8,071 results match your criteria Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders


Cognitive dysfunction in individuals with cocaine use disorder: Potential moderating factors and pharmacological treatments.

Authors:
James J Mahoney

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

West Virginia University School of Medicine.

It is well-documented in the literature that individuals repeatedly exposed to cocaine exhibit cognitive impairment and that cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Specific deficits related to attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functioning are the most common deficits noted in this population. Given that cognitive impairment is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with CUD, identifying possible moderating factors contributing to and/or exacerbating cocaine-related cognitive deficits is of great importance. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in the prevalence and correlates of cocaine use and cocaine use disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 7;90:250-257. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10032, United States.

To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month cocaine use, cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and 12-month CocUD among 12-month cocaine users between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III. Between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013, prevalences of 12-month cocaine use and DSM-IV CocUD significantly increased and 12-month CocUD among 12-month users significantly decreased. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

PI3K activation within ventromedial prefrontal cortex regulates the expression of drug-seeking in two rodent species.

Addict Biol 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California.

Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are intracellular signal transducer enzymes that recruit protein kinase B (aka Akt) to the cell membrane, the subsequent activation of which regulates many cellular functions. PI3K/Akt activity is up-regulated within mesocorticolimbic structures in animal models of alcoholism, but less is known regarding PI3K/Akt activity in animal models of cocaine addiction. Given that prefrontal cortex (PFC) is grossly dysregulated in addiction, we studied how cocaine affects protein indices of PFC PI3K/Akt activity in rat and mouse models and examined the relevance of PI3K activity for cocaine-related learning. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Oxytocin prevents the increase of cocaine-related responses produced by social defeat.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Nov 16;146:50-64. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Unit of Research on Psychobiology of Drug Dependence, Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) plays a critical role in the regulation of social and emotional behaviors. OXT plays a role in stress response and in drug reward, but to date no studies have evaluated its implication in the long-lasting increase of the motivational effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat (RSD). During the social defeat procedure, 1 mg/kg of OXT was administered 30 min before each episode of RSD. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Lethal Fentanyl and Cocaine Intoxication.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(18):1782

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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November 2018

Cocaine-Induced Preference Conditioning: a Machine Vision Perspective.

Neuroinformatics 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Area de Psicobiología, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.

Existing work on drug-induced synaptic changes has shown that the expression of perineuronal nets (PNNs) at the cerebellar cortex can be regulated by cocaine-related memory. However, these studies on animals have mostly relied on limited manually-driven procedures, and lack some more rigorous statistical approaches and more automated techniques. In this work, established methods from computer vision and machine learning are considered to build stronger evidence of those previous findings. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Corrigendum: Yellow and black-stained fingers in a patient with headache.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;30:62. Epub 2018 May 28.

Dermatology Division, Department of Medical Clinics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2017. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Social motivational processing and interpersonal function in aging cocaine smokers.

Addict Biol 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Illicit drug use among aging cohorts is increasing, yet little is known about functional impairments in older drug users. Given the importance of social integration for aging and documented social decrements in cocaine users, we examined social function and its neurocognitive substrates in aging cocaine users relative to carefully matched non-cocaine users. Regular (≥twice/week), long-term (≥15 years) cocaine smokers 50-60 years old (COCs; n = 22; four women) and controls (CTRLs; n = 19; four women) underwent standardized probes of social reward and threat processing during functional magnetic resonance imaging and a behavioral facial affect recognition task. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads

Beta-blockers: A real antidote for cocaine-related heart disease?

Int J Cardiol 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Fondazione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa, Italy; Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.

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October 2018
1 Read

SAPAP4 Deletion Causes Synaptic Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Nov 12;505(4):1223-1227. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Neurobiology, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Beijing Center of Neural Regeneration and Repair, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Diseases of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China. Electronic address:

SAP90/PSD95-associated proteins (SAPAPs) are one type of scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Scaffold proteins play an important role in synaptic function. Recently, many studies have shown that mutations associated with scaffold proteins cause dysfunction in neuronal circuitry and in behavior. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

A fully automated approach for the analysis of 37 psychoactive substances in raw wastewater based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Nov 18;1576:80-89. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

This work presents a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 37 legal and illicit psychoactive substances in wastewater, including the most common illicit drugs (cocaine-related compounds, amphetamine-type stimulants, hallucinogens, opiates/opioids, and cannabinoids), new psychoactive substances (two synthetic cathinones, the synthetic opioid AH-7921, and the arylcyclohexylamine methoxetamine), and legal but controlled psychoactive substances (stimulants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, sedatives, antipsychotics, and hypnotics). To this end a fully automated analytical approach based on solid phase extraction coupled in series to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection (on-line SPE- LC-MS/MS) was used. The methodology developed was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability, and sensitivity in wastewater. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

The role of the cerebellum in drug-cue associative memory: functional interactions with the medial prefrontal cortex.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Área de Psicobiología, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain.

Drug-induced Pavlovian memories are thought to be crucial for drug addiction because they guide behaviour towards environments with drug availability. Drug-related memory depends on persistent changes in dopamine-glutamate interactions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens core and hippocampus. Recent evidence from our laboratory indicated that the cerebellum is also a relevant node for drug-cue associations. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

A randomized trial of contingency management reinforcing attendance at treatment: Do duration and timing of reinforcement matter?

J Consult Clin Psychol 2018 Oct;86(10):799-809

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Substance Abuse, Yale University School of Medicine.

Objective: Contingency management (CM) interventions that reinforce attendance have rarely been evaluated in terms of reducing drug use. Using a sequential randomized design, this study examined the efficacy of three attendance CM conditions compared to usual care (UC) on drug use outcomes. It evaluated whether the duration (6 vs. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Mechanisms of toxic cardiomyopathy.

Authors:
Philippe Hantson

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Sep 27:1-9. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

a Department of Intensive Care , Cliniques St-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain , Brussels , Belgium.

Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent disease responsible for 40-50% of cases of heart failure. Idiopathic cardiomyopathy is a primary disorder often related to familial/genetic predisposition. Before the diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy is made, clinicians must not only rule out viral and immune causes, but also toxic causes such as drugs, environmental agents, illicit substances and natural toxins. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

GIRK currents in VTA dopamine neurons control the sensitivity of mice to cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 18;115(40):E9479-E9488. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029;

GABAR-dependent activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK or K3) provides a well-known source of inhibition in the brain, but the details on how this important inhibitory pathway affects neural circuits are lacking. We used sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), an endosomal adaptor protein that associates with GIRK2c and GIRK3 subunits, to probe the role of GIRK channels in reward circuits. A conditional knockout of SNX27 in both substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons leads to markedly smaller GABAR- and dopamine DR-activated GIRK currents, as well as to suprasensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Sociodemographic, neighborhood, psychosocial, and substance use correlates of cocaine use among Black adults: Findings from a pooled analysis of national data.

Addict Behav 2019 Jan 6;88:182-186. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

University of Central Florida, Department of Sociology, United States.

Objective: Cocaine use (CU) is serious a public health issue affecting U.S. adults, including Blacks. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Animal Models of the Impact of Social Stress on Cocaine Use Disorders.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2018;140:131-169. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

Cocaine use disorders are strongly influenced by the social conditions prior, during, and after exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we discuss how social factors such as early life stress, social rank stress, and environmental stress impact vulnerability and resilience to cocaine. The discussion of each animal model begins with a brief review of examples from the human literature, which provide the psychosocial background these models attempt to capture. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Cocaine use by older populations, sleep quality, and associated risks.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Oct-Dec;40(4):459

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

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October 2018
1 Read

Clinical outcomes of Β-blocker therapy in cocaine-associated heart failure.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Aug 18. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Health+Hospitals/Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA; New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Background: Cocaine is associated with deleterious effects in the heart, including HFrEF. Although β-blockers are recommended for this condition in other populations, their use is discouraged in cocaine users due to the possibility of exacerbating cocaine-related cardiovascular complications. This study was designed to determine if patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who continue to use cocaine have better outcomes when they receive β-blocker therapy than when they do not. Read More

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August 2018
12 Reads
4.040 Impact Factor

DNA methylation signatures: Biomarkers of drug and alcohol abuse.

Mutat Res 2018 Jul - Sep;777:19-28. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Institute of Forensic Science & Criminology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India. Electronic address:

DNA sequence is a powerful tool that can be used for an individual's identification and investigation of various abnormalities in the genome. However, recent studies have identified other heritable changes by epigenetic mechanisms that cause changes in gene expression without altering the DNA sequence itself. In particular, DNA methylation mediates long-lasting changes in gene promoters, which makes it an appealing epigenetic mechanism to study variation in methylation status that characterizes the extent of drug abuse. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads
3.680 Impact Factor

Illicit drug use and work in a model therapeutic workplace.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 10 24;191:110-116. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Center for Learning and Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5200 Eastern Avenue, Suite 350 East, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The link between illicit drug use and impaired employee performance in the workplace has been assumed, but the relation has not been demonstrated clearly in research. This study was an evaluation of the relations between cocaine and opiate use, attendance, and performance in a job skills training program in a population with high rates of drug use.

Methods: Out-of-treatment injection drug users (N = 42) attended a model therapeutic workplace where they could earn a maximum pay of around $10 per hour, 4 h every weekday, for 30 weeks. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine.

BJPsych Open 2018 Sep;4(5):324-331

Associate Professor,Institute and Department of Psychiatry,Faculty of Medicine,Universidade de São Paulo (LIM-23),Brazil.

Background: Although many studies suggest that religiosity is a protective factor against drug use, there is little information on its effect on drug consumption patterns of those who do use drugs.AimsWe aimed to examine if there is any relationship between religiosity during childhood and adolescence, and drug consumption in adult crack users.

Method: We performed a cross-sectional study of adults addicted to crack cocaine. Read More

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September 2018
15 Reads

Contribution of cocaine-related cues to concurrent monetary choice in humans.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 26;235(10):2871-2881. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, 171 Funkhouser Drive, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

Rationale: Theoretical accounts highlight the importance of drug-related cues for the development and persistence of drug-taking behavior. Few studies have evaluated the ability of spatially contiguous drug cues to bias decisions between two concurrently presented non-drug reinforcers.

Objective: Evaluate the contribution of spatially contiguous cocaine cues to choice between two concurrently presented monetary reinforcers METHODS: Participants with cocaine use disorder completed a cued concurrent choice task. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Chronic forced exercise inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine conditioned place preference.

Behav Brain Res 2018 11 20;353:176-184. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

University at Buffalo, Research Institute on Addictions, Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, NY, 14203-1016, USA. Electronic address:

Stress increases the likelihood of cocaine relapse in humans and animals, even following a prolonged extinction/abstinence period. Exercise has previously been shown to reduce stress and decrease the likelihood of drug dependence, while also reducing cravings in humans and inhibiting relapse behaviors due to other risk factors in rodents. The present study evaluated the efficacy of exercise to reduce stress-induced relapse to cocaine in a rodent model. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

Acute oesophageal necrosis: a rare but potentially fatal association of cocaine use.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 19;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut, USA.

Acute oesophageal necrosis (AON), also known as 'black oesophagus', is a rare condition characterised by the necrosis of the oesophagus usually involving the distal part. It has been associated with various conditions, and the pathogenesis is thought to involve hypovolaemia combined with decreased function of oesophageal protective mucosal barriers and may be compounded by the effect of gastric secretions on oesophageal mucosa. The hallmark of this condition is characteristic circumferential black discolouration of the distal oesophagus that may extend proximally. Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads

The role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cocaine place preference and mu opioid receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Sep 10;235(9):2675-2685. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph (ON), Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Rationale: There is evidence that central mu opioid receptors (MORs) are implicated in several aspects of cocaine addiction, and that MOR expression is elevated by cocaine in vitro and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) when administered in vivo.

Objective: To understand the cellular mechanisms involved in regulating MOR expression, this study explored whether neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) modulates the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and repeated cocaine administration.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single cocaine injection (20 mg/kg, i. Read More

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September 2018

A Protocol for Measuring Cue Reactivity in a Rat Model of Cocaine Use Disorder.

J Vis Exp 2018 06 18(136). Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Center for Addiction Research, University of Texas Medical Branch; Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch;

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) follows a trajectory of repetitive self-administration during which previously neutral stimuli gain incentive value. Cue reactivity, the sensitivity to cues previously linked with the drug-taking experience, plays a prominent role in human craving during abstinence. Cue reactivity can be assessed as the attentional orientation toward drug-associated cues that is measurable as appetitive approach behavior in both preclinical and human studies. Read More

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June 2018
10 Reads

Cocaine Induced Bilateral Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery and Hippocampal Infarction.

Cureus 2018 May 4;10(5):e2576. Epub 2018 May 4.

Cardiovascular Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine.

Cocaine is one of the most commonly abused recreational drugs, second only to marijuana. It blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine, that leads to persistent post-synaptic stimulation responsible for its excitatory effects. Cocaine-related strokes, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, have been well described in the literature and cerebral vasospasm is hypothesized as one of the major mechanisms responsible for the presentation. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Genetic loss of GluN2B in D1-expressing cell types enhances long-term cocaine reward and potentiation of thalamo-accumbens synapses.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 25;43(12):2383-2389. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Transient upregulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is proposed as an intermediate to long-term AMPAR plasticity associated with persistent cocaine-related behaviors. However, cell type- and input-specific contributions of GluN2B underlying lasting actions of cocaine remain to be elucidated. We utilized GluN2B cell type-specific knockouts and optogenetics to deconstruct the role of GluN2B in cocaine-induced NAc synaptic and behavioral plasticity. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads

Cocaine-induced epigenetic DNA modification in mouse addiction-specific and non-specific tissues.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Sep 28;139:13-25. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia. Electronic address:

Cocaine-related DNA methylation studies have primarily focused on the specific brain regions associated with drug addiction (e.g., the nucleus accumbens, NAc). Read More

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September 2018
13 Reads

Activation of GABAergic Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Mediates the Expression of Cocaine-Associated Memory.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(7):1084-1088

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University.

Cocaine-associated environmental cues elicit craving and relapse to cocaine use by recalling the rewarding memory of cocaine. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the expression of cocaine-associated memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)ergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain region associated with the rewarding and reinforcing effects of cocaine, to the expression of cocaine-associated memory using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm combined with designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Normal glutathione levels in autopsied brain of chronic users of heroin and of cocaine.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 09 23;190:20-28. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Human Brain Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Animal studies suggest that exposure to either of the two widely used drugs of abuse, heroin or cocaine, causes depletion of the antioxidant, reduced glutathione, a hallmark of oxidative stress, in the brain. However, the relevance of the animal findings to the human is uncertain and clinical trials with the antioxidant GSH precursor n-acetylcysteine have produced mixed results in cocaine dependence.

Methods: Our major objective was to compare glutathione levels, determined by an HPLC-coulometric procedure, in autopsied brain of chronic heroin (n = 11) and cocaine users (n = 9), who were positive for the drugs in the brain, to those of matched controls (n = 16). Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Prolonged abstinence from cocaine or morphine disrupts separable valuations during decision conflict.

Nat Commun 2018 06 28;9(1):2521. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Neuroeconomic theories propose changes in decision making drive relapse in recovering drug addicts, resulting in continued drug use despite stated wishes not to. Such conflict is thought to arise from multiple valuation systems dependent on separable neural components, yet many neurobiology of addiction studies employ only simple tests of value. Here, we tested in mice how prolonged abstinence from different drugs affects behavior in a neuroeconomic foraging task that reveals multiple tests of value. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

Effects of lorcaserin and buspirone, administered alone and as a mixture, on cocaine self-administration in male and female rhesus monkeys.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Oct 28;26(5):488-496. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

Cocaine use disorder is a serious public health issue for which there is no effective pharmacotherapy. One strategy to speed development of medications for cocaine use disorder is to repurpose drugs already approved for use in humans based on their ability to interact with targets known to be important for addiction. Two such drugs, lorcaserin (Belviq; a drug with serotonin [5-HT]2C receptor agonist properties) and buspirone (Buspar; a drug with 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and dopamine D3/D4 receptor antagonist properties) can produce modest decreases in cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

The cocaine cutting agent levamisole is frequently detected in cocaine users.

Pathology 2018 Aug 21;50(5):536-539. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Clinical Biochemistry, Alfred Pathology Service, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.

Cocaine use in Australia is increasing, with approximately 2.5% of the surveyed population having used cocaine. In the USA, levamisole, a widely used anti-helminthic veterinary drug has been increasingly detected as a cutting agent in cocaine seizures. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

Sleep Management Among Patients with Substance Use Disorders.

Med Clin North Am 2018 Jul;102(4):733-743

Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Sleep and substance use disorders commonly co-occur. Insomnia is commonly associated with use and withdrawal from substances. Circadian rhythm abnormalities are being increasingly linked with psychoactive substance use. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Cognitive impairment associated with cocaine use: The role of co-existent alcohol abuse/dependence.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 08 29;189:70-75. Epub 2018 May 29.

FIDMAG, Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Avda. Jordà, 8, Barcelona, 08035, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5 Pabellón, 11. Planta 0, 28029, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Cocaine abuse has been reported as leading to impaired cognitive function. However, cocaine abusers commonly also abuse alcohol, which can itself produce cognitive impairment. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the potential confounding effect of alcohol abuse on neuropsychological test performance in cocaine and alcohol abusing individuals, comparing them with individuals who abused alcohol alone and non-abusing controls. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Willingness to use an in-hospital supervised inhalation room among people who smoke crack cocaine in Vancouver, Canada.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 07 5;37(5):645-652. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction And Aims: People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) often engage in drug use during hospitalisation. Adverse outcomes may arise from efforts to conceal inpatient drug use, especially in hospital settings that rely on abstinence-based policies. Harm reduction interventions, including supervised drug consumption services, have not been well studied in hospital settings. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Recurrent Levamisole-Induced Agranulocytosis Complicated by Bowel Ischemia in a Cocaine User.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Jun 1;19:630-633. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.

BACKGROUND Levamisole is a common adulterant of cocaine and up to 69% of seized cocaine in United States contains levamisole. It is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative which was previously used as an immunomodulating agent for treatment of various connective tissue disorders and colorectal carcinoma. However, it was withdrawn later from the market due to significant toxicity associated with it. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Comparative hazards of acute myocardial infarction among hospitalized patients with methamphetamine- or cocaine-use disorders: A retrospective cohort study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 07 26;188:259-265. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Human Brain Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell St., Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada.

Background: It is assumed that recreational use of methamphetamine can trigger acute myocardial infarction (AMI) events, but estimates of longitudinal hazards of AMI among methamphetamine users are lacking.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study: Competing-risks analysis was used to estimate time-to-AMI patterns in methamphetamine versus matched appendicitis (population-proxy) and matched cocaine (drug-control) groups. Cohorts were propensity-score-matched using demographic and clinical variables. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 07 1;188:135-140. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry F282/2A West, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.

Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Determination of hydroxy metabolites of cocaine from hair samples and comparison with street cocaine samples.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Jul 12;288:223-226. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Forensic Toxicological Centre Munich, Bayerstr. 53, 80335 Munich, Germany.

Drugs which are commonly smoked or sniffed (e.g. cocaine), can contaminate hair through smoke or dust; therefore testing for metabolites, especially hydroxy metabolites, is highly recommended. Read More

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July 2018
7 Reads

Gender stereotypes in psychosocial care for female crack and powder cocaine users.

Cad Saude Publica 2018 05 10;34(5):e00110317. Epub 2018 May 10.

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Use of crack in pregnancy: repercussions for the newborn.

Invest Educ Enferm 2017 Oct;35(3)

Anhanguera University, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil,

Objectives: To know the effects for the newborn of the use of crack in pregnancy.

Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil, in the first half of 2014. Fifteen mothers crack users and five grandparents participated. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

Cocaine-Related Myocardial Infarction and Ventricular Rupture.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Nov 2;106(5):e227-e229. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Hackensack Meridian Health, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey.

Cardiovascular complications following cocaine use are well described. We present a case of myocardial infarction and ventricular rupture in a young individual with limited underlying coronary disease and habitual cocaine use. The role of each is discussed. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Opioid substitution treatment and heroin dependent adolescents: reductions in heroin use and treatment retention over twelve months.

BMC Pediatr 2018 05 4;18(1):151. Epub 2018 May 4.

Academic General Practice, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Background: Opioid dependence is a major health concern across the world and does also occur in adolescents. While opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been thoroughly evaluated in adult populations, very few studies have examined its use in adolescents. There are concerns that OST is underutilised in adolescents with heroin dependence. Read More

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May 2018
4 Reads