356,731 results match your criteria Cognitive Brain Research[Journal]


Cognitive training benefit depends on brain injury location in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living.

Aim: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence. Read More

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December 2018

Visuospatial Integration and Hand-Tool Interaction in Cognitive Archaeology.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Sociograph Marketing Science Consulting, Valladolid, Spain.

Testing cognitive hypotheses in extinct species can be challenging, but it can be done through the integration of independent sources of information (e.g., anatomy, archaeology, neurobiology, psychology), and validated with quantitative and experimental approaches. Read More

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December 2018

Functional Imaging of Visuospatial Attention in Complex and Naturalistic Conditions.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

One of the ultimate goals of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how the brain works in the real world. Functional imaging with naturalistic stimuli provides us with the opportunity to study the brain in situations similar to the everyday life. This includes the processing of complex stimuli that can trigger many types of signals related both to the physical characteristics of the external input and to the internal knowledge that we have about natural objects and environments. Read More

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December 2018

The content validity of the ANMS GCSI-DD in patients with idiopathic or diabetic gastroparesis.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2018 Dec 13;2(1):61. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Temple University Hospital, 3401 N Broad Street, #1003, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Background: The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (ANMS GCSI-DD) was developed to meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for patient-reported outcome (PRO) endpoints in gastroparesis studies, including therapeutic trials. The current version of the ANMS GCSI-DD contains five items pertaining to nausea, early satiety, post-prandial fullness, upper abdominal pain, and vomiting. The specific aims of this study were to determine if the appropriate symptoms are included in the ANMS GCSI-DD and to assess the content validity in patients with idiopathic (IG) and diabetic gastroparesis (DG). Read More

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December 2018

Implicit associations between individual properties of color and sound.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Language and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

We report a series of 22 experiments in which the implicit associations test (IAT) was used to investigate cross-modal correspondences between visual (luminance, hue [R-G, B-Y], saturation) and acoustic (loudness, pitch, formants [F1, F2], spectral centroid, trill) dimensions. Colors were sampled from the perceptually accurate CIE-Lab space, and the complex, vowel-like sounds were created with a formant synthesizer capable of separately manipulating individual acoustic properties. In line with previous reports, the loudness and pitch of acoustic stimuli were associated with both luminance and saturation of the presented colors. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibitory Control and Information Processing in ADHD: Comparing the Dual Task and Performance Adjustment Hypotheses.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Advancement of Youth, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Inhibition is a key neurocognitive domain in ADHD that is commonly assessed with the stop-signal task. The stop-signal involves both "go" and "stop" trials; previous research indicates that response times are reliably slower to "go" trials during tasks with vs. without intermittent "stop" trials. Read More

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December 2018
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Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Statistical learning of anomalous regions in complex faux X-ray images does not transfer between detection and discrimination.

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2018 Dec 13;3(1):48. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Road, S506 Elliott Hall, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

The visual environment contains predictable information - "statistical regularities" - that can be used to aid perception and attentional allocation. Here we investigate the role of statistical learning in facilitating search tasks that resemble medical-image perception. Using faux X-ray images, we employed two tasks that mimicked two problems in medical-image perception: detecting a target signal that is poorly segmented from the background; and discriminating a candidate anomaly from benign signals. Read More

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December 2018

Low dislocation rate of Saturne/Avantage dual-mobility THA after displaced femoral neck fracture: a cohort study of 966 hips with a minimum 1.6-year follow-up.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University Clinic for Hand, Hip and Knee Surgery, Hospital Unit West, Building 8, Entrance N, 1st floor, Laegaardvej 12, 7500, Holstebro, Denmark.

Introduction: Dislocation is a serious and common complication and a great concern with the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) when treating displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). Dual-mobility (DM) THA might reduce the dislocation risk. We aim to report the dislocation and revision rate of primary DM THA in patients with displaced FNF. Read More

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December 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, brain atrophy and cognitive decline in older people: a longitudinal study.

Diabetologia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, 17 Liverpool Street, Private Bag 23, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia.

Aims/hypothesis: The aims of the study were to examine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether brain atrophy mediates associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.

Methods: Participants without dementia aged 55-90 years from the Cognition and Diabetes in Older Tasmanians (CDOT) study underwent brain MRI (ventricular and total brain volume) and neuropsychological measures (global function and seven cognitive domains) at three time points over 4.6 years. Read More

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December 2018

Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018

Development of an Interactive Dashboard to Analyze Cognitive Workload of Surgical Teams During Complex Procedural Care.

IEEE Int Interdiscip Conf Cogn Methods Situat Aware Decis Support 2018 Jun 2;2018:77-82. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Anesthesia, MGH, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

In the surgical setting, team members constantly deal with a high-demand operative environment that requires simultaneously processing a large amount of information. In certain situations, high demands imposed by surgical tasks and other sources may exceed team member's cognitive capacity, leading to cognitive overload which may place patient safety at risk. In the present study, we describe a novel approach to integrate an objective measure of team member's cognitive load with procedural, behavioral and contextual data from real-life cardiac surgeries. Read More

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Subregional Hippocampal Thickness Abnormalities in Older Adults with a History of Heavy Cannabis Use.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 10;3(1):242-251. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Dataset on significant role of Candesartan on cognitive functions in rats having memory impairment induced by electromagnetic waves.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 26;21:2390-2394. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Rammal Hassan Rammal Research Laboratory, Physio-toxicity (PhyTox) research group, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (V), Nabatieh, Lebanon.

Rapid growing of mobile phones users has raised about the possible effects of these electromagnetic waves (EMW) on human health. Many studies have examined the role of these EMW on biological systems, but the results are still contradictory and controversial. In addition to EMW, over-activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been associated with cognitive decline, incidence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Safety of Creatine Supplementation in Active Adolescents and Youth: A Brief Review.

Front Nutr 2018 28;5:115. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, United States.

Creatine has been extensively researched and is well-supported as one of the most effective dietary supplements available. There is overwhelming support within the literature regarding the ability of creatine to augment performance following short term (5-7 days) and long-duration supplementation periods. There is also strong support for creatine regarding its safety profile and minimal risk for adverse events or any negative influence on markers of clinical health and safety. Read More

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November 2018

Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Test Performance: Testing a Modified Index of Life's Simple 7 Among Older Chinese Adults.

Front Public Health 2018 28;6:352. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; = 11,295). Read More

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November 2018

Utility of Geriatric Assessment in the Projection of Early Mortality Following Hip Fracture in the Elderly Patients.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2018 3;9:2151459318813976. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Hip fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality in elders. Indicators of frailty are associated with poor outcomes. Commonly used frailty tools rely on motor skills that cannot be performed by this population. Read More

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December 2018

Epigenetic modulation during hippocampal development.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 18;9(6):463-473. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023, P.R. China.

The hippocampus is located in the limbic system and is vital in learning ability, memory formation and emotion regulation, and is associated with depression, epilepsy and mental retardation in an abnormal developmental situation. Several factors have been found to modulate the development of the hippocampus, and epigenetic modification have a crucial effect in this progress. The present review summarizes the epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, regulating all stages of hippocampal development, focusing on the growth of Ammons horn and the dentate gyrus in humans and rodents. Read More

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December 2018

Oxford Cognitive Screen - Brazilian Portuguese version (OCS-Br) A pilot study.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):427-431

Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Group - Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Cognitive impairment is very common in stroke patients and underdiagnosed. Symptoms such as language, praxis, visuospatial, visuoconstructive and memory impairment are prominent. The screening cognitive tests available do not address some specific characteristics of stroke patients and have major limitations in relation to the most impaired cognitive domains. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of cognitive stimulation workshops on the self-esteem and cognition of the elderly A pilot project.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):421-426

Diretor da Unidade da Unidade de Neuropsicologia do Instituto de Psiquiatria - HCFMUSP, SP, Brazil.

According to the WHO, by 2025 Brazil will be ranked sixth in the world in terms of proportion of elderly in the population. Within this scope, cognition plays a central role in the aging process, having an important association with quality of life, which suggests the need to develop intervention programs, such as cognitive training.

Objective: To determine the effects of a program of cognitive stimulation workshops on the self-esteem and cognition of elderly people. Read More

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December 2018

Impacts of cognitive impairment for different levels and causes of traumatic brain injury, and education status in TBI patients.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):415-420

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of main causes of death and disability among many young and old populations in different countries.

Objective: The aim of this study were to consider and predict the cognitive impairments according to different levels and causes of TBI, and education status.

Methods: The study was performed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to estimate cognitive impairment in patients at a trauma center in Zahedan city. Read More

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December 2018

Family caregivers of elderly with dementia Relationship between religiosity, resilience, quality of life and burden.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):408-414

Professor of the School of Psychology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

There are gaps in knowledge regarding how the family caregiver deals with the burden of caring for elderly people with dementia.

Objective: To evaluate the family caregivers' perception of quality of life (QoL), burden, resilience and religiosity and relate them with cognitive aspects and occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of elderly with dementia.

Methods: Data from the QoL-AD scale, caregivers' version, burden interview, resilience scale, Beck depression inventory and PDUREL of 50 family caregivers were correlated with disability assessment for dementia, neuropsychiatric inventory and clinical aspects of 50 elderly with dementia. Read More

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December 2018

Applicability of the Test of Variables of Attention - T.O.V.A in Brazilian adults.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):394-401

Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The functioning of attention is complex, a primordial function in several cognitive processes and of great interest to neuropsychology. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O. Read More

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December 2018

Monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention with SPECT in Alzheimer patients Implications for neurologically appropriate psychosocial interventions. An observational study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):380-387

Geriatric Behavioral Neurology, Tohoku University CYRIC, Japan.

We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention.

Objective: The aim is to provide "brain-based" evidence for psychosocial interventions using SPECT.

Methods: The participants were 27 consecutive outpatients with AD who received the drug and psychosocial intervention, and SPECT three times (baseline, pre-/post-intervention) at 6 month-intervals. Read More

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December 2018

The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) as a brief cognitive screening instrument in Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):368-373

Grupo de Neurologia Cognitiva e do Comportamento (GNCC), Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) is a brief cognitive screening test that evaluates four main cognitive domains (orientation, memory, language and visuospatial function) with a maximum score of 30 points and administration time of five minutes.

Objective: To assess the performance of healthy elderly, MCI patients and mild AD patients using the Brazilian version of the M-ACE.

Methods: The test was applied to a group of 36 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 23 mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and 25 cognitive healthy elderly. Read More

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December 2018

Focused ultrasound and Alzheimer's disease A systematic review.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):353-359

Medical student. Departamento de Medicina, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Paraíba, Cabedelo, PB, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people, however, there is still no effective treatment. The use of focused ultrasound with microbubbles (FUS-MB) for the opening of the blood-brain barrier has been recently studied and may become a promising therapeutic target.

Objective: To discuss the use of FUS-MB for the treatment of AD and to present some of the techniques used. Read More

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December 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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The Over-Extended Mind? Pink Noise and the Ethics of Interaction-Dominant Systems.

Nanoethics 2018 1;12(3):269-281. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

4Department of Health and Social Sciences, UWE, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY UK.

There is a growing recognition within cognitive enhancement and neuroethics debates of the need for greater emphasis on cognitive artefacts. This paper aims to contribute to this broadening and expansion of the cognitive-enhancement and neuroethics debates by focusing on a particular form of relation or coupling between humans and cognitive artefacts: interaction-dominance. We argue that interaction-dominance as an emergent property of some human-cognitive artefact relations has important implications for understanding the attribution and distribution of causal and other forms of responsibility as well as agency relating to the actions of human-cognitive artefact couplings. Read More

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November 2018

Comparing Effects of Reward Anticipation on Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2318. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Chair of Lifespan Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Goal-directed behavior requires sufficient resource allocation of cognitive control processes, such as the ability to prioritize relevant over less relevant information in working memory. Findings from neural recordings in animals and human multimodal imaging studies suggest that reward incentive mechanisms could facilitate the encoding and updating of context representations, which can have beneficial effects on working memory performance in young adults. In order to investigate whether these performance enhancing effects of reward on working memory processes are still preserved in old age, the current study aimed to investigate whether aging alters the effects of reward anticipation on the encoding and updating mechanisms in working memory processing. Read More

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November 2018
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Does Inside Equal Outside? Relations Between Older Adults' Implicit and Explicit Aging Attitudes and Self-Esteem.

Front Psychol 2018 22;9:2313. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Teacher Education and Psychology, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China.

Attitudes toward one's own aging and self-esteem are crucial variables in predicting older adults' physical and mental health and can significantly affect their will to live, cognitive judgement and acceptance of medical treatment. However, little is known about the relation between the implicit attitude toward one's own aging and implicit self-esteem. This research explored consistencies between implicit and explicit attitudes toward one's own aging and between implicit and explicit self-esteem and explored their relations in 70 older adults aged 60-91 years old using the word and picture versions of the Implicit Association Test and standardized scales. Read More

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November 2018

Linking Cognitive Measures of Response Inhibition and Reward Sensitivity to Trait Impulsivity.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2306. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Impulsivity is regarded as a multifaceted construct that comprises two dimensions: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity. It is unclear, however, which aspects of trait impulsivity, as assessed by self-report measures are related to rapid-response impulsivity and/or to reward-delay impulsivity, as different results have been reported in studies using both self-report and cognitive measures. This study aimed to directly relate self-report measures of impulsivity to cognitive measures of impulsivity in individuals at low- or high-levels on two impulsivity dimensions, specifically rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity. Read More

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November 2018
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An Embodied Tutoring System for Literal vs. Metaphorical Concepts.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2254. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.

In this paper we combine motion captured data with linguistic notions (preliminary study) in a game-like tutoring system (study 1), in order to help elementary school students to better differentiate literal from metaphorical uses of motion verbs, based on embodied information. In addition to the thematic goal, we intend to improve young students' attention and spatiotemporal memory, by presenting sensorimotor data experimentally collected from thirty two participants in our motion capturing labs. Furthermore, we examine the accomplishment of tutor's goals and compare them to curriculum's approach (study 2). Read More

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November 2018
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Pupillary Measures of the Cognitive Effort in Auditory Novel Word Processing and Short-Term Retention.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2248. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The use of the task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs) methodology is emerging in the psycholinguistics literature, as a sensitive, reliable and dynamic psychophysiological measure of the cognitive effort produced by various aspects of language processing. This preliminary study aimed to assess the functionality and effectiveness of a TEPRs design for measuring the cognitive effort required for the processing and spontaneous (non-explicitly prompted) short-term retention of novel phonological forms presented auditorily. Twenty-four young adult participants (aged 19-28 years, = 20. Read More

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November 2018

The Female Heart: Sex Differences in the Dynamics of ECG in Response to Stress.

Front Physiol 2018 28;9:1616. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Communications and Signal Processing, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Sex differences in the study of the human physiological response to mental stress are often erroneously ignored. To this end, we set out to show that our understanding of the stress response is fundamentally altered once sex differences are taken into account. This is achieved by comparing the heart rate variability (HRV) signals acquired during mental maths tests from ten females and ten males of similar maths ability; all females were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Read More

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November 2018

Topiramate and Metformin Are Effective Add-On Treatments in Controlling Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2018 28;9:1393. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute for Mental Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Antipsychotic drugs may lead to side effects such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis analyzes and provides an update on the clinical performance of these add-ons in comparison to placebo on body weight and body mass index (BMI) reductions. A comprehensive literature search was performed on electronic databases: PubMed (1946-), Embase (1974-), Cochrane library (1992-), and OpenGrey (2000-) until 31 July 2018. Read More

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November 2018

Blood Markers in Healthy-Aged Nonagenarians: A Combination of High Telomere Length and Low Amyloidβ Are Strongly Associated With Healthy Aging in the Oldest Old.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 28;10:380. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Donostia Universitary Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain.

Many factors may converge in healthy aging in the oldest old, but their association and predictive power on healthy or functionally impaired aging has yet to be demonstrated. By detecting healthy aging and in turn, poor aging, we could take action to prevent chronic diseases associated with age. We conducted a pilot study comparing results of a set of markers (peripheral blood mononuclear cell or PBMC telomere length, circulating Aβ peptides, anti-Aβ antibodies, and ApoE status) previously associated with poor aging or cognitive deterioration, and their combinations, in a cohort of "neurologically healthy" (both motor and cognitive) nonagenarians ( = 20) and functionally impaired, institutionalized nonagenarians ( = 38) recruited between 2014 and 2015. Read More

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November 2018

Lifelong Learning of Spatiotemporal Representations With Dual-Memory Recurrent Self-Organization.

Front Neurorobot 2018 28;12:78. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Knowledge Technology, Department of Informatics, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Artificial autonomous agents and robots interacting in complex environments are required to continually acquire and fine-tune knowledge over sustained periods of time. The ability to learn from continuous streams of information is referred to as and represents a long-standing challenge for neural network models due to in which novel sensory experience interferes with existing representations and leads to abrupt decreases in the performance on previously acquired knowledge. Computational models of lifelong learning typically alleviate catastrophic forgetting in experimental scenarios with given datasets of static images and limited complexity, thereby differing significantly from the conditions artificial agents are exposed to. Read More

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November 2018
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Can Your DNA Influence Your Bet-Placing? The Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene on Gambling Tasks.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:458. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Sino-Britain Centre for Cognition and Ageing Research, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Are we placing a bet by ourselves or has our DNA already made the decision for us? Previous research has suggested that some genes related to dopamine or serotonin can influence our non-bet-placing decision-making, but little is known about whether cannabinoid-related genes can impact how much people bet. To investigate this issue, we focused on rs1049353, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (), because it is related to addictive behavior and reward processing. In this study ( = 377), we used a modified Cambridge gambling task to test the effect of polymorphism on how much people bet. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth and Synaptic Partner Selection in .

J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518816088. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Read More

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December 2018

The Hippocampal Engram as a Memory Index.

J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518815942. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Laboratory for Circuit and Behavioral Physiology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako, Japan.

The hippocampus encodes memories for past events, but the nature of the hippocampal code subserving this function remains unclear. A prevailing idea, strongly supported by hippocampal physiology, is the Cognitive Map Theory. In this view, episodic memories are anchored to spatial domains, or allocentric frameworks, of experiences, with the hippocampus providing a stable representation of external space. Read More

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December 2018
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Training Augmented Intelligent Capabilities for Pharmacovigilance: Applying Deep-learning Approaches to Individual Case Safety Report Processing.

Pharmaceut Med 2018 13;32(6):391-401. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

1Celgene Corporation, 86 Morris Avenue, Summit, NJ 07901 USA.

Introduction: Regulations are increasing the scope of activities that fall under the remit of drug safety. Currently, individual case safety report (ICSR) collection and collation is done manually, requiring pharmacovigilance professionals to perform many transactional activities before data are available for assessment and aggregated analyses. For a biopharmaceutical company to meet its responsibilities to patients and regulatory bodies regarding the safe use and distribution of its products, improved business processes must be implemented to drive the industry forward in the best interest of patients globally. Read More

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October 2018

Investigating the influence of ubiquinone blood level on the abilities of children with specific learning disorder.

Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg 2018 27;54(1):39. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

1Research on Children with Special Needs Department, Medical Research division, National Research Centre, Elbuhouth Street, 12622, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Ubiquinone has antioxidant properties and has been linked to cognitive performance in some neuropsychiatric disorders. Its role in specific learning disorder manifestations has not been previously investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the blood levels of ubiquinone in a group of children with specific learning disorder in comparison to typically developing children and to investigate the correlation between ubiquinone levels in children with specific learning disorder and some of their intellectual capabilities, reading, spelling and writing performance. Read More

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November 2018

Complementary topology of maintenance and manipulation brain networks in working memory.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17827. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Working memory (WM) is assumed to consist of a process that sustains memory representations in an active state (maintenance) and a process that operates on these activated representations (manipulation). We examined evidence for two distinct, concurrent cognitive functions supporting maintenance and manipulation abilities by testing brain activity as participants performed a WM alphabetization task. Maintenance was investigated by varying the number of letters held in WM and manipulation by varying the number of moves required to sort the list alphabetically. Read More

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December 2018
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The DNA repair associated protein Gadd45 regulates the temporal coding of immediate early gene expression within the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and is required for the consolidation of associative fear memory.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Cognitive Neuroepigenetics Laboratory, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia

We have identified a member of the growth arrest and DNA damage (Gadd45) protein family, Gadd45, which is known to be critically involved in DNA repair, as a key player in the regulation of immediate early gene (IEG) expression underlying the consolidation of associative fear memory in adult male C57/Bl6 mice. Gadd45 temporally influences learning-induced IEG expression in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PLPFC) through its interaction with DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated changes in DNA methylation. Our findings suggest a two-hit model of experience-dependent IEG activity and learning that comprises 1) a first wave of IEG expression governed by DSBs and followed by a rapid increase in DNA methylation, and 2) a second wave of IEG expression associated with the recruitment of Gadd45 and active DNA demethylation at the same site, which is necessary for memory consolidation. Read More

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December 2018

Allosteres to Regulate Neurotransmitter Sulfonation.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Microbiology & Immunology, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States.

Catecholamine neurotransmitter levels in the synapses of the brain shape human disposition - cognitive flexibility, aggression, depression, reward seeking… - and manipulating these levels is a major objective of the pharmaceutical industry. Certain neurotransmitters are extensively sulfonated and inactivated by human sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3). To our knowledge, sulfonation as therapeutic means of regulating transmitter activity has not been explored. Read More

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December 2018
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High-capacity preconscious processing in concurrent groupings of colored dots.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697

Grouping is a perceptual process in which a subset of stimulus components (a group) is selected for a subsequent-typically implicit-perceptual computation. Grouping is a critical precursor to segmenting objects from the background and ultimately to object recognition. Here, we study grouping by color. Read More

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December 2018

3D nanofabrication by volumetric deposition and controlled shrinkage of patterned scaffolds.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420):1281-1285

MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Lithographic nanofabrication is often limited to successive fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) layers. We present a strategy for the direct assembly of 3D nanomaterials consisting of metals, semiconductors, and biomolecules arranged in virtually any 3D geometry. We used hydrogels as scaffolds for volumetric deposition of materials at defined points in space. Read More

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December 2018
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Brain β-Amyloid and Atrophy in Individuals at Increased Risk of Cognitive Decline.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background And Purpose: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. Read More

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December 2018
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Easier and Faster Is Not Always Better: Grounded Theory of the Impact of Large-Scale System Transformation on the Clinical Work of Emergency Medicine Nurses and Physicians.

JMIR Hum Factors 2018 Dec 13;5(4):e11013. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Background: The effectiveness of Lean Thinking as a quality improvement method for health care has been contested due, in part, to our limited contextual understanding of how it affects the working conditions and clinical workflow of nurses and physicians. Although there are some initial indications, arising from prevalence surveys and interviews, that Lean may intensify work performed within medical environments, the evidence base still requires detailed descriptions of the changes that were actually introduced to individuals' clinical workflow and how these changes impacted health care professionals.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore ways in which a Lean intervention may impact the clinical work of emergency medicine nurses and physicians. Read More

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December 2018
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Using Psychological Artificial Intelligence (Tess) to Relieve Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Ment Health 2018 Dec 13;5(4):e64. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

X2AI Inc, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: Students in need of mental health care face many barriers including cost, location, availability, and stigma. Studies show that computer-assisted therapy and 1 conversational chatbot delivering cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offer a less-intensive and more cost-effective alternative for treating depression and anxiety. Although CBT is one of the most effective treatment methods, applying an integrative approach has been linked to equally effective posttreatment improvement. Read More

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December 2018
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