3,698 results match your criteria Cognition[Journal]


Did that just happen? Event segmentation influences enumeration and working memory for simple overlapping visual events.

Cognition 2019 Mar 18;187:188-197. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Yale University, United States. Electronic address:

For working memory to be efficient, it is important not only to remember, but also to forget-thus freeing up memory for additional information. But what triggers forgetting? Beyond continuous temporal decay, memory is thought to be effectively 'flushed' to some degree at discrete event boundaries-i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.002DOI Listing

Monkeys are curious about counterfactual outcomes.

Cognition 2019 Mar 16;189:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, and Center for Neuroengineering University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States.

Many non-human animals show exploratory behaviors. It remains unclear whether any possess human-like curiosity. We previously proposed three criteria for applying the term curiosity to animal behavior: (1) the subject is willing to sacrifice reward to obtain information, (2) the information provides no immediate instrumental or strategic benefit, and (3) the amount the subject is willing to pay depends systematically on the amount of information available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Manual directional gestures facilitate cross-modal perceptual learning.

Cognition 2019 Mar 13;187:178-187. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Division of Arts and Sciences, New York University Shanghai, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics (Ministry of Education), School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; NYU-ECNU Institute of Brain and Cognitive Science at NYU Shanghai, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Action and perception interact in complex ways to shape how we learn. In the context of language acquisition, for example, hand gestures can facilitate learning novel sound-to-meaning mappings that are critical to successfully understanding a second language. However, the mechanisms by which motor and visual information influence auditory learning are still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Individual differences in the effects of priors on perception: A multi-paradigm approach.

Cognition 2019 Mar 13;187:167-177. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Institute of Penal Law, University of Tartu, Estonia.

The present study investigated individual differences in how much subjects rely on prior information, such as expectations or knowledge, when faced with perceptual ambiguity. The behavioural performance of forty-four participants was measured on four different visual paradigms (Mooney face recognition, illusory contours, blur detection and representational momentum) in which priors have been shown to affect perception. In addition, questionnaires were used to measure autistic and schizotypal traits in the non-clinical population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.008DOI Listing

The need for intellectual diversity in psychological science: Our own studies of actively open-minded thinking as a case study.

Cognition 2019 Mar 12;187:156-166. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

York University, Canada. Electronic address:

Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is measured by questionnaire items that tap the willingness to consider alternative opinions, the sensitivity to evidence contradictory to current beliefs, the willingness to postpone closure, and reflective thought. AOT has been found to be a strong predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks and of the avoidance of reasoning traps such as superstitious thinking and belief in conspiracy theories. Recently, several studies that have employed short forms of the AOT scale have shown startlingly high negative correlations with religiosity (in the range of -0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Adults imitate to send a social signal.

Cognition 2019 Mar 12;187:150-155. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Humans frequently imitate each other's actions with high fidelity, and different reasons have been proposed for why they do so. Here we test the hypothesis that imitation can act as a social signal, with imitation occurring with greater fidelity when a participant is being watched. In a preregistered study, 30 pairs of naïve participants played an augmented-reality game involving moving blocks in space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Individual differences in spelling ability influence phonological processing during visual word recognition.

Cognition 2019 Mar 12;187:139-149. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.

In the research reported here, we investigated how phonological processing in the lexical decision task is influenced by individual differences in the reading and spelling abilities of participants. We used phonological neighborhood spread as a measure of phonological processing. Spread refers to the number of phoneme positions in a word that can be changed to form a phonological neighbor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.015DOI Listing

Investigating the relationship between fast mapping, retention, and generalisation of words in children with autism spectrum disorder and typical development.

Cognition 2019 Mar 9;187:126-138. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, United Kingdom(1); Faculty of Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, P.O Box 19268, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

While many studies have investigated how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) impacts how children identify the meanings of new words, this task alone does not constitute learning. Here we investigate fast (referent selection) and slow (retention, generalisation) word learning processes as an integrated system and explore relationships between these mechanisms in ASD and typical development. In Study 1, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children matched on receptive vocabulary utilised mutual exclusivity to identify referents of unfamiliar words, but showed substantially reduced accuracy on delayed retention and generalisation trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Emotional arousal amplifies competitions across goal-relevant representation: A neurocomputational framework.

Cognition 2019 Mar 8;187:108-125. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, USA.

Emotional arousal often facilitates memory for some aspects of an event while impairing memory for other aspects of the same event. Across three experiments, we found that emotional arousal amplifies competition among goal-relevant representations, such that arousal impairs memory for multiple goal-relevant representations while enhancing memory for solo goal-relevant information. We also present a computational model to explain the mechanisms by which emotional arousal can modulate memory in opposite ways via the local/synaptic-level noradrenergic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.011DOI Listing

Thought as a determinant of political opinion.

Cognition 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Tufts University, United States.

Recent political events around the world, including the apparently sudden rise of populism and decline of democratic zeal, have surprised many of us and offered a window onto how people form beliefs and attitudes about the wider world. Cognitive scientists have tended to view belief and attitude formation from one of three perspectives: as a process of deliberative reasoning, as a gut reaction modulated by feelings, or as a cultural phenomenon grounded in partisan relationships. This special issue on the cognitive science of political thought brings a variety of voices to bear on the issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.014DOI Listing

Sensorimotor contingency modulates breakthrough of virtual 3D objects during a breaking continuous flash suppression paradigm.

Cognition 2019 Mar 7;187:95-107. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, United Kingdom; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, United Kingdom.

To investigate how embodied sensorimotor interactions shape subjective visual experience, we developed a novel combination of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) within an adapted breaking continuous flash suppression (bCFS) paradigm. In a first experiment, participants manipulated novel virtual 3D objects, viewed through a head-mounted display, using three interlocking cogs. This setup allowed us to manipulate the sensorimotor contingencies governing interactions with virtual objects, while characterising the effects on subjective visual experience by measuring breakthrough times from bCFS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Reconsidering unconscious persistence: Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their indirect expression in later thoughts.

Cognition 2019 Mar 7;187:78-94. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

When we seek to forget unwelcome memories, does the suppressed content still exert an unconscious influence on our thoughts? Although intentionally stopping retrieval of a memory reduces later episodic retention for the suppressed trace, it remains unclear the extent to which suppressed content persists in indirectly influencing mental processes. Here we tested whether inhibitory control processes underlying retrieval suppression alter the influence of a memory's underlying semantic content on later thought. To achieve this, across two experiments, we tested whether suppressing episodic retrieval of to-be-excluded memories reduced the indirect expression of the unwanted content on an apparently unrelated test of problem solving: the remote associates test (RAT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.016DOI Listing

Attentional modulation of masked semantic priming by visible and masked task cues.

Cognition 2019 Mar 2;187:62-77. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

University of Würzburg, Department of Psychology, Germany.

In contrast to classical theories of cognitive control, recent evidence suggests that cognitive control and unconscious automatic processing influence each other. First, masked semantic priming, an index of unconscious automatic processing, depends on attention to semantics induced by a previously executed task. Second, cognitive control operations (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Selective exposure partly relies on faulty affective forecasts.

Cognition 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, United States.

People preferentially consume information that aligns with their prior beliefs, contributing to polarization and undermining democracy. Five studies (collective N = 2455) demonstrate that such "selective exposure" partly stems from faulty affective forecasts. Specifically, political partisans systematically overestimate the strength of negative affect that results from exposure to opposing views. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.010DOI Listing

It depends: Partisan evaluation of conditional probability importance.

Cognition 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Decision Research and University of Oregon, United States.

Policies to suppress rare events such as terrorism often restrict co-occurring categories such as Muslim immigration. Evaluating restrictive policies requires clear thinking about conditional probabilities. For example, terrorism is extremely rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.020DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The contribution of visual attention and declining verbal memory abilities to age-related route learning deficits.

Cognition 2019 Feb 28;187:50-61. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, Ageing and Dementia Research Centre, Bournemouth University, UK.

Our ability to learn unfamiliar routes declines in typical and atypical ageing. The reasons for this decline, however, are not well understood. Here we used eye-tracking to investigate how ageing affects people's ability to attend to navigationally relevant information and to select unique objects as landmarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Multisensory enhancement of attention depends on whether you are already paying attention.

Cognition 2019 Feb 27;187:38-49. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

University of Sussex, UK. Electronic address:

Multisensory stimuli are argued to capture attention more effectively than unisensory stimuli due to their ability to elicit a super-additive neuronal response. However, behavioural evidence for enhanced multisensory attentional capture is mixed. Furthermore, the notion of multisensory enhancement of attention conflicts with findings suggesting that multisensory integration may itself be dependent upon top-down attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

A colorful advantage in iconic memory.

Cognition 2019 Feb 22;187:32-37. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1025 W. Johnson St. Madison, WI 53706, United States.

Synesthesia is a benign neurodevelopmental condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality evokes experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (Simner and Hubbard, 2013). In grapheme-color synesthesia (GCS), which is experienced by 1-2% of adults, synesthetes reliably and involuntarily experience specific colors when viewing blackand-white graphemes. Previous case-studies have identified synesthetes with spectacular memory (Luria, 1968; Smilek, Dixon, Cudahy, & Merikle, 2001) and group studies have found advantages for synesthetes compared to nonsynesthetes in long-term memory (Rothen, Meier, & Ward, 2012). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Reciprocal information flow and role distribution support joint action coordination.

Cognition 2019 Feb 21;187:21-31. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

Many joint actions require task partners to temporally coordinate actions that follow different spatial patterns. This creates the need to find trade-offs between temporal coordination and spatial alignment. To study coordination under incongruent spatial and temporal demands, we devised a novel coordination task that required task partners to synchronize their actions while tracing different shapes that implied conflicting velocity profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Neural evidence for Bayesian trial-by-trial adaptation on the N400 during semantic priming.

Cognition 2019 Feb 20;187:10-20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, USA; Department of Psychiatry and the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA.

When semantic information is activated by a context prior to new bottom-up input (i.e. when a word is predicted), semantic processing of that incoming word is typically facilitated, attenuating the amplitude of the N400 event related potential (ERP) - a direct neural measure of semantic processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Learning correspondences between magnitudes, symbols and words: Evidence for a triple code model of arithmetic development.

Cognition 2019 Feb 20;187:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Australian Catholic University, Australia. Electronic address:

According to the Triple Code Model, early arithmetic development depends on learning the mappings between non-verbal representations of magnitude (quantity) and symbolic verbal (number words) and visual (Arabic numerals) representations of number. We examined this hypothesis in a sample of 166 4- to 7-year old children. Children completed 4 paired-associate learning tasks and a broad range of measures assessing early numerical (symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison, digit writing, arithmetic) and reading skills (letter-sound knowledge, phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.016DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Expert attention: Attentional allocation depends on the differential development of multisensory number representations.

Cognition 2019 May 18;186:171-177. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development Group, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Traditional models developed within cognitive psychology suggest that attention is deployed flexibly and irrespective of differences in expertise with to-be-attended stimuli. However, everyday environments are inherently multisensory and observers differ in familiarity with particular unisensory representations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.013DOI Listing

The role of colour labels in mediating toddler visual attention.

Cognition 2019 May 18;186:159-170. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Toddlers, children and adults will spontaneously attend to a semantically- or perceptually-related object when a named target is absent from the visual scene: Upon hearing "strawberry", they will orient to a red plate rather than a yellow one. We examine the role that knowledge of feature labels plays in mediating visual attention to unnamed features. For example, does knowing the word "red", facilitate attending to red objects, though the label is not uttered? We show that toddlers systematically fixate a colour-related object, if and only if they know the name of the colour associated with the named object and the perceptually-related object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.008DOI Listing

Cognitive influences in language evolution: Psycholinguistic predictors of loan word borrowing.

Cognition 2019 May 16;186:147-158. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

excd.lab, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Bristol, UK.

Languages change due to social, cultural, and cognitive influences. In this paper, we provide an assessment of these cognitive influences on diachronic change in the vocabulary. Previously, tests of stability and change of vocabulary items have been conducted on small sets of words where diachronic change is imputed from cladistics studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Infants differentially update their internal models of a dynamic environment.

Cognition 2019 May 16;186:139-146. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Unexpected events provide us with opportunities for learning about what to expect from the world around us. Using a saccadic-planning paradigm, we investigated whether and how infants and adults represent the statistics of a changing environment (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.004DOI Listing

Similarity is as similarity does? A critical inquiry into the effect of thematic association on similarity.

Cognition 2019 May 14;186:115-138. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Binghamton University (SUNY), United States.

Leading theories of psychological similarity are based on the degree of match in semantic content between compared cases (i.e., shared features, low dimensional distance, alignable relations). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.016DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Which cognitive tools do we prefer to use, and is that preference rational?

Cognition 2019 May 13;186:108-114. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratoire d'Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs (EA 3082), Université de Lyon, France; Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.

This work aims to address the issue of which kind of cognitive tools we prefer, and whether this preference is rational. To do so, we proposed three experiments in which participants had to play the game Guess Who? by choosing between three tools that assisted them in three distinct cognitive functions (Working memory vs. Selective visual attention vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.005DOI Listing

Partisan mathematical processing of political polling statistics: It's the expectations that count.

Cognition 2019 May 12;186:95-107. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, Boston College, United States.

In this research, we investigated voters' mathematical processing of election-related information before and after the 2012 and 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Memory enhancements from active control of learning emerge across development.

Cognition 2019 May 12;186:82-94. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

This paper investigates whether active control of study leads to enhanced learning in 5- to 11-year-old children. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants played a simple memory game with the instruction to try to remember and later recognize a set of 64 objects. In Experiment 3, the goal was to learn the French names for the same objects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.010DOI Listing

Superior learning in synesthetes: Consistent grapheme-color associations facilitate statistical learning.

Cognition 2019 May 11;186:72-81. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, 4th Floor, Sidney Smith Hall, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada. Electronic address:

In synesthesia activation in one sensory domain, such as smell or sound, triggers an involuntary and unusual secondary sensory or cognitive experience. In the present study, we ask whether the added sensory experience of synesthesia can aid statistical learning-the ability to track environmental regularities in order to segment continuous information. To investigate this, we measured statistical learning outcomes, using an aurally presented artificial language, in two groups of synesthetes alongside controls and simulated the multimodal experience of synesthesia in non-synesthetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.003DOI Listing

Complex probability expressions & higher-order uncertainty: Compositional semantics, probabilistic pragmatics & experimental data.

Cognition 2019 May 8;186:50-71. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

University of Osnabrück, Institute of Cognitive Science, Wachsbleiche 27, 49090 Osnabrück, Germany.

We present novel experimental data pertaining to the use and interpretation of simple probability expressions (such as possible or likely) and complex ones (such as possibly likely or certainly possible) in situations of higher-order uncertainty, i.e., where speakers may be uncertain about the probability of a chance event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.013DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Decisional space modulates visual categorization - Evidence from saccadic reaction times.

Cognition 2019 May 8;186:42-49. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Eye and Brain Mapping Laboratory (iBMLab), Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland.

Manual and saccadic reaction times (SRTs) have been used to determine the minimum time required for different types of visual categorizations. Such studies have demonstrated extremely rapid detection of faces within natural scenes, whereas increasingly complex decisions (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.019DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Metacognition across sensory modalities: Vision, warmth, and nociceptive pain.

Cognition 2019 May 7;186:32-41. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The distinctive experience of pain, beyond mere processing of nociceptive inputs, is much debated in psychology and neuroscience. One aspect of perceptual experience is captured by metacognition-the ability to monitor and evaluate one's own mental processes. We investigated confidence in judgements about nociceptive pain (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.018DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

The precision of attentional selection is far worse than the precision of the underlying memory representation.

Authors:
Dirk Kerzel

Cognition 2019 May 7;186:20-31. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l'Education, Université de Genève, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Voluntary attentional selection requires the match of sensory input to a stored representation of the target features. We compared the precision of attentional selection to the precision of the underlying memory representation of the target. To measure the precision of attentional selection, we used a cue-target paradigm where participants searched for a colored target. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.001DOI Listing

Intermediate coding versus direct mapping accounts for the SNARC effect: Santens and Gevers (2008) revisited.

Cognition 2019 May 6;186:15-19. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Intermediate coding accounts have been used to provide an explanation for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect and can be contrasted with the classic direct spatial mapping account of such an association (i.e., from the mental number line directly to the responses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.017DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

How the inference of hierarchical rules unfolds over time.

Cognition 2019 Apr 1;185:151-162. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Inductive reasoning, which entails reaching conclusions that are based on but go beyond available evidence, has long been of interest in cognitive science. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to the specific cognitive processes that underlie inductive reasoning. Here, we shed light on these processes in two ways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.009DOI Listing

Adaptive memory: Source memory is positively associated with adaptive social decision making.

Cognition 2019 May 1;186:7-14. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.

The key insight behind the adaptive memory framework is that the primary function of remembering is not to help us to relive the past but to inform adaptive behavior in the future. However, the beneficial effects of memory on the individual's fitness are often difficult to study empirically. In the case of social cooperation, it is comparatively easy to derive testable predictions about the relationship between specific types of memory (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.014DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural test.

Cognition 2019 May 1;186:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

LEVYNA: Laboratory for the Experimental Research of Religion, Masaryk University, CZ, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States.

Identity fusion theory has become a popular psychological explanation of costly self-sacrifice. It posits that while maintaining one's own individual identity, a deep affinity with one's group can contribute to sacrifice for that group. We test this and related hypotheses using a behavioral economic experiment designed to detect biased, self-interested favoritism among eight different populations ranging from foragers and horticulturalists to the fully market-integrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.015DOI Listing

Literacy improves short-term serial recall of spoken verbal but not visuospatial items - Evidence from illiterate and literate adults.

Cognition 2019 Apr 30;185:144-150. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

It is widely accepted that specific memory processes, such as serial-order memory, are involved in written language development and predictive of reading and spelling abilities. The reverse question, namely whether orthographic abilities also affect serial-order memory, has hardly been investigated. In the current study, we compared 20 illiterate people with a group of 20 literate matched controls on a verbal and a visuospatial version of the Hebb paradigm, measuring both short- and long-term serial-order memory abilities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.012DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Influence and seepage: An evidence-resistant minority can affect public opinion and scientific belief formation.

Cognition 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Australia.

Some well-established scientific findings may be rejected by vocal minorities because the evidence is in conflict with political views or economic interests. For example, the tobacco industry denied the medical consensus on the harms of smoking for decades, and the clear evidence about human-caused climate change is currently being rejected by many politicians and think tanks that oppose regulatory action. We present an agent-based model of the processes by which denial of climate change can occur, how opinions that run counter to the evidence can affect the scientific community, and how denial can alter the public discourse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.011DOI Listing
January 2019

A hierarchical model of social perception: Psychophysical evidence suggests late rather than early integration of visual information from facial expression and body posture.

Cognition 2019 Apr 23;185:131-143. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK.

Facial expressions are one of the most important sources of information about another's emotional states. More recently, other cues such as body posture have been shown to influence how facial expressions are perceived. It has been argued that this biasing effect is underpinned by an early integration of visual information from facial expression and body posture. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.012DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Does direction matter? Linguistic asymmetries reflected in visual attention.

Cognition 2019 Apr 23;185:91-120. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Einstein Center for Neuroscience Berlin, and Department of German Studies and Linguistics, Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Language and vision interact in non-trivial ways. Linguistically, spatial utterances are often asymmetrical as they relate more stable objects (reference objects) to less stable objects (located objects). Researchers have claimed that such linguistic asymmetry should also be reflected in the allocation of visual attention when people process a depicted spatial relation described by spatial language. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.09.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The one-is-more illusion: Sets of discrete objects appear less extended than equivalent continuous entities in both space and time.

Cognition 2019 Apr 22;185:121-130. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Yale University, USA. Electronic address:

We distinguish between discrete objects and continuous entities in categorization and language, but might we actually see such stimuli differently? Here we report the one-is-more illusion, wherein 'objecthood' changes what we perceive in an unexpected way. Across many variations and tasks, observers perceived a single continuous object (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.002DOI Listing

Does language similarity affect representational integration?

Cognition 2019 Apr 21;185:83-90. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Previous studies have suggested that multilingual speakers do not represent their languages entirely separately but instead share some representations across languages. To determine whether sharing is affected by language similarity, we investigated whether participants' tendency to repeat syntax across languages was affected by language similarity. In three cross-linguistic structural priming experiments, trilingual Mandarin-Cantonese-English participants heard a sentence in Cantonese or English (which they matched to a picture) and then described a dative event in Mandarin. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.005DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Conscious and unconscious memory differentially impact attention: Eye movements, visual search, and recognition processes.

Cognition 2019 Apr 18;185:71-82. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

A hotly debated question is whether memory influences attention through conscious or unconscious processes. To address this controversy, we measured eye movements while participants searched repeated real-world scenes for embedded targets, and we assessed memory for each scene using confidence-based methods to isolate different states of subjective memory awareness. We found that memory-informed eye movements during visual search were predicted both by conscious recollection, which led to a highly precise first eye movement toward the remembered location, and by unconscious memory, which increased search efficiency by gradually directing the eyes toward the target throughout the search trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.007DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Sound symbolism in sighted and blind. The role of vision and orthography in sound-shape correspondences.

Cognition 2019 Apr 18;185:62-70. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Center for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, Italy; Institute of Psychology (IPSY) and Institute of Neuroscience (IONS), University of Louvain, Belgium.

Non-arbitrary sound-shape correspondences (SSC), such as the "bouba-kiki" effect, have been consistently observed across languages and together with other sound-symbolic phenomena challenge the classic linguistic dictum of the arbitrariness of the sign. Yet, it is unclear what makes a sound "round" or "spiky" to the human mind. Here we tested the hypothesis that visual experience is necessary for the emergence of SSC, supported by empirical evidence showing reduced SSC in visually impaired people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Acquisition and processing of an artificial mini-language combining semantic and syntactic elements.

Cognition 2019 Apr 16;185:49-61. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, France; Collège de France, Paris, France.

Most artificial grammar tasks require the learning of sequences devoid of meaning. Here, we introduce a learning task that allows studying the acquisition and processing of a mini-language of arithmetic with both syntactic and semantic components. In this language, symbols have values that predict the probability of being rewarded for a right or left response. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00100277183030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Is scaling up harder than scaling down? How children and adults visually scale distance from memory.

Cognition 2019 Apr 12;185:39-48. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Coe College, USA.

In three experiments (N = 288), we examined how the direction of the scale translation impacts how 4- to 5-year-old children and adults visually scale distance from memory. Participants first watched an experimenter place an object on a learning mat and then attempted to place a replica object on a test mat that was either identical (no scaling task) or different in scale (scaling task). In Experiment 1, both children and adults had difficulty scaling up from 16 to 128 in. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.013DOI Listing
April 2019
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Explanation recruits comparison in a category-learning task.

Cognition 2019 Apr 12;185:21-38. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Psychology, Peretsman Scully Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.

Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting category learning; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that engaging in explanation can recruit comparison processes, and that this in turn contributes to the effectiveness of explanation in supporting category learning. Three experiments evaluated the interplay between explanation and various comparison strategies in learning artificial categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.12.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Word frequency effects in sound change as a consequence of perceptual asymmetries: An exemplar-based model.

Cognition 2019 Apr 12;185:1-20. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand; Department of Linguistics, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Empirically-observed word frequency effects in regular sound change present a puzzle: how can high-frequency words change faster than low-frequency words in some cases, slower in other cases, and at the same rate in yet other cases? We argue that this puzzle can be answered by giving substantial weight to the role of the listener. We present an exemplar-based computational model of regular sound change in which the listener plays a large role, and we demonstrate that it generates sound changes with properties and word frequency effects seen in corpora. In particular, we consider the experimentally-supported assumption that high-frequency words may be more robustly recognized than low-frequency words in the face of acoustic ambiguity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.01.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read