45,619 results match your criteria Cocaine


Chronic escalating-dose and acute binge cocaine treatments change the hippocampal cholinergic muscarinic system on drug presence and after withdrawal.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2022 May 18:116068. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Bl. 13B, 05508-000 São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cocaine addiction is a relapsing disorder with loss of control in limiting drug intake. Considering the involvement of acetylcholine in the neurobiology of the disease, our aim was to evaluate whether cocaine induces plastic changes in the hippocampal cholinergic muscarinic system. Male Swiss-Webster mice received saline or cocaine (ip) three times daily (60-min intervals) either acutely or in an escalating-dose binge paradigm for 14 days. Read More

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Floating aortic arch thrombus involving the left common carotid artery complicated with ischemic stroke associated with cocaine use.

Neurol Sci 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Stroke Unit, Centre Hospitalier Sud-Francilien, Corbeil-Essonnes, France.

Background: Floating aortic thrombi (FLOAT) are rare, with very few cases attributed to cocaine use. We report a new case of FLOAT involving the left common carotid artery due to cocaine use, for the first time, complicated with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: We present in detail our case report, and then, a literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed up to March 20, 2022, to review the reported cases of aortic thrombus associated with cocaine use. Read More

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Paternal nicotine taking elicits heritable sex-specific phenotypes that are mediated by hippocampal Satb2.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Nicotine intake, whether through tobacco smoking or e-cigarettes, remains a global health concern. An emerging preclinical literature indicates that parental nicotine exposure produces behavioral, physiological, and molecular changes in subsequent generations. However, the heritable effects of voluntary parental nicotine taking are unknown. Read More

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Focal Chronic Meningitis With Lymphoid Follicle-Like Structures Associated With Cocaine-Induced Midline Destructive Lesion: A Case Report.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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Smartwatch biomarkers and the path to clinical use.

Med (N Y) 2021 Jul;2(7):797-799

Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Wearables have advanced from collecting consumer-quality fitness data to collecting continuous clinical-quality physiology that, when processed carefully, can identify medically significant events. In a recent issue of Nature Medicine, Dunn et al. described how vital signs from wearables predict clinical laboratory blood- and urine-based measurements better than vital signs measured in the clinic. Read More

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Sex and drug differences in stress, craving and cortisol response to the trier social stress task.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Ralph H Johnson Veterans Administration Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

Rationale: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical hormonal system involved in stress response. A number of studies have investigated the HPA axis response of drug-dependent individuals to stressors. Stress-induced vulnerabilities in the HPA axis may differ in response to chronic use of different substances, possibly leading to different target therapies. Read More

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Cocaine-induced rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 19;15(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

A man in his 30s with a history of cocaine and intranasal heroin use presented to the emergency department with severe leg pain and weakness. Physical examination findings were significant for tachycardia, absence of dorsalis pedis pulses, tense and painful calf muscles along with absence of plantar reflexes in bilateral lower extremities. Laboratory investigations were significant for positive urinary drug screen for cocaine, severe rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. Read More

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Addiction and human male fertility: A systematic review and a critical appraisal.

Andrology 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Andrology, Sexology & STIs, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Background: Addiction is a global problem that has many negative consequences on human health as well as the quality of life.

Objectives: This review aimed to assess the effect of addiction on human male fertility.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted on various electronic sites. Read More

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An analog of [d-Trp]CJ-15,208 exhibits kappa opioid receptor antagonism following oral administration and prevents stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished morphine conditioned place preference.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2022 May 15:173405. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States of America. Electronic address:

Opioid use disorder (OUD) relapse rates are discouragingly high, underscoring the need for new treatment options. The macrocyclic tetrapeptide natural product CJ-15,208 and its stereoisomer [d-Trp]CJ-15,208 demonstrate kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist activity upon oral administration which prevent stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In order to further explore the structure-activity relationships and expand the potential therapeutic applications of KOR antagonism for the treatment of OUD, we screened a series of 24 analogs of [d-Trp]CJ-15,208 with the goal of enhancing KOR antagonist activity. Read More

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Analysis of global prevalence of mental and substance use disorders within countries: focus on sociodemographic characteristics and income levels.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2022 Feb 19;34(1):6-15. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Department of Mental Health & Cultural Diversity, IoPPN, Kings College, London, UK.

This report presents the prevalence of mental and substance use disorders around the world discussing the impact of geographical, sociodemographic, and income characteristics on national epidemiological differences. We analysed data from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation database published in 2019. The global prevalence of mental disorders was 13. Read More

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February 2022

Optogenetic inhibition of the dorsal hippocampus CA3 region during early-stage cocaine-memory reconsolidation disrupts subsequent context-induced cocaine seeking in rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Pullman, Washington, USA.

The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is key to the maintenance of cocaine memories through reconsolidation into long-term memory stores after retrieval-induced memory destabilization. Here, we examined the time-dependent role of the cornu ammonis 3 DH subregion (dCA3) in cocaine-memory reconsolidation by utilizing the temporal and spatial specificity of optogenetics. eNpHR3. Read More

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Sex differences in the immune system: Implications for cocaine relapse.

Brain Behav Immun 2022 May 14;104:29-30. Epub 2022 May 14.

Laboratory Affiliated to Institute Pasteur Italia - Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Santa Lucia Foundation (IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia), Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

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Paper-based monolith extraction of psychoactive substances from biological fluids.

Talanta 2022 May 11;246:123536. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, Jerónimo Muñoz Building, 50th Dr. Moliner St, 46100, Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address:

A monolith of poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) has been immobilised to a nitrocellulose strip by radical photopolymerisation to be used in the extraction of psychoactive substances in biological fluids. Codeine, methylone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, butylone, norketamine, ketamine, heroin, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide and fentanyl were employed as model drugs and final extracts were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Polymerisation parameters were adjusted in order to obtain a stable and homogeneous layer of monolith onto the nitrocellulose strip. Read More

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Cannabidiol in the context of substance use disorder treatment: A systematic review.

Addict Behav 2022 May 7;132:107360. Epub 2022 May 7.

Hôpital Universitaire Paul Brousse (AP-HP), UR PSYCOMADD, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid found in the Cannabis plant. CBD has received significant medical attention in relation to its anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic characteristics. An increasing number of studies focusing on the anti-addictive properties of CBD have recently been published. Read More

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Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ICD-10 substance use codes in a cohort of substance use-related endocarditis patients.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2022 May 17:1-10. Epub 2022 May 17.

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Healthcare databases have the potential to become efficient tools for epidemiological research in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). The validity of ICD-10 codes for specific substances in this population has not been assessed.

Objectives: Validate ICD-10 diagnosis codes relating to the use of specific substance classes in a cohort of endocarditis patients. Read More

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Racial-Based Bullying and Substance Use: a Brazilian National Cross-Sectional Survey Among Students.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Racial discrimination has been associated with worse health status and risky health behavior. Understanding the relationship between racial-based bullying (RBB) - an overlap of bullying and interpersonal racial discrimination - and substance use can guide school-based actions to prevent bullying and substance use, but investigations rarely involve Brazilian students. We used data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015, which included 102,072 ninth-grade students from the capital and inland cities in the five regions of Brazil. Read More

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"If I had them, I would use them every time": Perspectives on fentanyl test strip use from people who use drugs.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2022 May 5:108790. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center for Connected Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; College of Nursing, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Fentanyl contamination in the illicit drug supply has contributed to a significant increase in overdose deaths in the United States. Fentanyl test strips (FTS), which can detect the presence of fentanyl in drugs, are increasingly given to people who use drugs (PWUD) as an overdose prevention intervention. No studies to date have described PWUD's perspectives from a real-world setting about ideal FTS program characteristics. Read More

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Current Trends and Perspectives in the Immune Therapy for Substance Use Disorders.

Authors:
Octavian Vasiliu

Front Psychiatry 2022 28;13:882491. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Carol Davila University Emergency Central Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are an extremely challenging category of disorders because of the high rate of relapse, lower life expectancy, important rate of psychiatric and somatic co-morbidity, lack of patients' insight during most of the disease duration, healthcare costs, etc. One of the reasons to consider these disorders very difficult for physicians and the healthcare system is the lack of adequate pharmacological agents with long-term proven efficacy. So far, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved treatments for most of the SUDs, except for alcohol use disorder, nicotine use disorder, and opioid use disorder. Read More

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The Perceptions of Women About Their High Experience of Using Crack Cocaine.

Front Psychiatry 2022 29;13:898570. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Graduate Program in Psychology, School of Health and Life Science, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of women about their experience in using crack cocaine, discussing their motivations for using it and the repercussions in their lives.

Objective: To investigate these experiences, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted, using the inductive thematic analyses of the content.

Methods: Eight female crack cocaine users took part in this study. Read More

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Calix[]arene-based immunogens: A new non-proteic strategy for anti-cocaine vaccine.

J Adv Res 2022 05 13;38:285-298. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Exact Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil.

Introduction: Cocaine use disorder is a significant public health issue without a current specific approved treatment. Among different approaches to this disorder, it is possible to highlight a promising immunologic strategy in which an immunogenic agent may reduce the reinforcing effects of the drug if they are able to yield sufficient specific antibodies capable to bind cocaine and/or its psychoactive metabolites before entering into the brain. Several carriers have been investigated in the anti-cocaine vaccine development; however, they generally present a very complex chemical structure, which potentially hampers the proper assessment of the coupling efficiency between the hapten units and the protein structure. Read More

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Drug consumption of suspected drug-influenced drivers in Hungary (2016-2018).

