41,621 results match your criteria Cocaine


Microglial alterations induced by psychoactive drugs: A possible mechanism in substance use disorder?

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome "La Sapienza," Via degli Apuli 1, 00185, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Fosso di Fiorano 64, 00143, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Recently, the xenobiotic hypothesis has implicated the immune system in targeting substances of abuse as foreign molecules and stimulating inflammatory responses. Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and function in homeostatic surveillance. Microglial changes that are induced by exposure to substances of abuse appear to mediate in part the establishment of addiction and the persistence of drug-mediated biological and behavioral changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.03.008DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is greater in adolescent than in adult mice and heightens cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in adolescents.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC-CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the neural and behavioral effects of psychostimulants, and exhibit greater vulnerability to drug abuse, dependence or relapse into these conditions. We have reported that cocaine pretreatment during adolescence promotes the expression of behavioral sensitization to a greater extent than when the pretreatment occurs at adulthood. Behavioral sensitization has been associated to the transition from drug use to addiction and is postulated to indicate heightened sensitivity to the appetitive motivational effects of drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Epigenetic regulation of immediate-early gene Nr4a2/Nurr1 in the medial habenula during reinstatement of cocaine-associated behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, USA; UC Irvine Center for Addiction Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA. Electronic address:

Propensity to relapse following long-periods of abstinence is a key feature of substance use disorder. Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cause long-term changes in the neural circuitry regulating reward, motivation, and memory processes through dysregulation of various molecular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation of activity-dependent gene expression. Underlying drug-induced changes to neural circuit function are the molecular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Ad-libitum high fat diet consumption during adolescence and adulthood impacts the intravenous self-administration of cocaine in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Center for Behavioral Neuroscience.

In preclinical populations, binge consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) initiated during either adolescence or adulthood increases the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of cocaine, whereas ad lib HFD consumption initiated during adulthood reduces or fails to influence cocaine intake. From this, it appears that binge exposure is a sufficient condition to increase cocaine IVSA and that such effects occur independent of the exposure period. It is not clear, however, if ad lib exposure would be sufficient to affect the IVSA of cocaine if initiated during adolescence, a developmental period associated with high-risk behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000280DOI Listing

[Chronic phosphoproteomic in temporal lobe epilepsy mouse models induced by kainic acid].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):197-205

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To investigate functions of proteins and signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy in mouse models.

Methods: Kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy models were conducted, when reaching stage 4 using racine scale, the mice of experimental group were supposed to be successfully established. Pentobarbital sodium was injected to stop epileptic seizure in case of death. Read More

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April 2019
3 Reads

Impact of abstinence and of reducing illicit drug use without abstinence on HIV viral load.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and a barrier to achieving viral suppression.

Objective: Among PLWH who report illicit drug use, we evaluated associations between HIV viral load (VL) and reduced use of illicit opioids, methamphetamine/crystal, cocaine/crack, and marijuana, regardless of whether or not abstinence was achieved.

Design: Longitudinal cohort studySetting/participantsPLWH in clinical care at 8 HIV clinics or 5 clinical studies. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz299DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A critical literature review on emotional intelligence in addiction.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2019 Jan-Mar;41(1):87-93. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions.

Objectives: To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0002DOI Listing

Intermittent Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gene Expressions of in Enteroendocrine Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 15;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan.

The patients with sleep apnea syndrome are exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep. We previously demonstrated the IH-induced up-regulation of the mRNA levels of anorexigenic peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in human neuronal cells. Appetite is regulated not only by the central nervous system but also by the peptides from gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1849
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081849DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on neural mechanisms of working memory and cue reactivity in regular cocaine users.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 5;287:56-59. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Addiction, Development, and Psychopathology (ADAPT) lab, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The current study investigated the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine and working memory (WM) training on behavioral and neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM in cocaine users in a randomized, double-blind design. Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day treatment with either 2400 mg/day NAC or placebo. Both groups performed WM-training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Mitigation of cocaine-mediated mitochondrial damage, defective mitophagy and microglial activation by superoxide dismutase mimetics.

Autophagy 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

a Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience , University of Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha , NE 68198-5880 , USA .

Although cocaine exposure has been shown to potentiate neuroinflammation by upregulating glial activation in the brain, the role of mitophagy in this process remains an enigma. In the present study, we sought to examine the role of impaired mitophagy in cocaine-mediated activation of microglia and to determine the ameliorative potential of superoxide dismutase mimetics in this context. Our findings demonstrated that exposure of mouse primary microglial cells (mPMs) to cocaine resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, that was accompanied by increased expression of mitophagy markers, PINK1 and PRKN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1607686DOI Listing
April 2019
11.753 Impact Factor

Rapid detection and quantitation of drugs-of-abuse by wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

J Food Drug Anal 2019 Apr 1;27(2):428-438. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Kowloon, China; State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control, Shenzhen Research Institute of Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen, 518057, China. Electronic address:

Determination of drugs-of-abuse in body fluids of drug abusers is important for the law enforcement as well as the treatment and rehabilitation. In this study, wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (WT-ESI-MS), a simple and cost-effective technique, was developed for rapid detection and quantitation of common drugs-of-abuse, including methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine, heroin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in urine and oral fluid, following our previous successful demonstration for rapid and sensitive detection of ketamine and nor-ketamine in urine and oral fluid by this technique. It was found that the limit-of-detection for methamphetamine could fully fulfill the cut-off value requirements of the international standards, and those of MDMA and cocaine could fulfill some of the requirements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2018.09.002DOI Listing

Locomotor activity and discriminative stimulus effects of five novel synthetic cathinone analogs in mice and rats.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Apr 6;199:50-58. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107-2699, USA.

Background: The development of novel synthetic psychoactive substances continues to accelerate. There are little or no data on the pharmacological mechanisms, behavioral effects, or abuse liability of many of the newer compounds, despite increasing reports of severe adverse effects in recreational users.

Methods: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor stimulant effects of a group of synthetic cathinone analogs: N-ethylpentylone, dimethylone, dibutylone, clephedrone, 3',4'-tetramethylene-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (TH-PVP). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03768716193009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.02.016DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Development of a long-acting Fc-fused cocaine hydrolase with improved yield of protein expression.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Apr 12;306:89-95. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Molecular Modeling and Biopharmaceutical Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA. Electronic address:

Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is known as a safe and effective protein for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. Its rationally designed mutants with considerably improved catalytic activity against cocaine, known as cocaine hydrolases (CocHs), are recognized as the most promising drug candidates for the treatment of cocaine abuse. However, it is a grand challenge to efficiently produce active recombinant BChE and CocHs with a sufficiently long biological half-life. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00092797193035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.04.012DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Nasal Septum Defects Detected on Postmortem Computed Tomography.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

From the Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Nasal septum defects may have forensic relevance because they are associated with various mechanisms, including trauma and cocaine abuse. Like all human body tissues, the nasal septum may be affected by maggots' infestation during postmortem decomposition. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) can reveal small findings and related details. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0000000000000482DOI Listing

NOP Receptor Agonist Ro 64-6198 Decreases Escalation of Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats Genetically Selected for Alcohol Preference.

Front Psychiatry 2019 29;10:176. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Pharmacology Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.

Cocaine dependence is a psychiatric condition for which effective medications are still lacking. Published data indicate that an increase in nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) transmission by NOP receptor activation attenuates cocaine-induced place conditioning and the locomotor sensitization effects of cocaine. This suggests that the activation of the N/OFQ receptor (NOP) may attenuate the motivation for psychostimulants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450143PMC

Massive deep venous thrombosis in a patient addicted to cocaine.

Med Clin (Barc) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain.

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00257753193014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A potential role for the gut microbiome in substance use disorders.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Pathological substance use disorders represent a major public health crisis with limited effective treatment options. While much work has been done to understand the neuronal signaling networks and intracellular signaling cascades associated with prolonged drug use, these studies have yielded few successful treatment options for substance use disorders. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to explore interactions between the peripheral immune system, the gut microbiome, and the CNS. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-019-05232-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05232-0DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Toxicological analysis of cocaine adulterants in blood samples.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Mar 12;299:95-102. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Portugal.

Cocaine was the second most widely used drug in Europe in 2016, with 3.5 million consumers aged 15-64 years old. Adulterants are pharmacologically active substances developed for medical purposes, however, there is little knowledge about their influence in the human body when there is concomitant use with cocaine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.03.005DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Systemic oxytocin administration alters mesolimbic dopamine release in mice.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152-3520, United States of America. Electronic address:

Growing research indicates oxytocin may be involved in relieving anxiety and attenuating the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. This study investigated the effects of subchronic oxytocin treatments on mesolimbic dopamine transmission in areas associated with anxiety and addiction, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), respectively. Using in vivo fixed potential amperometry, stimulation-evoked dopamine release was recorded in anesthetized mice pretreated with subchronic oxytocin (four i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Effects of stimulant drug use on the dopaminergic system: A systematic review and meta-analysis of in vivo neuroimaging studies.

Eur Psychiatry 2019 Apr 11;59:15-24. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Stimulant drugs can cause persistent changes in the brain. Imaging studies show that these changes are most apparent in dopamine transporter (DAT) or receptor availability within the striatum.

Methods: This work focuses on influences of stimulant use on dopaminergic function assessed using nuclear-medicine imaging (PET/SPECT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.03.003DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Re-emergence of HIV related to injecting drug use despite a comprehensive harm reduction environment: a cross-sectional analysis.

Lancet HIV 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK; Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, UK.

Background: In 2015, an outbreak of HIV was identified among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde (GGC) area of Scotland, an area which distributes more than 1 million needles and syringes per year. This is the largest such incident in the UK for 30 years. Here, we provide an epidemiological analysis of the impact of the outbreak on HIV prevalence trends in the population and the individual and environmental risk factors associated with infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30036-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of dopaminergic and serotonergic compounds in rats trained to discriminate a high and a low training dose of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Temple University, 3307 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Rationale: The underlying pharmacological mechanisms of mephedrone, especially as related to interactions with different neurotransmitter systems, are a critical area of study as mephedrone continues to be abused.

Objective: Direct-acting 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists and D receptor antagonists were examined in two groups of rats trained to discriminate mephedrone. A high dose of mephedrone was trained to extend previous results with traditional monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrate releasers. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-019-05241-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05241-zDOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Psychosocial and sexual characteristics associated with sexualised drug use and chemsex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Objective: To understand how the emerging public health issue of chemsex relates to broader patterns of sexualised drug use (SDU) among men who have sex with men (MSM), which has been understudied.

Methods: Potential participants were invited to take part in an anonymous, cross-sectional online survey through Facebook advertising and community organisations' social media posts (April-June 2018). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare MSM who engaged in recent SDU (past 12 months) with those who did not, and those who engaged in chemsex (γ-hydroxybutyrate/γ-butyrolactone, crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone, ketamine) with those who engaged in other SDU (eg, poppers, cocaine, cannabis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053933DOI Listing

The use of multi-national web surveys for comparative analysis: Lessons from the European Web Survey on Drugs.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré, 1249-289, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Most comparative drug policy analyses utilise measures of drug use, often from general population surveys (GPS). However, the limitations of GPS are well-recognised, including the small numbers of people who use illicit drugs sampled. Web surveys offer a potential solution to such issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Conformational dynamics of the human serotonin transporter during substrate and drug binding.

Nat Commun 2019 04 11;10(1):1687. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Protein Analysis Group, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark.

The serotonin transporter (SERT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, is responsible for termination of serotonergic signaling by re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron. Its key role in synaptic transmission makes it a major drug target, e.g. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09675-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09675-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459873PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Chronic pain management among people who use drugs: A health policy challenge in the context of the opioid crisis.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Université de Sherbrooke, Addiction Research and Study Program, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 150 Place Charles-Le Moyne, Longueuil, Québec, J4K 0A8, Canada; Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, 190 Crémazie Blvd. East, Montreal, Quebec, H2P 1E2, Canada.

Background: In Canada, the rise in prescription opioid (PO) overdoses and addiction is a major public health concern. Various health authorities have recently recommended that physicians use caution when prescribing opioids, especially to people with histories of substance use. As a result, fewer therapeutic options are available for people who use drugs (PWUD) and suffer from chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.023DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acute Cocaine Enhances Dopamine DR Recognition and Signaling and Counteracts DR Internalization in Sigma1R-DR Heteroreceptor Complexes.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Biomedicum (B0851). Solnavägen 9, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

The current study was performed to establish the actions of nanomolar concentrations of cocaine, not blocking the dopamine transporter, on dopamine D2 receptor (DR)-sigma 1 receptor (δ1R) heteroreceptor complexes and the DR protomer recognition, signaling and internalization in cellular models. We report the existence of DR-δ1R heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum, with different distribution patterns using the in situ proximity ligation assay. Also, through BRET, these heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1580-8DOI Listing

Transcendendo: A Cohort Study of HIV-Infected and Uninfected Transgender Women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Transgend Health 2019 5;4(1):107-117. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Worldwide, the burden of adverse health conditions is substantial among travestis and transgender women (trans women). Transcendendo, the first trans-specific cohort in a low- or middle-income country, is an open cohort established in August 2015 to longitudinally evaluate the health aspects of trans women aged ≥18 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Study visits occur on an annual basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/trgh.2018.0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455979PMC

Craving in crack cocaine users according to individual and behavioral characteristics.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2019 8;28(1):e2018304. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Faculdade de Enfermagem, Pelotas, RS, Brasil.

Objective: to analyze variation in craving levels according to individual and behavioral characteristics of crack cocaine users at two public treatment services in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Methods: this was a cross sectional study with a sample of 133 participants; the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire scale was used to verify craving levels.

Results: 86% of interviewees had moderate and severe craving levels; regarding individual factors, a higher level of severe craving was found in women (45%), those with brown skin color/"mestizos" (60%), low schooling (46%) and minor psychiatric disorders (59%); regarding behavioral factors, the level of severe craving was higher in users who divorced the last year (44%), those who had problems with the Law (61%), those who practiced violence acts (57%), those using more than four psychoactive substances (67%), and those with heavy crack consumption (57%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742019000100022DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Incentive and Dopamine Sensitization Produced by Intermittent But Not Long Access Cocaine Self-Administration.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology (Biopsychology Program), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The temporal pattern of drug use (pharmacokinetics) has a profound effect on the ability of self-administered cocaine to produce addiction-like behavior in rodents, and to change the brain. To further address this issue, we compared the effects of Long Access (LgA) cocaine self-administration, which is widely used to model the transition to addiction, with Intermittent Access (IntA), which is thought to better reflect the pattern of drug use in humans, on the ability of a single, self-administered injection of cocaine to increase dopamine (DA) overflow in the core of the nucleus accumbens (using in vivo microdialysis), and to produce addiction-like behavior. IntA experience was more effective than LgA in producing addiction-like behavior - a drug experience-dependent increase in motivation for cocaine assessed using behavioral economic procedures, and cue-induced reinstatement - despite much less total drug consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14418DOI Listing

NOP-Related Mechanisms in Substance Use Disorders.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17 amino acid peptide that was deorphanized in 1995 and has been widely studied since. The role of the N/OFQ system in drug abuse has attracted researchers' attention since its initial discovery. The first two scientific papers describing the effect of intracranial injection of N/OFQ appeared 20 years ago and reported efficacy of the peptide in attenuating alcohol intake, whereas heroin self-administration was insensitive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2019_209DOI Listing
April 2019
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Surveying drug consumption: Assessing reliability and validity of the European Web Survey on Drugs questionnaire.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Apolinarska 4, 128 00 Praha 2, Czech Republic; National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction, Office of the Government, nábřeží Edvarda Beneše 4, 118 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic; National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czech Republic.

Background: The European Web Survey on Drugs aimed to obtain in-depth data on consumption of cannabis, ecstasy/MDMA, cocaine, and amphetamines in different populations of drug users in 16 European countries. This paper examines test-retest reliability, the consistency and the comprehensibility of the prevalence and frequency of use questions in the Czech part of the survey.

Methods: A baseline web survey was performed (N = 610) with follow-up data collection in a sub-sample of volunteers providing email addresses (N = 158). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Relationships among impulsive, addictive and sexual tendencies and behaviours: a systematic review of experimental and prospective studies in humans.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1766):20180129

2 Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine , New Haven, CT 06510 , USA.

Impulsivity's relationships to addictive and sexual behaviours raise questions regarding the extent impulsivity may constitute a vulnerability factor for subsequent addictive and sexual behaviours and/or results from each of these. Here, we systematically reviewed empirical support for impulsivity as a precipitating factor or a consequence of addictive or sexual behaviours. We restricted ourselves to recent, human studies with assessments over time, including at least one measure of impulsivity, addictive and sexual behaviours, yielding a review including 29 published reports from 28 studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335457PMC
February 2019

Induction in Nucleus Accumbens by Cocaine Is Regulated by E2F3a.

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029.

The transcription factor ΔFosB has been proposed as a molecular switch for the transition from casual, volitional drug use into a chronically addicted state, but the upstream regulatory mechanisms governing ΔFosB expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find a novel regulatory role for the transcription factor E2F3, recently implicated in transcriptional regulation by cocaine, in controlling ΔFosB induction in the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) following cocaine administration. We find that an E2F consensus sequence 500 bp upstream of the transcription start site is enriched for E2F3 specifically over other E2F isoforms. Read More

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http://eneuro.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/ENEURO.0325-18.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0325-18.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451158PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Cell-type specific regulation of nucleus accumbens synaptic plasticity and cocaine reward sensitivity by the circadian protein, NPAS2.

J Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA

The circadian transcription factor neuronal PAS domain 2 (NPAS2) is linked to psychiatric disorders associated with altered reward sensitivity. The expression of is preferentially enriched in the mammalian forebrain, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major neural substrate of motivated and reward behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that down-regulation of NPAS2 in the NAc reduces the conditioned behavioral response to cocaine in mice. Read More

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http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2233-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2233-18.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Classification of cocaine-dependent participants with dynamic functional connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

J Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Static functional connectivity (FC) analyses based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have been extensively explored for studying various psychiatric conditions in the brain, including cocaine addiction. A recently emerging, more powerful technique, dynamic functional connectivity (DFC), studies how the FC dynamics change during the course of the fMRI experiments. The aim in this paper was to develop a computational approach, using a machine learning framework, to determine if DFC features were more successful than FC features in the classification of cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24421DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cluster Headache in Subjects With Substance Use Disorder: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature.

Headache 2019 Apr 7;59(4):576-589. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Service de Psychiatrie et Psychologie, INSERM UMR 1043, Université de Toulouse III, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Objective: To describe a case series of 7 patients presenting cluster headache (CH) criteria and a substance use disorder, reported to a French Addictovigilance center. Then, to assess clinical, pharmacological, and neurobiological linkages between substance use and CH onset.

Background: CH patients are presenting a higher prevalence of comorbidities, among which the use of psychoactive substances, licit or illicit, have been explored by a few authors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.13516DOI Listing
April 2019
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Multiple cutaneous and mucosal lesions in a patient with cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculopathy syndrome.

Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2019 Jan 27;32(1):93-95. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical CenterChicagoIllinois.

Levamisole is an adulterant found in nearly 70% of cocaine in the United States. The concomitant use of levamisole and cocaine leads to a distinct clinical syndrome that typically manifests as agranulocytosis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and elevated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) levels. Systemic involvement has also been rarely reported with this syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2018.1503478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442875PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Rhombencephalitis in cocaine-induced nasal septal perforation and skull base erosion.

Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2019 Jan 24;32(1):82-84. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Radiology, Yale New Haven Health Bridgeport HospitalBridgeportConnecticut.

Rhombencephalitis is a rare and potentially fatal condition involving the brainstem, with infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic etiologies. We present a patient presenting with left-extremity weakness and dysphonia who had brainstem imaging findings suggestive of rhombencephalitis. We suspect that the case was due to inoculation of the brainstem from nasopharyngeal adenoviral infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2018.1536586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442913PMC
January 2019

Simultaneous determination of cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in dried blood spots by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Mar 23;298:408-416. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology, Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology in Forensic Sciences (INCT Forense), Brazil; Graduate Program on Toxicology and Analytical Toxicology, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cocaine (COC) is one of the most widely abused drugs in the world and its sensitive and its reliable measurement in blood is of great importance in the field of forensic and clinical toxicology. Additionally, the determination of COC metabolites such as benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and norcocaine (NCOC) are also of complementary diagnostic value. The quantification of COC and metabolites in dried blood spots (DBS) may be an alternative to conventional collection methods with several advantages, including easier, on-site, collection, transportation and storage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.03.026DOI Listing
March 2019
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Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an adjunctive personalised psychosocial intervention in treatment-resistant maintenance opioid agonist therapy: a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Psychiatry 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Lambeth Addictions, South London and Maudsley NHS Mental Health Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Opioid use disorder is a chronic, debilitating, and costly disorder that has increased in prevalence in many countries, with an associated sharp rise in mortality. Maintenance opioid agonist therapy is the first-line treatment, but many patients do not stop using illicit or non-prescribed drugs concomitantly. We aimed to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a personalised psychosocial intervention implemented with a toolkit of behaviour-change techniques as an adjunct to opioid agonist therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30097-5DOI Listing
April 2019
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Development of a molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk for agitation-extraction of ecgonine methyl ester from environmental water.

Talanta 2019 Jul 26;199:388-395. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address:

In this study, a new extraction approach based on rotating molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) disks was developed. The preparation procedure of MIP-disk is simple. Firstly, in order to immobilize MIP onto the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) disk, previous modification and vinylization steps of this fluoropolymer were conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.02.077DOI Listing
July 2019
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Withdrawal from escalated cocaine self-administration impairs reversal learning by disrupting the effects of negative feedback on reward exploitation: a behavioral and computational analysis.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK.

Addiction is regarded as a disorder of inflexible choice with behavior dominated by immediate positive rewards over longer-term negative outcomes. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying the effects of self-administered drugs on behavioral flexibility are not well understood. To investigate whether drug exposure causes asymmetric effects on positive and negative outcomes we used a reversal learning procedure to assess how reward contingencies are utilized to guide behavior in rats previously exposed to intravenous cocaine self-administration (SA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0381-0DOI Listing

Patterns of Polysubstance Use Among Non-Hispanic White and American Indian/Alaska Native Adolescents: An Exploratory Analysis.

Prev Chronic Dis 2019 04 4;16:E40. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Population Health, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota.

Introduction: The prevalence of polysubstance use is well described, but less is known about correlates and patterns of polysubstance use. Previous research characterized latent subgroups of substance users by the type substance used. Racial disparities in the prevalence of polysubstance use exist, particularly for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180108DOI Listing
April 2019
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Synaptic depotentiation and mGluR5 activity in the nucleus accumbens drive cocaine-primed reinstatement of place preference.

J Neurosci 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455

Understanding the neurobiological processes that incite drug craving and drive relapse has the potential to help target efforts to treat addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) serves as a critical substrate for reward and motivated behavior, in part due to alterations in excitatory synaptic strength within cortical-accumbens pathways. The present studies investigated a causal link between cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference and rapid reductions of cocaine-dependent increases in NAc shell synaptic strength in male mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3020-17.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Neurobiological substrates of persistent working memory deficits and cocaine-seeking in the prelimbic cortex of rats with a history of extended access to cocaine self-administration.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Apr 1;161:92-105. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Center for Addiction Research and Education (CARE) at University of Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with prefrontal cortex dysfunction and cognitive deficits that may contribute to persistent relapse susceptibility. As the relationship between cognitive deficits, cortical abnormalities and drug seeking is poorly understood, development of relevant animal models is of high clinical importance. Here, we used an animal model to characterize working memory and reversal learning in rats with a history of extended access cocaine self-administration and prolonged abstinence. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10747427193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effect of glucagon-like PEPTIDE-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists on substance use disorder (SUD)-related behavioural effects of drugs and alcohol: A systematic review.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Edel Sauntes Allé 10, Copenhagen 2100, DK, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists have been proposed as putative treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). The objective of this systematic review is to characterize the effects of GLP-1-receptor agonists on SUD-related behavioural effects of drugs, nicotine, and alcohol. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.03.029DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comments to: Valsalva retinopathy associated with intranasal cocaine abuse: A case report.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 4:1120672119841772. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Ophthalmology Department, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672119841772DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads