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    1 OF 65

    Recurrence of cutaneous coccidioidomycosis 6 years after valley fever: A case presentation and literature review.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Specialty Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Electronic address:
    Coccidioidomycosis is usually acquired by inhalation of spores of Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. The disease ranges from a self-limited acute pneumonia (Valley Fever) to a disseminated disease. Read More

    Diagnosis and Management of Coccidioidomycosis.
    Clin Chest Med 2017 Sep 3;38(3):417-433. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine - Tucson, 1501 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. Electronic address:
    Coccidioidomycosis is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia within its traditional endemic zone in the Southwestern United States and portions of Mexico and Central and South America. Its incidence has increased dramatically within the endemic region; its presence outside of the region, facilitated by a mobile society, is also now substantial. Although only a fraction of the incident disease progresses beyond subclinical illness, this proportion is large in absolute terms and causes substantial disease burden. Read More

    Notes from the Field: Increase in Coccidioidomycosis - California, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Aug 11;66(31):833-834. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, is an infectious disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. spores (1). This soil-dwelling fungus is endemic in the southwestern United States, with most (97%) U. Read More

    Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: Inference of the probable geographic area of an infection.
    Rev Iberoam Micol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, México, Cd. Mx. 04510, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Background: Coccidioidomycosis is one of the most important endemic mycoses in Northern Mexico. However, diagnosing this disease can be challenging, particularly in patients who do not reside in endemic areas.

    Case Report: The case of a Mexican HIV+ patient who developed fever, general malaise, a severe cough, and dyspnea during a stay in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, is presented. Read More

    Arthroconidia in Lung Tissue: An Unusual Histopathological Finding in Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis.
    Hum Pathol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA 02215; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215. Electronic address:
    Coccidioides immitis/posadsii presents in mycelial form with branching hyphae and arthroconidia when cultured in the laboratory. On histopathology, the presence of endospore-containing spherules is considered diagnostic of coccidioidomycosis. Here we report an unusual case of coccidioidomycosis with hyphae and arthroconidia in pulmonary tissue sections. Read More

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with molluscum-like lesions, diffuse lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly in an immunocompetent patient.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 20;10:251-254. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.
    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by a dimorphic fungus species endemic to the arid and semi-arid regions of the Americas. The species have a terranean habitat producing a primary pulmonary infection by inhalation of arthroconidia. We describe a case of extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis presenting with extensive lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and florid cutaneous lesions. Read More

    Coccidioidomycosis A Cause of Sarcoidosis.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 10;4(3):ofw117. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    School of Medicine, University of Arizona School of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona.
    Background: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and coccidioidomycosis is a granulomatous fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States. Clinical observations on patients with sarcoidosis and coccidioidomycosis simultaneously led to the hypothesis that sarcoidosis can be caused by the fungus Coccidioides.

    Methods: Two patients with sarcoidosis and coccidioidomycosis were studied, one prospectively (ie, a patient with sarcoidosis was predicted to develop coccidioidomycosis) and the other retrospectively (ie, a patient with coccidioidomycosis develops sarcoidosis). Read More

    Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections-Revelations from Endemic Mycoses.
    Front Immunol 2017 28;8:735. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    LKS Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp. Read More

    Single-center experience of antifungal prophylaxis for coccidioidomycosis in heart transplant recipients within an endemic area.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
    In endemic regions, coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity and mortality for patients receiving solid organ transplants. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of antifungal coccidioidal prophylaxis in heart transplant (HT) recipients. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records of all patients who received HTs between October 19, 2005, and December 13, 2014. Read More

    Increased Coccidioidomycosis Among Inmates at a California Prison: Initial Investigation in 2005 to 2006.
    J Correct Health Care 2017 Jul 28;23(3):347-352. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    1 California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA, USA.
    Since 2005, coccidioidomycosis has increased among inmates at a California prison. Our initial investigation found an incidence of 3,323 cases/100,000 persons. Black race, age ≥41 years, and residence on Yard C were significantly associated with coccidioidomycosis ( p < . Read More

    Assessment of Vulnerability to Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Jun 23;14(7). Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States, particularly Arizona and California. Its incidence has increased, potentially due in part to the effects of changing climatic variables on fungal growth and spore dissemination. This study aims to quantify the county-level vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California and to assess the relationships between population vulnerability and climate variability. Read More

    Dust Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis Prevention Among Solar Power Farm Construction Workers in California.
    Am J Public Health 2017 Aug 22;107(8):1296-1303. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    All of the authors are with California Department of Public Health, Richmond. Jason A. Wilken is also with the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Career Epidemiology Field Officer Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Objectives: To investigate if work activities, dust exposure, and protection measures were associated with a 2011 to 2014 coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing 2 solar farms in California.

    Methods: In 2013, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to employees who were onsite at the solar farms where the outbreak occurred to identify cases of clinical coccidioidomycosis and compare with asymptomatic workers by using multivariate logistic regression.

    Results: When we compared 89 workers with clinical coccidioidomycosis to 325 asymptomatic workers, frequently being in a dust cloud or storm (odds ratio [OR] = 5. Read More

    Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Presenting as Carcinomatosis Peritonei and Intestinal Coccidioidomycosis in a Patient with HIV.
    Case Rep Gastroenterol 2017 Jan-Apr;11(1):114-119. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Odessa, Texas, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a fungal infection endemic in southwestern regions of the United States, northwestern regions of Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinical presentation varies depending on the extent of the infection and the immune status of the host. The most common presentation ranges from flu-like symptoms to self-limiting pneumonia. Read More

    Coccidioidomycosis: An underreported cause of death-Arizona, 2008-2013.
    Med Mycol 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
    In Arizona during 1997-2013, coccidioidomycosis increased from 21 to 90 cases/100,000 population, but coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths remained stable at 3-6 deaths/million population. We used the capture-recapture method by using death certificates and hospital discharge data to more fully estimate the total number of coccidioidomycosis-attributable deaths and compared this with published estimates. Death certificates were included if any cause of death included coccidioidomycosis; hospital discharge data deaths were included if any discharge diagnosis included coccidioidomycosis and laboratory confirmation. Read More

    Rational Design of T Lymphocyte Epitope-Based Vaccines Against Coccidioides Infection.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:45-64
    Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX, 78249, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially life-threatening mycosis endemic to the Southwestern USA and some arid regions of Central and South America. A vaccine against Coccidioides infection would benefit over 30-million people who reside in or visit the endemic regions. Vaccine candidates against systemic fungal infections come in many forms. Read More

    Divergence in the approach to tumor necrosis factor α-inhibitor recipients with coccidioidomycosis.
    Infection 2017 Aug 2;45(4):539-543. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic Hospital, 5777 E Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ, 85054, USA.
    Background: Tumor necrosis factor α-inhibitors (TNFIs) have been associated with increased risk of certain fungal infections, including coccidioidomycosis. The optimal treatment approach to coccidioidomycosis in TNFI recipients is unknown.

    Methods: We constructed an anonymous, voluntary survey for practicing pulmonary and infectious disease physicians in the state of Arizona regarding approach to TNFI patients with coccidioidomycosis. Read More

    [A case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey imported from the United States of America].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Apr;51(2):183-190
    Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is a rare infectious disease except in endemic regions. In this report the third documented imported case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey was presented. A thirty-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with fever and purulent drainage from his chest tube. Read More

    A Case of Osteomyelitis of the toe caused by Coccidioidomycosis in a 17 year-old with Diabetes Insipidus.
    IDCases 2017 3;9:14-16. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Kaweah Delta Health Care District, 400 West Mineral King Avenue, Visalia, CA 93291, United States.
    We report a case of a 17-year-old male who presented with pain in his right first toe. His pain and swelling had worsened and x-rays of his foot revealed erosive changes of the great toe distal phalanx suggesting possible osteomyelitis. His co-morbidities were morbid obesity and diabetes insipidus. Read More

    A case of a positive coccidioides stool culture in an immunocompetent patient with disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
    IDCases 2017 3;8:89-91. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Medicine, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85013, United States.
    Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is an infection caused by the coccidioides fungus. The spectrum of the disease ranges from a mild upper respiratory illness to severe disseminated infection that could affects the bones, joints, skin, central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. Previous reports of a positive stool culture in the setting of disseminated CM are extremely rare. Read More

    Coccidioidomycosis among persons undergoing lung transplantation in the coccidioidal endemic region.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Aug 22;19(4). Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Infectious Diseases Division of the Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Background: Coccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, is more likely to be symptomatic and severe among those receiving allogeneic transplants. While several case series have been published for various transplanted organs, none has described the incidence and outcomes in those receiving lung transplants within the coccidioidal endemic region.

    Methods: Patients receiving a heart-lung, single-lung, or bilateral-lung transplantation at the University of Arizona between 1985 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Adjunctive Corticosteroid Therapy in the Treatment of Coccidioidal Meningitis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) has high morbidity, and adjunctive measures to improve outcomes are needed. Using an established multicenter retrospective cohort study of CM (N=221), we found patients receiving adjunctive corticosteroids had a significant reduction in secondary cerebrovascular events (P=0.0049). Read More

    Coccidioidal meningitis complicated by central nervous system vasculitis in a patient with leukemia.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2017 Jun 23;16:8-11. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Banner University Medical Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
    Central Nervous System (CNS) vasculitis is the most common life-threatening complication of coccidioidal meningitis. It is manifested by cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and infarction. We report a case of CNS vasculitis in a patient receiving chemotherapy and review of the literature on coccidioidal meningitis. Read More

    Ulcerated Lesion of the Tongue as Manifestation of Systemic Coccidioidomycosis.
    Case Rep Med 2017 13;2017:1489501. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Oral Pathology, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Systemic mycoses and their oral manifestations are very rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with an ulcerated lesion on the lateral border of the tongue. Histologic studies revealed a granulomatous fungal infection by Coccidioides immitis. Read More

    Development of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibodies against Coccidioides in dogs and other mammalian species.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(4):e0175081. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Coccidioides is a soil-dwelling fungus that causes coccidioidomycosis, a disease also known as Valley fever, which affects humans and a variety of animal species. Recent findings of Coccidioides in new, unexpected areas of the United States have demonstrated the need for a better understanding of its geographic distribution. Large serological studies on animals could provide important information on the geographic distribution of this pathogen. Read More

    Oral Fungal Infections: Diagnosis and Management.
    Dent Clin North Am 2017 Apr;61(2):319-349
    Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Private Practice: Huntington Beach Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 7677 Center Avenue, Suite 206, Huntington Beach, CA 92647, USA; Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, 2801 Atlantic Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90806, USA; Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, UCI School of Medicine, 101 The City Drive South, Orange, CA 92868, USA.
    Oral and maxillofacial fungal infections can appear in high-risk patients, including those immunocompromised. This article explores common oral manifestations of fungal infections in the oral cavity as primary lesions or as a result of disseminated disease. By far the most common oral fungal infection experienced in dentistry is oral candidiasis, which is reviewed in depth from simple oral infections to invasive candidiasis. Read More

    Immune Response to Coccidioidomycosis and the Development of a Vaccine.
    Microorganisms 2017 Mar 16;5(1). Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Biology and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It is estimated that 150,000 new infections occur in the United States each year. The incidence of this infection continues to rise in endemic regions. Read More

    Efficacy of the Investigational Antifungal VT-1161 in Treating Naturally Occurring Coccidioidomycosis in Dogs.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 May 24;61(5). Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Viamet Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis can be a chronic, systemic fungal infection requiring long-term to lifetime medication. Thus, there is a need for improved antifungal agents with greater efficacy and reduced toxicity. VT-1161 has a low affinity for mammalian cytochromes and potently inhibits fungal CYP51 with proven efficacy in murine models of central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory coccidioidomycosis. Read More

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with multifocal musculoskeletal disease involvement.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Mar 23;12(1):141-145. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Radiology, CHI St. Luke's Health-Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    We report a rare case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with multifocal musculoskeletal involvement. The patient presented to the emergency department with left shoulder pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed enhancing soft tissue masses, bony lesions, and fluid collections in and around the glenohumeral joint with involvement of the proximal humerus, glenoid, and rotator cuff musculature. Read More

    Bone Scan, PET-CT, and MRI in Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Apr;42(4):319-322
    From the Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA.
    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic fungal infection resulting from inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or posadasii spores. In many cases, infection causes a self-limited community-acquired pneumonia; however, in patients with risk factors, such as immunosuppression or African or Pacific Island ancestry, significant morbidity and mortality from disseminated disease may occur. Presented here are comparative images using Tc-MDP bone scan, F-FDG PET/CT, and MRI. Read More

    Opportunistic Fungal Infections in Critical Care Units.
    Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2017 Mar 14;29(1):67-79. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Nursing Department, School of Nursing, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana Center for Promotion of Optimal Health Outcomes: A JBI Center of Excellence, 1900 Gravier Street, 4B17, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
    Fungal infections are rare compared with bacterial infections, but they are on the increase in critical care units. Diagnosis can be difficult, resulting in increased mortality. Immunocompromised patients are at higher risk for fungal infections, including organ transplant, oncology, and HIV/AIDS patients. Read More

    Peritoneal and genital coccidioidomycosis in an otherwise healthy Danish female: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jan 31;17(1):105. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Background: Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. Read More

    Donor-Related Coccidioidomycosis Transmitted Through Left-Liver Transplant to a Child Recipient in a Nonendemic Area.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug;36(8):805-808
    From the *Service d'Hépatologie, Gastroentérologie et Nutrition Pédiatriques, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, and †Service de Pathologie, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France; ‡Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, §Institut de Parasitologie et Mycologie Médicale, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; ¶Service d'Urgences et de Réanimation Pédiatrique, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, and ‖Service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique Uro-viscérale et Transplantation, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France; and **Unité de Transplantation Hépatique, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    This first observation of donor-transmitted coccidioidomycosis in a pediatric liver-transplant recipient underlines a rare condition in transplanted patients in a nonendemic area. This transmission was observed after a liver split, the patient being contaminated by the left liver while the right-liver recipient was not. Read More

    Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Feb;23(2)
    Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways. Read More

    Large-Scale Evaluation of In Vitro Amphotericin B, Triazole, and Echinocandin Activity against Coccidioides Species from U.S. Institutions.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Apr 24;61(4). Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Fungus Testing Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
    Large-scale testing of Coccidioides isolates has not been performed, and the frequency of clinical isolates with elevated amphotericin B or triazole MICs has not been evaluated. Coccidioides isolates (n = 581) underwent antifungal susceptibility testing. Elevated MIC values were observed for fluconazole (≥16 μg/ml, 37. Read More

    Large-Scale Land Development, Fugitive Dust, and Increased Coccidioidomycosis Incidence in the Antelope Valley of California, 1999-2014.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Jun 13;182(5-6):439-458. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Department of Biology, California State University Bakersfield (CSUB), 9001 Stockdale Highway, Bakersfield, CA, 93311-1022, USA.
    Ongoing large-scale land development for renewable energy projects in the Antelope Valley, located in the Western Mojave Desert, has been blamed for increased fugitive dust emissions and coccidioidomycosis incidence among the general public in recent years. Soil samples were collected at six sites that were destined for solar farm construction and were analyzed for the presence of the soil-borne fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis which is endemic to many areas of central and southern California. We used a modified culture-independent nested PCR approach to identify the pathogen in all soil samples and also compared the sampling sites in regard to soil physical and chemical parameters, degree of disturbance, and vegetation. Read More

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis presenting with intramedullary spinal cord abscesses: Management challenges.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2017 Mar 2;15:1-4. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Medicine, Divison of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Coccidioides species are endemic to the southwestern United States and typically cause a mild or asymptomatic primary infection. In some instances, infection can disseminate and involve the central nervous system with meningitis being the most common manifestation. Non-osseous spinal cord involvement is exceedingly rare. Read More

    Enhanced Antibody Detection and Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis with the MiraVista IgG and IgM Detection Enzyme Immunoassay.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Mar 4;55(3):893-901. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in areas of the southwestern United States in which the disease is endemic. Clinical presentations range from self-limited disease to severe disseminated disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to ensure appropriate treatment and monitoring. Read More

    Intrathecal Amphotericin B: A 60-Year Experience in Treating Coccidioidal Meningitis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 02;64(4):519-524
    Department of Medicine, Kern Medical, Bakersfield, California, USA.
    Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) is a devastating complication of coccidioidomycosis. Since the late 1950s, intrathecal (IT) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) has been successfully used to treat and often cure this disease, reducing mortality rates from 100% to approximately 30%. The introduction of azoles further revolutionized the treatment of coccidioidal infections. Read More

    First reported case of peroneal tenosynovitis caused by Coccidioides immitis successfully treated with fluconazole.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Nov 30;2016. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    Infectious Disease Division, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Coccidioidomycosis is an insidious infection caused by Coccidioides spp (C. immitis and C. posadasii). Read More

    AST to ALT Ratio is elevated in disseminated histoplasmosis as compared to localized pulmonary disease and other endemic mycoses.
    Med Mycol 2016 Oct 14. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Severe pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis often necessitates presumptive antifungal treatment while awaiting definitive diagnosis. Histoplasma antigen assays have improved sensitivity but results may lag up to 7 days. In order to increase diagnostic certainty, "soft clues" may be looked for in laboratory and radiologic data, such as elevated alkaline phosphatase or ferritin levels and findings of mediastinal adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Read More

    The effect of climate change on skin disease in North America.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Jan 11;76(1):140-147. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. Read More

    Coccidioidomycosis: Surgical Issues and Implications.
    Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2016 Dec 14;17(6):645-655. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    1 Department of Surgery, Stanford University , Stanford, California.
    Background: Coccidioidomycosis, commonly called "valley fever," "San Joaquin fever," "desert fever," or "desert rheumatism," is a multi-system illness caused by infection with Coccidioides fungi (C. immitis or C. posadasii). Read More

    The habitat of Coccidioides spp. and the role of animals as reservoirs and disseminators in nature.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Oct 10;16(1):550. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Coyoacán, 04510, México Cd.Mx., Mexico.
    Background: Coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal fungal infection, is considered an emergent mycotic disease because of the increased incidence of fungal infections registered over recent years. Infection occurs through the inhalation of arthroconidia from two main species of Coccidioides: Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are both endemic to arid and semi-arid regions of North America. Read More

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