Forensic Sci Int 2022 May 6;336:111325. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

The hazard caused by driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is determined by the time of consumption, dose and biological effects of a substance, as well as by synergistic drug interactions after multi-drug use. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use of suspected DUID drivers and to present the advantages and disadvantages of the system currently used for determination of impairment in Hungary. Blood and urine samples, collected between 2016 and 2018, were taken from 2369 drivers with a positivity rate of 95% for at least one substance. Read More

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A retrospective analysis of data from illicit drug abuse cases in Beijing between 2018 and 2020.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2022 May 9;58:102086. Epub 2022 May 9.

Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic Science, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology, Ministry of Public Security, China. Electronic address:

The overall number of drug abuse cases has been on the rise around the world, causing it a disaster in many countries. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the characteristics of 11,903 drug abuse cases in Beijing, the capital of China, in the perspective of age, gender, nationality, region, season, type of specimens and various drugs, respectively. The case information was collected by the national-level forensic toxicology laboratory, which belongs to the China University of Political Science and Law. Read More

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Allosteric Binding of MDMA to the Human Serotonin Transporter (hSERT) via Ensemble Binding Space Analysis with ΔG Calculations, Induced Fit Docking and Monte Carlo Simulations.

Molecules 2022 May 6;27(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

Laboratory of Computational Molecular Simulations, Departamento de Farmacia, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72592, Mexico.

Despite the recent promising results of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) as a psychotherapeutic agent and its history of misuse, little is known about its molecular mode of action. MDMA enhances monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain and its valuable psychoactive effects are associated to a dual action on the 5-HT transporter (SERT). This drug inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT (serotonin) and reverses its flow, acting as a substrate for the SERT, which possesses a central binding site (S1) for antidepressants as well as an allosteric (S2) one. Read More

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Recreational Nitrous Oxide Use and Associated Factors among Health Profession Students in France.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Apr 26;19(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France.

The first aim of this study was to investigate the recreational use of nitrous oxide (NO) among health profession students at Montpellier University (France). The second aim was to identify the factors associated with NO use. All students in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and midwifery of the Montpellier University were contacted by email to participate in the survey. Read More

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Long-term monitoring of drug consumption patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in a small-sized community in Brazil through wastewater-based epidemiology.

Chemosphere 2022 May 10;302:134907. Epub 2022 May 10.

Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology, Universidade Feevale, Rua Rubem Berta, nº 200, CEP 93525-080, Novo Hamburgo, Brazil; National Institute of Forensic Science and Technology (INCT Forense), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

The abuse of legal and illegal drugs is a global public health problem, also affecting the social and economic well-being of the population. Thus, there is a significant interest in monitoring drug consumption. Relevant epidemiological information on lifestyle habits can be obtained from the chemical analysis of urban wastewater. Read More

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Drugs of abuse in tap water from eight European countries: Determination by use of supramolecular solvents and tentative evaluation of risks to human health.

Environ Int 2022 May 6;164:107281. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, University of Córdoba, Marie Curie Annex Building, Rabanales Campus, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.

Recent research findings have confirmed the presence of illicit drugs in tap water from some European Union (UE) member states. Contaminants in tap water come directly from drinking water sources such as rivers or lakes owing to inefficient removal at wastewater treatment and water purification plants. This work was aimed at setting a starting point for assessing the health risks of exposure to twelve drugs of abuse through consumption of tap water in the European population. Read More

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Heart rupture as an acute complication of cocaine abuse: A case report.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2022 May 2;58:102084. Epub 2022 May 2.

Legal Medicine, Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study is to show a very rare complication of acute cocaine poisoning, namely heart rupture. In the present case report, acute cocaine intoxication caused massive myocardial infarction, resulting in heart rupture and cardiac tamponade. A crime scene investigation found a dead body on the street in a drug dealing district. Read More

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Strong Ethnic Identity Buffers the Association of Heterosexism with Substance Use Among Black Sexual Minority Men.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06279-1248, USA.

Introduction: Heterosexist stigma, including microaggressions experienced in their own racial/ethnic communities, may partially explain disproportionate levels of substance use involvement among Black sexual minority men (BSMM). A strong sense of ethnic identity may provide BSMM with a protective resource. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between ethnic identity and substance use in BSMM. Read More

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A Feasibility Study of Patients with Major Depression and Substance Use Disorders: Vortioxetine as Maintenance Treatment.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2022 4;18:965-976. Epub 2022 May 4.

WADD WPA Section Dual Disorders, Mental Health and Psychiatric Institute, Gregorio Marañon University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Limited studies have evaluated the effectiveness of vortioxetine in real-world settings, and none of them has involved patients with dual depression (major depressive disorder [MDD] and substance use disorder [SUD]). The objective of the study was to describe the effectiveness of vortioxetine in clinical practice and determine its effect on affective symptoms, cognitive function, quality of life, and substance use in patients with MDD and SUD.

Methods: Post-authorization, retrospective, multicenter, descriptive, and observational study in 80 patients with MDD and SUD receiving a maintenance treatment with vortioxetine for six months between January 2017 and April 2021. Read More

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