41,191 results match your criteria Cocaine


Clinical Outcomes After Treatment of Cocaine Induced Chest Pain with Beta Blockers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Cardiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Recent guidelines have suggested avoiding beta blockers in the setting of cocaine associated acute coronary syndrome. However, the available evidence is both scarce and conflicted. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the evidence pertaining to the use of beta blockers in the setting of acute cocaine related chest pain, and its implication on clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.11.041DOI Listing
December 2018

Levamisole adulterated cocaine associated ANCA vasculitis: review of literature and update on pathogenesis.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 11;8(6):339-344. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Levamisole is an antihelminth drug and a common cocaine contaminant, present in an estimated 71% of cocaine samples in the US. Levamisole-contaminated cocaine has been linked to an ANCA-associated vasculitis with cutaneous, renal, and pulmonary manifestations. We report the case of a 46 year old woman with known cocaine exposure who presents with recurrent, large purpuric and maculopapular rash of the extremities and face and review existing cases of levamisole/cocaine-associated ANCA vasculitis, We summarize the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of levamisole induced vasculitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2018.1536242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292360PMC
December 2018

Operant costs modulate dopamine release to self-administered cocaine.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Neurosciences Institute and Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA

The costs associated with obtaining illicit drugs can fluctuate depending upon the relative drug availability. As a consequence of the changing costs, the effort one must exert to obtain drugs is dynamic. Considerable evidence illustrates a critical role for dopamine in the ventral medial striatum in mediating drug reinforcement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1721-18.2018DOI Listing
December 2018

Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

NIDA Intramural Program, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Although some of the clinical manifestations of substance use disorders might be superficially similar, it is highly likely that different classes of abused drugs including opioids (heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, other opioids) and psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines) cause different neuroadaptations in various brain regions dependent in the distribution and concentration of their biochemical sites of actions. In fact, different molecular networks are indeed impacted by acute and chronic administration of addictive substances. Some of the genes whose expression is influenced by the administration of these substances are immediate-early genes (IEGs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the long-term effects of repeated social defeat stress on the rewarding and psychomotor properties of cocaine in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unidad de Investigación Psicobiología de las Drogodependencias, Departamento de Psicobiologia, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to social stress increases the vulnerability of experimental animals to the rewarding effects of cocaine and it has been suggested that the glutamatergic system could be involved in these effects of stress. The aim of this work is to determine the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the influence of social stress on the conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine. Mice treated with saline or NMDA antagonist memantine (5 or 10 mg/kg) underwent repeated social defeat or were kept in the exploration control condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2018.12.025DOI Listing
December 2018

Indomethacin blocks the increased conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209291. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209291PLOS
December 2018

Opioid and Cannabis Co-Use among Adults with Chronic Pain: Relations to Substance Misuse, Mental Health, and Pain Experience.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (AHR, JB, DJP, MJV); Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (JDB); College of Nursing, Washington State University, Washington, DC (MFO); Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, New York, NY (JWD); Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MJZ); and HEALTH Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX (MJZ).

Objectives: Opioid misuse constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000493DOI Listing
December 2018

Cognitive dysfunction in individuals with cocaine use disorder: Potential moderating factors and pharmacological treatments.

Authors:
James J Mahoney

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

West Virginia University School of Medicine.

It is well-documented in the literature that individuals repeatedly exposed to cocaine exhibit cognitive impairment and that cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Specific deficits related to attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functioning are the most common deficits noted in this population. Given that cognitive impairment is a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes in those with CUD, identifying possible moderating factors contributing to and/or exacerbating cocaine-related cognitive deficits is of great importance. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pha0000245
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000245DOI Listing
December 2018
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Joshua Harold Burn (1892-1981): A visionary during the evolution of pharmacology as a biomedical discipline.

Authors:
Ronald P Rubin

J Med Biogr 2018 Dec 17:967772016685908. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine, the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

This article encapsulates the career of Joshua Burn, whose work encouraged new lines of experimentation and paved the way for fundamental advances in our knowledge of the autonomic nervous system. His legacy also endures in his efforts as Department Chairman to oversee a very supportive environment which led to the development of many successful scientists. By producing a body of work that enabled the discipline of pharmacology to contribute in a major way to the advancement of clinical medicine, Joshua Burn stands out as a unique figure in the annals of true scientific pioneers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0967772016685908DOI Listing
December 2018

The Nociceptin Receptor (NOP) Agonist AT-312 Blocks Acquisition of Morphine- and Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice.

Front Psychiatry 2018 29;9:638. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, United States.

Treatment of drug addiction remains an unmet medical need due to the dearth of approved pharmacotherapies. There are no approved treatments for cocaine addiction, whereas the current opioid crisis has revealed the stark reality of the limited options to treat prescription and illicit opioid abuse. Preclinical studies in rodents and nonhuman primates have shown that orphanin FQ/nociceptin (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand for the nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP) reduces the rewarding effects of several abused substances, including opioids, psychostimulants and alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281746PMC
November 2018

Systemic sclerosis induced by the use of cocaine: is there an association?

Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 -3° andar, sala 3131, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, CEP 01246-903, Brazil.

The association between cocaine abuse and systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rarely described. Two new cases of this association are presented: two young adults, after using inhaled cocaine for a few years, were diagnosed with SSc. While a 24 year-old white female patient presented with diffuse SSc with multiple digital ulcers and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), a 27 year-old male patient presented limited SSc with skin ulcers and digital gangrene, rapidly evolving to death due to massive intestinal hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-018-4227-6DOI Listing
December 2018
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Contribution of monoaminergic mechanisms to the discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008, USA.

Rationale: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential. Recent preclinical research indicates the psychopharmacology of MDPV is comparable to cocaine. Despite a recent influx of research on the psychopharmacology of MDPV, few studies have employed preclinical drug discrimination methods to discern the neurochemical mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5145-8DOI Listing
December 2018
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Factors predicting early dropout from dialectical behaviour therapy in individuals with borderline personality disorder.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2018 Nov 1;46(6):226-33. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain) Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona (Spain) Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica- Sant Pau (IIB-SANT PAU), Barcelona (Spain) Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM (Spain).

Background: Dialectical behaviour therapy skills training (DBT-ST) has proven effective to treat individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, therapy still faces the problem of early dropout. The aim of the present study is to examine which factors are associated with early dropout from DBT-ST in a sample of subjects with BPD. Read More

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November 2018

A novel role for E2F3b in regulating cocaine action in the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Drug abuse is a multifaceted disorder that involves maladaptive decision making. Long-lasting changes in the addicted brain are mediated by a complex circuit of brain reward regions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one region in which chronic drug exposure changes expression and function of upstream transcriptional regulators to alter drug responses and aspects of the addicted phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0296-1DOI Listing
December 2018

4-Fluoramphetamine in the Netherlands: Text-mining and sentiment analysis of internet forums.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:34-39. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Trimbos Institute, The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Da Costakade 45, 3521VS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Users of new psychoactive substances including 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA/4-FMP) frequently share their experiences or opinions in online drug forums. We have tested the potential of computerised analysis of drug users' forum posts for monitoring and early detection of trends. Specifically, we tested whether changes in the volume of 4-FA related posts and sentiments expressed in those posts can be observed around the time 4-FA was increasingly reported by Dutch drug monitoring sources (2012-2017). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.11.016DOI Listing
December 2018
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Morphine, Cocaine, and the Euthanasia of King George V.

Authors:

Anesthesiology 2019 Jan;130(1):105

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002548DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12038DOI Listing
December 2018
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Expectations about alcohol, cocaine, and benzodiazepine abstinence following inpatient heroin withdrawal management.

Am J Addict 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Behavioral Medicine Department, Butler Hospital, Providence 02906, Rhode Island.

Background And Objectives: Polysubstance use is associated with relapse and poor treatment outcomes among people dependent on heroin. Despite the high prevalence of polysubstance use among patients detoxifying from heroin, little is known about patients' expectations to abstain or use non-opiate substances. The current study examined factors associated with expectations about abstaining from alcohol, cocaine, and benzodiazepines (BZDs) following heroin withdrawal management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12834DOI Listing
December 2018

Associations of Adolescent Exposure to Severe Violence with Substance Use From Adolescence into Adulthood: Direct Versus Indirect Exposures.

Subst Use Misuse 2018 Dec 13:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

b Department of Population Health, NYU School of Medicine , New York , New York , USA.

Background: While previous research has documented the impact of violence on substance use, none has looked longitudinally across the lifespan to measure independent effects of direct and indirect violence exposure.

Objective: To examine independent associations between adolescent experiences of violence and subsequent substance use in adolescence and adulthood in the United States.

Method: Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 12,288), we examined being shot or stabbed ("experienced"), being threatened with a knife or gun ("threatened"), and seeing someone either shot or stabbed ("witnessed") during adolescence (Wave I) as correlates of substance use in adolescence and adulthood (Wave IV) via logistic regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2018.1495737DOI Listing
December 2018

Longitudinal HIV Transmission Risk Profiles Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV in the SUN Study.

Am J Mens Health 2018 Dec 12:1557988318818283. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

Examining how multiple concomitant factors interact to augment HIV transmission risk is needed to inform more effective primary and secondary HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. The development of a "taxonomy" of long-term sexual and drug-related risk behavior profiles may have important implications for resource allocation and targeted HIV prevention programming. A secondary data analysis was conducted to explore longitudinal HIV transmission risk profiles among 423 MSM living with HIV enrolled in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988318818283DOI Listing
December 2018

[The impact of a mass media promotion campaign about youth addiction outpatient clinic visits]

Sante Publique 2018 July August;30(4):465-475

Aim: By means of a personalized consultation with a professional, the Consultations Jeunes Consommateurs (CJC) provide the opportunity to young people and their family to take stock of the consumption level and a potential addiction. A mass-media promotion campaign of this service was released twice in 2015. This article aims to evaluate the impact of this campaign on the visibility of the CJC among adolescents' parents and on the access to CJC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.185.0465DOI Listing
December 2018

A neuronal population code for resemblance between drug and nondrug reward outcomes in the orbitofrontal cortex.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Université de Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo-Saignat, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in choice and decision-making in both human and non-human animals. We previously identified in the rat OFC a mechanism that influences individual drug choices and preferences between a drug and a nondrug (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-018-1809-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuroactive steroid levels and cocaine use chronicity in men and women with cocaine use disorder receiving progesterone or placebo.

Am J Addict 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Yale Stress Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background And Objectives: Neuroactive steroids (NAS) may play a role in addiction, with observed increases in response to acute stress and drug use, but decreases with chronic substance use, suggesting that NAS neuroadaptations may occur with chronic substance use. However, levels of NAS in addicted individuals have not been systematically examined. Here, we evaluated a panel of NAS in men and women with cocaine use disorder (CUD) who participated in a clinical laboratory study of progesterone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12828DOI Listing
December 2018

Detection of Brodifacoum and other Rodenticides in Drug Mixtures using Thermal Desorption Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (TD-DART-MS).

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899.

In recent months, there has been increased reporting of seized drug and toxicology cases containing rodenticides, the active ingredient in rat poisons. Seeing as rodenticides are not scheduled substances, they are not commonly screened for in seized drug analysis. This work investigates the use of TD-DART-MS for the simultaneous detection of rodenticides and drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13978DOI Listing
December 2018
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Brugada Pattern in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Case Report and Scoping Study.

Am J Med Case Rep 2018 7;6(9):173-179. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease and Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A- 11203.

Brugada syndrome is a rare cardiac arrhythmia which is associated with right bundle branch block pattern (RBBB) and ST-segment elevation in right precordial leads. SCNA5 mutation is the most common genetic abnormality associated with Brugada syndrome. Brugada pattern not related to genetic mutations has been previously reported in the setting of fever, metabolic conditions, lithium use, marijuana and cocaine abuse, ischemia and pulmonary embolism, myocardial and pericardial diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajmcr-6-9-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282764PMC
October 2018

α4β2 Nicotinic receptor desensitizing compounds can decrease self-administration of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Drug Discovery Program and Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. Sazetidine-A has been shown in our previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine and alcohol self-administration in rats. The question arises whether sazetidine-A would reduce self-administration of other addictive drugs as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.12.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Assessment of illicit drugs in wastewater and estimation of drugs of abuse in Adana Province, Turkey.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 23;294:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Cukurova University, Biotechnology Research and Application Centre, Adana 01330, Turkey. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a rapidly developing discipline that has the potential to monitor real-time data on regional and temporal differences regarding the use of illicit drugs. With WBE, metabolic products discharged for drug consumption are rapidly collected by sewage systems, which provide valuable evidence on the types and quantities of drugs consumed by a given community. In this study, the samples were collected from the wastewaters entering the facilities in Seyhan and Yuregir Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs), in Adana Province. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.11.012DOI Listing
November 2018
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Noise insertion in CT for cocaine body packing: where is the limit of extensive dose reduction?

Eur J Med Res 2018 Dec 7;23(1):59. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, University Dusseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Background: To evaluate the detection rate and image quality in CT-body-packer-screening at different radiation-dose levels and to determine a dose threshold that enables a reliable detection of incorporated body packs and incidental findings with a maximum of dose saving.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively included 27 individuals who underwent an abdominal CT with automated exposure control due to suspected body packing. CT images were reconstructed at different radiation-dose levels of 50%, 10, 5% and 1% using iterative reconstructions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-018-0356-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284291PMC
December 2018

A Polydrug and Psychosocial Profile of Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in a New York City Community Sample, 2016-2017.

Subst Use Misuse 2018 Dec 7:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

a Social Solutions and Services Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research , Orangeburg , New York , USA.

Background: Epidemiologic reports available on synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have focused on sociodemographics, indicating high prevalence of SC use predominantly among white, relatively affluent, males. However, there is emerging evidence suggesting high SC prevalence among socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority males.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk correlates of SC use among psychosocial vulnerable communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2018.1517178DOI Listing
December 2018

Inhibition by general anesthetic propofol of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve and its chemical structure.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Physiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501, Japan.

Although the intravenous general anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an ability to inhibit nerve conduction, this has not been fully examined. Various agents inhibit compound action potentials (CAPs) in a manner dependent on their chemical structures. To determine propofol's chemical structure that is important in nerve conduction inhibition, we examined the effects of propofol and its related compounds on fast-conducting CAPs recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-018-01596-wDOI Listing
December 2018
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Sleep deprivation alters the time course but not magnitude of locomotor sensitization to cocaine.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17672. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse progressively increases the response to the same stimuli, a process known as sensitization. Behavioral sensitization to cocaine administration is often measured in non-human subjects via locomotor activity which is easily quantifiable. The effects of four hours of sleep deprivation on repeated cocaine (five daily and one challenge) showed attenuated hyperactivity on the first day only, compared to the non-deprived group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36002-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281608PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Behavioral effects of psychostimulants in mutant mice with cell-type specific deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey, 07470, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of the endocannabinoid system modulate dopaminergic pathways that are involved in the effects of psychostimulants including amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and other drugs of abuse. Genetic deletion or pharmacological activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the modulation of the effects of psychostimulants and their rewarding properties. Here we report on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice with selective deletion of type 2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2018.11.043DOI Listing
November 2018
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Effects of chronic fentanyl administration on behavioral characteristics of mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Behavioral Physiology, Graduate School of Innovative Life Science, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Background: Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid categorized as a narcotic analgesic, has a 100- to 200-fold stronger effect than most opioids, such as morphine. Fatal accidents due to chronic use and abuse of fentanyl are a worldwide social problem. One reason for the abuse of fentanyl is its psychostimulant effects that could induce behavioral changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12040DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Increased cocaine reward in offspring of females exposed to morphine during adolescence.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA, 01536, USA.

Rationale: A growing body of evidence demonstrates that environmental exposures can impact the physiology and behavior of subsequent generations. We have previously demonstrated reduced morphine self-administration in the F1 and F2 offspring of female rats exposed to morphine during adolescence.

Objectives: The current study was designed to determine whether attenuated self-administration for a substance not in the opioid class is also observed in the F1 progeny of adolescent morphine exposed females. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-5132-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5132-0DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

D1 receptor hypersensitivity in mice with low striatal D2 receptors facilitates select cocaine behaviors.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Laboratory on the Neurobiology of Compulsive Behaviors, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Intramural Research Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Vulnerability for cocaine abuse in humans is associated with low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the striatum. The mechanisms driving this vulnerability are poorly understood. In this study, we found that downregulating D2R expression selectively in striatal indirect-pathway neurons triggers a multitude of changes in D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing direct-pathway neurons, which comprise the other main subpopulation of striatal projection neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0286-3DOI Listing
December 2018
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Rate matters: rapid cocaine delivery promotes incubation of cocaine craving.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0275-6DOI Listing
November 2018
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Enhancement of BDNF expression and memory by HDAC inhibition requires BET bromodomain reader proteins.

J Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify BRD4, a BET bromodomain reader of acetyl-lysine histones, as an essential component involved in potentiated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and memory following HDAC inhibition. In studies, we reveal that pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 reversed the increase in mRNA induced by the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1604-18.2018DOI Listing
November 2018

Unintended Consequences: A Review of Pharmacologically-Induced Priapism.

Sex Med Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Urology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Priapism has been linked to many commonly prescribed medications, as well as recreational drugs and toxins. Although the incidence of priapism as a result of medication is small, the increasing use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, and recreational drugs may lead to more cases of pharmacologically-induced priapism in the future.

Aim: To provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the most common causes of pharmacologically induced priapism and discuss incidence, pathophysiology, and basic management strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sxmr.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018
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Detection of cocaine and metabolites from mouse femur buried in soil.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2018 Nov 9;37:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan.

Drug addicts are frequently involved in committing homicides, and burial in the ground is often performed by offenders for body disposal. Therefore, toxicological analyses of buried bones are vitally important for investigating the cause and circumstance of death. Cocaine concentrations in heart blood, femoral muscle, and femur were measured in mice after injections of 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg cocaine and in femurs buried in soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
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University students' self-reported reasons for abstinence from prescription and non-prescription stimulants and depressants.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 22;194:476-481. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403, USA.

Background: No previous publication has evaluated whether the importance of university students' reasons for abstinence differs across prescription stimulants, prescription opioids, and two illicit forms of those medications (cocaine and heroin).

Methods: In response to a recruitment email sent to all enrolled undergraduates at a large public university, 768 students who reported no prior recreational use of these four substances rated the importance of 17 reasons for lifelong abstention from each of the four drugs.

Results: Based on factor analyses, 16 of the 17 reasons comprised four subscales (Negative Consequences, Difficult to Acquire, Not Enjoyable, Social Disapproval). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
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Prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use throughout life: National School Health Survey 2015.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2018 Nov 29;21(suppl 1):e180007. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil.

Introduction: The use of illicit drugs is a public health concern. This paper describes the prevalence and factors associated with the use of illicit drugs throughout life among 9th grade students attending public and private schools in daylight period in Brazil.

Method: Data from the Brazilian Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720180007.supl.1DOI Listing
November 2018
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Molecular Docking Studies of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine-Related Derivatives as an Inhibitor against dopamine Receptor.

Curr Comput Aided Drug Des 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud. Iran.

Background: The catecholamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are neurotransmitters that regulate different physiological functions of the central nervous system. Some evidence suggest that the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra contributes in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a neurodegenerative disorder and it is responsible for the major symptoms of PD. It is suggested that replenishment of striatal dopamine through the oral administration of the dopamine precursor, levodopa, can compensate the lack of endogenously produced dopamine. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/168033/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409915666181204144411DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Wastewater-based monitoring of illicit drug consumption in Istanbul: Preliminary results from two districts.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 24;656:231-238. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Department of Medicine, 34098 Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a well-established and complementary approach for monitoring illicit drug use in the general population. In this study, amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine (COC) (from benzoylecgonine), and cannabis (from THC-COOH) consumption levels were investigated for the first time in Turkey (Istanbul). A solid-phase extraction method was applied to influent wastewater samples collected from two districts, Beyoglu and Catalca. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.345DOI Listing
November 2018

Chemsex behaviours among men who have sex with men: A systematic review of the literature.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 1;63:74-89. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: 'Chemsex' is the use of drugs before or during planned sexual events to facilitate, enhance, prolong and sustain the experience. Drugs associated with chemsex are methamphetamine, GHB/GBL, mephedrone, cocaine and ketamine. This review syntheses published research on the antecedents, behaviours and consequences associated with chemsex behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09553959183029
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.11.014DOI Listing
December 2018
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Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1;188:188-197. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.11.062DOI Listing
December 2018
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Clinical Benefits of Direct-to-Definitive Testing for Monitoring Compliance in Pain Management.

Pain Physician 2018 Nov;21(6):E583-E592

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: The technical advantages of direct-to-definitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) urine testing for monitoring patient compliance in pain management are well known. However, the design and implementation of LC-MS/MS methods are more controversial, including factors such as determining appropriate cutoffs, specimen processing (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Retinal nerve fiber layer analysis in cocaine users.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Nov 24;271:226-229. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cocaine is a well-known factor of tissue ischemia and may be related to thinning of the inner retinal layers. The present study aimed to evaluate and determine whether cocaine users show retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning by means of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A group of 17 cocaine users and 18 non-users were recruited for complete ophthalmologic examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.11.058DOI Listing
November 2018

Change in alcohol and other drug use during five years of continuous opioid substitution treatment.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 26;194:438-446. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

King's College London, Addictions Department, Box 48, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, DeCrespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom; Alcohol, Drugs, Tobacco and Justice Division, Health Improvement Directorate, Public Health England, 7th Floor Wellington House, 133-155 Waterloo Road, London SE1 8UG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: English national prospective, observational cohort study of patients continuously enrolled for five years in opioid substitution treatment (OST) with oral methadone and sublingual buprenorphine. This is a secondary outcome analysis of change in use of alcohol and other drug use (AOD) following identification of heroin use trajectories during OST.

Methods: All adults admitted to community OST in 2008/09 and enrolled to 2013/14 (n = 7717). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03768716183048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.008DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads