3,651 results match your criteria Cognition[Journal]


Is scaling up harder than scaling down? How children and adults visually scale distance from memory.

Cognition 2019 Jan 11;185:39-48. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Coe College, USA.

In three experiments (N = 288), we examined how the direction of the scale translation impacts how 4- to 5-year-old children and adults visually scale distance from memory. Participants first watched an experimenter place an object on a learning mat and then attempted to place a replica object on a test mat that was either identical (no scaling task) or different in scale (scaling task). In Experiment 1, both children and adults had difficulty scaling up from 16 to 128 in. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Explanation recruits comparison in a category-learning task.

Cognition 2019 Jan 11;185:21-38. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Psychology, Peretsman Scully Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.

Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting category learning; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that engaging in explanation can recruit comparison processes, and that this in turn contributes to the effectiveness of explanation in supporting category learning. Three experiments evaluated the interplay between explanation and various comparison strategies in learning artificial categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.011DOI Listing
January 2019

Word frequency effects in sound change as a consequence of perceptual asymmetries: An exemplar-based model.

Cognition 2019 Jan 11;185:1-20. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand; Department of Linguistics, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Empirically-observed word frequency effects in regular sound change present a puzzle: how can high-frequency words change faster than low-frequency words in some cases, slower in other cases, and at the same rate in yet other cases? We argue that this puzzle can be answered by giving substantial weight to the role of the listener. We present an exemplar-based computational model of regular sound change in which the listener plays a large role, and we demonstrate that it generates sound changes with properties and word frequency effects seen in corpora. In particular, we consider the experimentally-supported assumption that high-frequency words may be more robustly recognized than low-frequency words in the face of acoustic ambiguity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Distinct roles of eye movements during memory encoding and retrieval.

Cognition 2018 Dec 27;184:119-129. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

University of Toronto, Department of Psychology, 100 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada. Electronic address:

A long line of research has shown that vision and memory are closely linked, such that particular eye movement behaviour aids memory performance. In two experiments, we ask whether the positive influence of eye movements on memory is primarily a result of overt visual exploration during the encoding or the recognition phase. Experiment 1 allowed participants to free-view images of scenes, followed by a new-old recognition memory task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.014DOI Listing
December 2018

Reference repulsion is not a perceptual illusion.

Cognition 2018 Dec 23;184:107-118. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Perceptual decisions are often influenced by contextual factors. For instance, when engaged in a visual discrimination task against a reference boundary, subjective reports about the judged stimulus feature are biased away from the boundary - a phenomenon termed reference repulsion. Until recently, this phenomenon has been thought to reflect a perceptual illusion regarding the appearance of the stimulus, but new evidence suggests that it may rather reflect a post-perceptual decision bias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.010DOI Listing
December 2018

What we know about knowing: Presuppositions generated by factive verbs influence downstream neural processing.

Cognition 2018 Dec 22;184:96-106. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA.

Presuppositions convey information that comprehenders assume to be true, even when it is tangential to the communicator's main message. For example, a class of verbs called 'factives' (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.012DOI Listing
December 2018

Identity-motivated reasoning: Biased judgments regarding political leaders and their actions.

Cognition 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

The Open University of Israel, Israel.

We investigate how constituents interpret information about political leaders in the course of forming judgments about them. More specifically, we are interested in the intentionality attributed to the actions and decisions taken by political leaders - whether they are perceived as designed to benefit the politician's own interests, or the interests of the public. In two field studies, we show that the political orientation of constituents plays a central role in driving constituents' judgments about political leaders and their actions (in terms of beneficiary attributions), reflecting an identity-motivated reasoning process. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.009DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Characterising monitoring processes in event-based prospective memory: Evidence from pupillometry.

Cognition 2018 Dec 18;184:83-95. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, UK. Electronic address:

In event-based prospective memory (PM) paradigms, participants are engaged in an ongoing task (e.g. lexical decision) while maintaining an intention to produce a special response if they encounter pre-defined targets (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Two's company, three's a crowd: Individuation is necessary for object recognition.

Cognition 2018 Dec 18;184:69-82. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Kings College, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK.

Object recognition is essential for navigating the real world. Despite decades of research on this topic, the processing steps necessary for recognition remain unclear. In this study, we examined the necessity and role of individuation, the ability to select a small number of spatially distinct objects irrespective of their identity, in the recognition process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.008DOI Listing
December 2018

The cognitive roots of regularization in language.

Cognition 2018 Dec 17;184:53-68. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre for Language Evolution, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Regularization occurs when the output a learner produces is less variable than the linguistic data they observed. In an artificial language learning experiment, we show that there exist at least two independent sources of regularization bias in cognition: a domain-general source based on cognitive load and a domain-specific source triggered by linguistic stimuli. Both of these factors modulate how frequency information is encoded and produced, but only the production-side modulations result in regularization (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Compounding matters: Event-related potential evidence for early semantic access to compound words.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:44-52. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology and the Jack and Nora Walker Centre for Lifespan Development Research, Brock University, Canada.

Reading words in a native language triggers a largely obligatory cognitive process that we accept as leading to comprehension of the word - we cannot suppress our understanding of word meaning. In this study, we investigated the early stages of this comprehension process by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify when this processing of meaning - that is, semantic processing - first occurs. We report that, when processing visually presented compound words, semantic access at some level occurs as early as the P100 and persists through to the N400. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.006DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Gaze allocation in face-to-face communication is affected primarily by task structure and social context, not stimulus-driven factors.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:28-43. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Gaze allocation to human faces has recently been shown to be greatly dependent on the social context. However, what has not been considered explicitly here, is how gaze allocation may be supportive of the specific task that individuals carry out. In the present study, we combined these two insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018

One of us? how facial and symbolic cues to own- versus other-race membership influence access to perceptual awareness.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:19-27. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Information that conveys racial group membership plays a powerful role in influencing people's information processing including perceptual, memory and evaluative judgments. Yet whether own- and other-race information can differentially impact people's perceptual awareness at a preconscious level remains unclear. Employing a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, we investigated whether compared with other-race stimuli, participants' own-race stimuli would be prioritized to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018

When humans behave like monkeys: Feedback delays and extensive practice increase the efficiency of speeded decisions.

Cognition 2018 Dec 13;184:11-18. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Australia.

The study of non-human primates has been foundational in understanding the neural origins of human decision processes, yet the approach rests on the assumption that one can validly extrapolate from the animal to the human. In the context of decision making, this requires constancy across species in physiological and cognitive processes. The former cannot be experimentally validated and therefore remains assumed, and recent findings have called into question the latter: non-human primates become increasingly urgent as the time spent making a decision increases, but humans do not; from a normative perspective, monkeys are making closer-to-optimal decisions than humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.014DOI Listing
December 2018

A mechanistic account of bodily resonance and implicit bias.

Cognition 2018 Dec 13;184:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, London, UK; UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK. Electronic address:

Implicit social biases play a critical role in shaping our attitudes towards other people. Such biases are thought to arise, in part, from a comparison between features of one's own self-image and those of another agent, a process known as 'bodily resonance'. Recent data have demonstrated that implicit bias can be remarkably plastic, being modulated by brief immersive virtual reality experiences that place participants in a virtual body with features of an out-group member. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Two distinct mechanisms of selection in working memory: Additive last-item and retro-cue benefits.

Cognition 2019 Feb 11;183:282-302. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In working memory research, individual items are sometimes said to be in the "focus of attention". According to one view, this occurs for the last item in a sequentially presented list (last-item benefit). According to a second view, this occurs when items are externally cued during the retention interval (retro-cue benefit). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.015DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Cognitive mechanisms in violent extremism.

Cognition 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Ingardena 6 Str., 30-060 Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

This paper considers the cognitive underpinnings of violent extremism. We conceptualize extremism as stemming from a motivational imbalance in which a given need "crowds out" other needs and liberates behavior from their constraints. In the case of violent extremism, the dominant need in question is the quest for personal significance and the liberated behavior is aggression employed as means to the attainment of significance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Opening the reconsolidation window using the mind's eye: Extinction training during reconsolidation disrupts fear memory expression following mental imagery reactivation.

Cognition 2019 Feb 7;183:277-281. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CNAPs Lab, Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, B3 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, United States. Electronic address:

Can mental imagery rather than external stimulation reactivate an aversive conditioned memory for the purposes of attenuating fear with subsequent extinction training? To answer this question participant underwent a three-day protocol: Day 1 entailed fear acquisition training in which two conditioned stimuli were paired with mild shock (US), while a CS- never was; day 2 included imagery-based reactivation of only one of the two CS+ followed by standard extinction training within the reconsolidation ten minutes later; day 3 included reinstatement by the unsignaled presentation of the US followed by a re-extinction phase. We observed no evidence of fear recovery on the first trial of re-extinction for the reminded, mentally imaged, CS+, whereas fear returned for the non-reminded CS+. Thus, mental imagery was sufficient to reactivate a fear memory thereby opening the reconsolidation window and facilitating fear suppression via extinction training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019

The reality of hierarchical morphological structure in multimorphemic words.

Cognition 2019 Feb 3;183:269-276. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Linguistics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

This cross-modal priming study is one of the first to empirically test the long-held assumption that individual morphemes of multimorphemic words are represented according to a hierarchical structure. The results here support the psychological reality behind this assumption: Recognition of trimorphemic words (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.015DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Testing analogical rule transfer in pigeons (Columba livia).

Cognition 2019 Feb 30;183:256-268. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Tufts University, Department of Psychology, USA.

Categorization is an essential cognitive process useful for transferring knowledge from previous experience to novel situations. The mechanisms by which trained categorization behavior extends to novel stimuli, especially in animals, are insufficiently understood. To understand how pigeons learn and transfer category membership, seven pigeons were trained to classify controlled, bi-dimensional stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322971PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Skilled readers' sensitivity to meaningful regularities in English writing.

Cognition 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK.

Substantial research has been undertaken to understand the relationship between spelling and sound, but we know little about the relationship between spelling and meaning in alphabetic writing systems. We present a computational analysis of English writing in which we develop new constructs to describe this relationship. Diagnosticity captures the amount of meaningful information in a given spelling, whereas specificity estimates the degree of dispersion of this meaning across different spellings for a particular sound sequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.09.013DOI Listing
November 2018

The seeds of social learning: Infants exhibit more social looking for plants than other object types.

Cognition 2019 Feb 29;183:244-255. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Max Planck Research Group Naturalistic Social Cognition, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Infants must negotiate encounters with a wide variety of different entities over the course of the first few years of life, yet investigations of their social referencing behavior have largely focused on a limited set of objects and situations such as unfamiliar toys and the visual cliff. Here we examine whether infants' social looking strategies differ when they are confronted with plants. Plants have been fundamental to human life throughout our evolutionary history, and learning about which plants are beneficial and which are dangerous is a task that, for humans, cannot be achieved alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.09.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Selective maintenance of value information helps resolve the exploration/exploitation dilemma.

Cognition 2019 Feb 28;183:226-243. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of Pittsburgh, Department of Psychiatry, 3811 O'Hara St., BT 742, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

In natural environments with many options of uncertain value, one faces a difficult tradeoff between exploiting familiar, valuable options or searching for better alternatives. Reinforcement learning models of this exploration/exploitation dilemma typically modulate the rate of exploratory choices or preferentially sample uncertain options. The extent to which such models capture human behavior remains unclear, in part because they do not consider the constraints on remembering what is learned. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183029
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328060PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Impact of characteristics of L1 literacy experience on picture processing: ERP data from trilingual non-native Chinese and English readers.

Cognition 2019 Feb 27;183:213-225. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

Previous studies involving ex-illiterate and young readers of alphabetic scripts have shown that processing of non-verbal visual stimuli may be affected by literacy, which is attributable to intensive perceptual training during reading acquisition. This study examined whether the characteristics of one's native writing system, with respect to visual complexity and overall shape of orthographic unit, would influence the processing of pictured objects using event-related potential (ERP) with linear mixed-effects modeling. Kanji and Hangul constitute an interesting contrast as they differ in visual complexity but are similar in orthographic shape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Political cognition helps explain social class divides: Two dimensions of candidate impressions, group stereotypes, and meritocracy beliefs.

Authors:
Susan T Fiske

Cognition 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Princeton University, United States. Electronic address:

Political cognitions-particularly impressions and stereotypes along two fundamental dimensions of social evaluations-play some role in explaining social class divides and accompanying resentments. First, the Big Two dimensions (warmth/communion and competence/agency) describe candidate perception, person perception, and group stereotypes. In particular, the stereotype content model and related perspectives show social-class stereotypes depicting elites as competent but cold and lower-income groups as incompetent but warm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.007DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

The impact of stimulus uncertainty on attentional control.

Cognition 2019 Feb 26;183:208-212. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

University of Leiden, the Netherlands.

We argue that stimulus uncertainty induces a cognitive state that can be linked to a concept that has been formerly described as 'curiosity' (Berlyne, 1949) - a state that motivates the agent to reduce the uncertainty by exploring it. In two attention filtering tasks we varied response compatibility and stimulus congruency. In addition, we manipulated whether stimulus congruency was predictable or random. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Contrast and entailment: Abstract logical relations constrain how 2- and 3-year-old children interpret unknown numbers.

Cognition 2019 Feb 26;183:192-207. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, United States.

Do children understand how different numbers are related before they associate them with specific cardinalities? We explored how children rely on two abstract relations - contrast and entailment - to reason about the meanings of 'unknown' number words. Previous studies argue that, because children give variable amounts when asked to give an unknown number, all unknown numbers begin with an existential meaning akin to some. In Experiment 1, we tested an alternative hypothesis, that because numbers belong to a scale of contrasting alternatives, children assign them a meaning distinct from some. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Cross-situational and ostensive word learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

Cognition 2019 Feb 20;183:181-191. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. Electronic address:

Numerous experimental studies have shown that infants and children can discover word meanings by using co-occurrences between labels and objects across individually ambiguous contexts-a phenomenon known as cross-situational learning. Like typically developing children, high-functioning school aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are capable of cross-situational learning. However, it is not yet clear whether cross-situational learning is similarly available to children with ASD who are younger and show a broader range of language and cognitive abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.025DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Why wait for the verb? Turkish speaking children use case markers for incremental language comprehension.

Cognition 2019 Feb 20;183:152-180. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Harvard University, USA.

During language comprehension we must rapidly determine the thematic roles of arguments (who did what to whom) in order to semantically integrate the players into a single event and predict upcoming structure. While some languages signal these relations mostly with reliable word order, others rely more on case markers. The present study explores whether Turkish-speaking children use case marking predictively during online language comprehension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.026DOI Listing
February 2019

Spending too little in hard times.

Cognition 2019 Feb 19;183:139-151. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Political Science & Center for Behavioral Political Economy, Social and Behavioral Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790, USA. Electronic address:

People's decisions to consume and save resources are critical to their wellbeing. Previous experiments find that people typically spend too much because of how they discount the future. We propose that people's motive to preserve their savings can instead cause them to spend too little in hard times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.028DOI Listing
February 2019

Independent contribution of perceptual experience and social cognition to face recognition.

Cognition 2019 Feb 16;183:131-138. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

School of Psychological Sciences, Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Faces convey rich perceptual and social information. The contribution of perceptual and social information to face recognition has been typically examined in separate experiments. Here, we take a comprehensive approach by studying the contributions of both perceptual experience and social-conceptual information to face learning within the same experimental design. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.003DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Nonlinear decision weights or moment-based preferences? A model competition involving described and experienced skewness.

Cognition 2019 Feb 14;183:99-123. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Adaptive Rationality, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The predictive power of cumulative prospect theory and expected utility theory is typically compared using decisions from description, where lotteries' outcome values and probabilities are explicitly stated. In decisions from experience, individuals sample (in the sampling paradigm without cost) from the return distributions to learn outcome values and their relative frequencies; here cumulative prospect theory and expected utility theory require the calculation of probabilities from experience. Individuals, however, may be more attuned to the experienced moments of outcome distributions, rather than the probabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.023DOI Listing
February 2019

The affective twitches of task switches: Task switch cues are evaluated as negative.

Cognition 2019 Feb 15;183:124-130. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Task switching refers to the demanding cognitive control process that allows us to flexibly switch between different task contexts. It is a seminal observation that task switching comes with a performance cost (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Facial expressions of authenticity: Emotion variability increases judgments of trustworthiness and leadership.

Cognition 2019 Feb 14;183:82-98. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Columbia University, United States.

People automatically generate first impressions from others' faces, even with limited time and information. Most research on social face evaluation focuses on static morphological features that are embedded "in the face" (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.009DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

No luck for moral luck.

Cognition 2019 Jan 11;182:331-348. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, 15260 Pittsburgh, USA. Electronic address:

Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judgments, whether people's concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.09.003DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A model for discovering 'containment' relations.

Cognition 2019 Feb 9;183:67-81. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address:

Rapid developments in the fields of learning and object recognition have been obtained by successfully developing and using methods for learning from a large number of labeled image examples. However, such current methods cannot explain infants' learning of new concepts based on their visual experience, in particular, the ability to learn complex concepts without external guidance, as well as the natural order in which related concepts are acquired. A remarkable example of early visual learning is the category of 'containers' and the notion of 'containment'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.001DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

How bilinguals perceive speech depends on which language they think they're hearing.

Cognition 2019 Jan 8;182:318-330. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA. Electronic address:

Bilinguals understand when the communication context calls for speaking a particular language and can switch from speaking one language to speaking the other based on such conceptual knowledge. There is disagreement regarding whether conceptually-based language selection is also possible in the listening modality. For example, can bilingual listeners perceptually adjust to changes in pronunciation across languages based on their conceptual understanding of which language they're currently hearing? We asked French- and Spanish-English bilinguals to identify nonsense monosyllables as beginning with /b/ or /p/, speech categories that French and Spanish speakers pronounce differently than English speakers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.021DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Local contour symmetry facilitates scene categorization.

Cognition 2019 Jan 8;182:307-317. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

People are able to rapidly categorize briefly flashed images of real-world environments, even when they are reduced to line drawings. This setting allows for the study of time-limited perceptual grouping processes in the human visual system that are applicable to line drawings. Previous work (Wilder, Dickinson, Jepson, & Walther, 2018) showed that standard local features of individual contours, or junctions between contours, do not account for this rapid classification ability but, rather, the relative placement of these contours appeared to be important. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.09.014DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Mature counterfactual reasoning in 4- and 5-year-olds.

Cognition 2019 Feb 7;183:57-66. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Applied Psychology & Human Development, University of Toronto, 252 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1V6, Canada. Electronic address:

Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of the human imagination. Recently, researchers have argued that children do not display genuine counterfactual reasoning until they can reason about events that are overdetermined and consider the removal of one of multiple causes that lead to the same outcome. This ability has been shown to emerge between 6 and 12 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.027DOI Listing
February 2019

Scenes enable a sense of reliving: Implications for autobiographical memory.

Cognition 2019 Feb 6;183:44-56. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recall the layout of a scene also results in amnesia suggesting a possible milder effect in people without such neurological damage. Based on this and other observations, we hypothesized that the degree to which the layout of a scene is recalled will correlate positively with ratings of reliving, vividness, and belief, and will explain more variance in multiple regressions than recalling the scene's contents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322930PMC
February 2019

Unfolding meaning in context: The dynamics of conceptual similarity.

Cognition 2019 Feb 6;183:19-43. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

University of Connecticut, Department of Psychological Sciences, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, USA.

How are relationships between concepts affected by the interplay between short-term contextual constraints and long-term conceptual knowledge? Across two studies we investigate the consequence of changes in visual context for the dynamics of conceptual processing. Participants' eye movements were tracked as they viewed a visual depiction of e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Hearing me hearing you: Reciprocal effects between child and parent language in autism and typical development.

Cognition 2019 Feb 2;183:1-18. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, United States.

Language development in typically developing children (TD) has traditionally been investigated in relation to environmental factors, while language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has primarily been related to child-based factors. We employ a longitudinal corpus of 32 preschoolers with ASD and 35 linguistically matched TD peers recorded over 6 visits (ranging between 2 and 5 years of age) to investigate the relative importance of child-based and environmental factors in language development for both populations. We also investigate the reciprocal interaction between children's response to parents' input, and parents' response to children's production. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322977PMC
February 2019
16 Reads

The spillover effects of attentional learning on value-based choice.

Cognition 2019 Jan 2;182:294-306. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Psychology, 1827 Neil Avenue, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Economics, 1945 N High Street, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

What role does attention play in decision-making? Prior research has demonstrated a link between visual attention and value-based choice, but the direction of causality is still unclear. Here we aimed to demonstrate that attention has a causal influence on choice. We tested whether spatially biasing attention in a visual search task would produce choice biases in a later choice task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.012DOI Listing
January 2019

Negation markers inhibit motor routines during typing of manual action verbs.

Cognition 2019 Jan 31;182:286-293. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience (LPEN), Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCYT), INECO Foundation, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Faculty of Education, National University of Cuyo (UNCuyo), Mendoza, Argentina. Electronic address:

We explored whether negation markers recruit inhibitory mechanisms during keyboard-based action-verb typing. In each trial, participants read two sentences: the first featured a context (There is a contract) and the second ended with a relevant verb which had to be immediately typed. Crucially, the verb could describe manual actions, non-manual actions or non-motor processes, with either affirmative (You do sign it) or negative (You don't sign it) polarity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.020DOI Listing
January 2019

Forecasting tournaments, epistemic humility and attitude depolarization.

Cognition 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

The Ohio State University, United States.

People often express political opinions in starkly dichotomous terms, such as "Trump will either trigger a ruinous trade war or save U.S. factory workers from disaster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.021DOI Listing
October 2018

Reduced multisensory integration of self-initiated stimuli.

Cognition 2019 Jan 30;182:349-359. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

The processing and perception of stimuli is altered when these stimuli are not passively presented but rather are actively triggered, or "self-initiated", by the participants. For unimodal stimuli, perceptual changes in stimulus timing and intensity have been demonstrated. Initial results have suggested that self-initiation may affect multisensory processing as well. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.019DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

What do you know? ERP evidence for immediate use of common ground during online reference resolution.

Cognition 2019 Jan 30;182:275-285. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Psychology, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081, USA.

Recent evidence on the time-course of conversational perspective taking is mixed. Some results suggest that listeners rapidly incorporate an interlocutor's knowledge during comprehension, while other findings suggest that listeners initially interpret language egocentrically. A key finding in support of the egocentric view comes from visual-world eye-tracking studies - listeners systematically look at potential referents that are known to them but unknown to the speaker. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.013DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Model of Multiple Identity Tracking (MOMIT) 2.0: Resolving the serial vs. parallel controversy in tracking.

Cognition 2019 Jan 29;182:260-274. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The present study investigated whether during tracking of multiple moving objects with distinct identities only one identity is tracked at each moment (serial tracking) or whether multiple identities can be tracked simultaneously (parallel tracking). By adopting the gaze-contingent display change technique, we manipulated in real time the presence/absence of object identities during tracking. The data on performance accuracy revealed a serial tracking pattern for facial images and a parallel pattern for color discs: when tracking faces, the presence/absence of only the currently foveated identity impacted the performance, whereas when tracking colors, the presence of multiple identities across the visual field led to improved tracking performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.016DOI Listing
January 2019

How metacontrol biases and adaptivity impact performance in cognitive search tasks.

Cognition 2019 Jan 24;182:251-259. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Leiden University, Institute of Psychology, Cognitive Psychology Unit, & Leiden Institute for Brain & Cognition, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cognitive control requires a balance between persistence and flexibility. We studied inter- and intraindividual differences in the metacontrol bias towards persistence or flexibility in cognitive search tasks from various cognitive domains that require continuous switching between persistence and flexibility. For each task, clustering and switching scores were derived to assess persistence and flexibility, respectively, as well as a total performance score to reflect general performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.001DOI Listing
January 2019

It takes me back: The mnemonic time-travel effect.

Cognition 2019 Jan 24;182:242-250. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton, United Kingdom.

Given the links between motion and temporal thinking, it is surprising that no studies have examined the possibility that transporting participants back mentally towards the time of encoding could improve memory. Six experiments investigated whether backward motion would promote recall relative to forward motion or no-motion conditions. Participants saw a video of a staged crime (Experiments 1, 3 and 5), a word list (Experiments 2 and 4) or a set of pictures (Experiment 6). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.007DOI Listing
January 2019