42,970 results match your criteria Cocaine


Serine Racemase Expression by Striatal Neurons.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Laboratory for Psychiatric and Molecular Neuroscience, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA.

D-serine is synthesized by serine racemase (SR) and is a co-agonist at forebrain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). D-serine and SR are expressed primarily in neurons, but not in quiescent astrocytes. In this study, we examined the localization of D-serine and SR in the mouse striatum and the effects of genetically silencing SR expression in GABAergic interneurons (iSR-/-). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00880-9DOI Listing

Analytical findings in used syringes from a syringe exchange program.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 May 19;81:102770. Epub 2020 May 19.

The Center for Forensic Science Research and Education (CFSRE), 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, 19090, USA; NMS Labs, 200 Welsh Road, Horsham, PA, 19044, USA.

Background: Since it's first implementatation in 1984, Syringe Exchange Programs (SEP) are a critical component of harm reduction interventions among people who inject drugs.. The aim of this work was to use a scientific analytical approach to obtain drug use information through the analysis of the content of used syringes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102770DOI Listing

Inferences and Legal Considerations Following a Blood Collection Tube Recall.

J Anal Toxicol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Drug Research, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

In mid-2019, medical, forensic and legal communities were notified that a certain shipment of evacuated blood sampling tubes were recalled by the manufacturer. This recall order described that the preservative sodium fluoride (100 mg) and anticoagulant potassium oxalate (20 mg) were missing from a small batch of 10 mL-evacuated tubes. This gave cause for concern for possible implications in criminal justice (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa056DOI Listing

Differential Effects of Saikosaponins A, B2, B4, C and D on Alcohol and Chocolate Self-Administration in Rats.

Alcohol Alcohol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Neuroscience Institute, Section of Cagliari, National Research Council of Italy, Monserrato (CA), Italy.

Aims: Treatment with saikosaponin A (SSA)-an ingredient of the medicinal herb, Bupleurum falcatum-has been reported to suppress several addictive-like behaviors, including morphine, cocaine, alcohol and chocolate self-administration in male rats. The aim of this investigation was to investigate whether saikosaponins of B. falcatum other than SSA affect alcohol and chocolate self-administration in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agaa049DOI Listing

Maternal Diet Influences the Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior and the Expression of Melanocortin-4 Receptors in Female Offspring of Rats.

Nutrients 2020 May 19;12(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Smętna Street 12, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Recent studies have emphasized the role of the maternal diet in the development of mental disorders in offspring. Substance use disorder is a major global health and economic burden. Therefore, the search for predisposing factors for the development of this disease can contribute to reducing the health and social damage associated with addiction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051462DOI Listing

Alexithymia, Emotion-Regulation Strategies, and Traumatic Experiences in Prenatally Cocaine-Exposed Young Adults.

Am J Addict 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background And Objectives: Exposure to early-life trauma may lead to maladaptive characteristics such as alexithymia, and thus to poorer emotional regulation. This relationship may also be influenced by exposure to substances prenatally. We hypothesized that increased alexithymia would be seen in those with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13056DOI Listing

Disentangling the Social Context of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants in College Students.

Am J Addict 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Nursing and Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking and Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background And Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the social context of nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) among college students who endorsed NMUPS with co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) compared with those without co-occurring SUDs.

Methods: Presented here are new analyses based on data previously collected from college students aged 18 to 28 years derived from the Boston metropolitan area who endorsed NMUPS (N = 100) at least once in their lifetime. Differences between those with lifetime history of SUD (N = 46) and without a history of SUD (N = 54) on the Massachusetts General Hospital ADHD Medication Misuse and Diversion Assessment were analyzed using the Student t test, the Pearson χ test, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13053DOI Listing

Modulation of cocaine-related behaviors by low doses of the potent KOR agonist nalfurafine in male C57BL6 mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

The Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, USA.

Rationale: Agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) have been shown to block the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but with negative side effects. The antipruritic drug nalfurafine, approved in Japan in 2009, is a potent, selective KOR agonist that does not cause significant side effects in humans. Nalfurafine has not been extensively tested for its effect on drug reward and reinforcement in preclinical models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05543-7DOI Listing

Reversible Fulminant Hepatitis Secondary to Cocaine in the Setting of β-Blocker Use.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2020 Jan-Dec;8:2324709620924203

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

. Fulminant hepatitis is acute hepatic injury with severe decline in hepatic function manifested by encephalopathy, hypercoagulable state, jaundice, renal failure, hypoglycemia, or a constellation of these symptoms in patients without preexisting liver disease. Etiologies include viral infections, hepatotoxic drugs, autoimmune diseases, vaso-occlusive diseases, sepsis, and malignant infiltration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709620924203DOI Listing

And the best stressed is…? A mechanistic analysis of sex differences in stress-potentiated cocaine-seeking behavior.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0710-3DOI Listing

A case series and literature review on patients with rhinological complications secondary to the use of cocaine and levamisole.

J Laryngol Otol 2020 May 20:1-7. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of ENT, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

Background: Levamisole is an increasingly common cutting agent used with cocaine. Both cocaine and levamisole can have local and systemic effects on patients.

Methods: A retrospective case series was conducted of patients with a cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion or levamisole-induced vasculitis, who presented to a Dundee hospital or the practice of a single surgeon in Paisley, from April 2016 to April 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215120000894DOI Listing

Paternal exposure to recreational drugs before conception and its effect on live-born offspring: A scoping review.

