-occurring neocortical tau pathology in LBD associates with worse cognitive performance and occurs in a pattern differing from AD.
Methods: Fifty-five autopsy-confirmed LBD (PDD: 36, DLB:19) patients and 25 AD patients were studied. LBD patients were categorized as having moderate/severe AD co-pathology (SYN+AD=20) or little/no AD co-pathology (SYN-AD=35). Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
"Mario Serio" Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy.
The ability to flexibly regulate our behavior is a fundamental feature of human cognition and requires efficient functioning of cognitive control. During movement preparation, proactive inhibitory control plays a crucial role in regulating the excitatory activity carried out by alertness. The balance between alertness and proactive inhibition could be altered in people with motor impulsivity trait, determining the typical failure in the inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Read More
Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.
Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More
Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC).
Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Read More
Aging Cell 2018 Dec 13:e12886. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine.
Identifying genetic factors that modify an individual's susceptibility to cognitive decline in aging is critical to understanding biological processes involved and mitigating risk associated with a number of age-related disorders. Recently, heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (Hp1bp3) was identified as a mediator of cognitive aging. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for these findings and show that targeted knockdown of Hp1bp3 in the hippocampus by 50%-75% is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits and transcriptional changes reminiscent of those observed in aging and Alzheimer's disease brains. Read More