Birth Defects Res 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Men of reproductive age increasingly use recreational drugs. While many of these substances may reduce the quantity and quality of sperm, less is known about the effects of these exposures on their offspring. We performed a scoping review to summarize the available literature and identify areas for future research on the outcome of live-born offspring of fathers who were exposed to recreational drugs before conception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1702DOI Listing

Psychometric Data Linking Across HIV and Substance Use Cohorts.

AIDS Behav 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Psychometric data linking of psychological and behavioral questionnaires can facilitate the harmonization of data across HIV and substance use cohorts. Using data from the Collaborating Consortium of Cohorts Producing NIDA Opportunities (C3PNO), we demonstrate how to capitalize on previous linking work with a common linked depression metric across multiple questionnaires. Cohorts were young men who have sex with men (MSM), substance-using MSM, HIV/HCV cocaine users, and HIV-positive patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02883-5DOI Listing

Extremely High Creatine Kinase Activity in Rhabdomyolysis without Acute Kidney Injury.

Am J Case Rep 2020 May 20;21:e924347. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pinnacle, Harrisburg, PA, USA.

BACKGROUND Elevation of creatine kinase (CK) activity has been shown to be predictive of acute kidney injury (AKI) in rhabdomyolysis. Patients with extremely high CK activity with preserved renal function are uncommon. This report describes a case of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis, with a markedly elevated CK activity, without associated AKI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.924347DOI Listing

Increasing Willingness to Use Synthetic Drugs if Offered among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees, 2017-2019.

Authors:
Joseph J Palamar

J Psychoactive Drugs 2020 May 19:1-10. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Intention and willingness to use drugs are proximal predictors of drug use; however, willingness to use requires more research to inform prevention efforts. This study examines willingness to use drugs among electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees, a population at high risk for drug use. Data were examined from a repeated cross-sectional study of 2,426 adult EDM party attendees surveyed entering nightclubs and festivals in New York City from 2017 to 2019 using time-space sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2020.1761574DOI Listing

Drug use, sexual risk, and structural vulnerability among female sex workers in two urban centers of the Dominican Republic: The EPIC study.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 May 12;212:108039. Epub 2020 May 12.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Center for Family and Community Medicine, 610 West 158th Street, New York, NY, 10032, United States; Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Ave, New York, NY, 10032, United States.

Background: Evidence in different countries suggest an association between sex work and drug use. In the Dominican Republic an estimated 60,000-100,000 women work in the sex industry. However, little is known about their drug use behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108039DOI Listing

Polysubstance use and association with opioid use disorder treatment in the US Veterans Health Administration.

Addiction 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

VA Center for Clinical Management Research (CCMR), VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Aims: To understand the role of comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs), or polysubstance use, in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), this study compared patients with OUD only to those with additional SUDs and examined association with OUD treatment receipt. Design, setting, participants Retrospective national cohort study of veterans diagnosed with OUD (n=65,741) receiving care from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in fiscal year 2017.

Measurements: Patient characteristics were compared among those diagnosed with OUD only versus those with one other SUD (OUD+1 SUD) and with multiple SUDs (OUD+≥2 SUDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15116DOI Listing

Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndromes in Trauma ICU Patients: A Prospective Exploratory Study.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Apr 29;2(4):e0089. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

University of California, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA.

Trauma ICU patients may require high and/or prolonged doses of opioids and/or benzodiazepines as part of their treatment. These medications may contribute to drug physical dependence, a response manifested by withdrawal syndrome. We aimed to identify risk factors, symptoms, and clinical variables associated with probable withdrawal syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188437PMC

Euglycemic Ketoacidosis.

Curr Diab Rep 2020 May 19;20(7):25. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketosis. Ketoacidosis may occur with blood glucose level < 200 mg/dl (improperly defined as euglycemic ketoacidosis, euKA) and also in people without diabetes. The absence of marked hyperglycemia can delay diagnosis and treatment, resulting in potential serious adverse outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-020-01307-xDOI Listing

Sobriety and Satiety: Is NAD+ the Answer?

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 May 14;9(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

Centre for Cutaneous Research, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that has garnered considerable interest in the last century due to its critical role in cellular processes associated with energy production, cellular protection against stress and longevity. Research in NAD+ has been reinvigorated by recent findings that components of NAD+ metabolism and NAD-dependent enzymes can influence major signalling processes associated with the neurobiology of addiction. These studies implicate raising intracellular NAD+ levels as a potential target for managing and treating addictive behaviour and reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms in patients with food addiction and/or substance abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050425DOI Listing

Maternal high-sugar diet changes offspring vulnerability to reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior: Role of melanocortin-4 receptors.

FASEB J 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland.

Maternal diet significantly influences the proper development of offspring in utero. Modifications of diet composition may lead to metabolic and mental disorders that may predispose offspring to a substance use disorder. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-sugar diet (HSD, rich in sucrose) consumed during pregnancy and lactation on the offspring phenotype in the context of the rewarding and motivational effects of cocaine and changes within the central melanocortin (MC) system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000163RDOI Listing

Allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptors in alcohol and substance use disorders.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 10;88:233-275. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Alcohol and substance use disorders are chronic relapsing disorders, characterized by a compulsion to take drugs and loss of control in limiting intake. The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on morbidity and mortality is very high worldwide, and treatment options are inadequate at a population level. There is a need for the discovery and development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol and substance use disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.01.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Reliable drug war data: The Consolidated Counterdrug Database and cocaine interdiction in the "Transit Zone".

Authors:
Kendra McSweeney

Int J Drug Policy 2020 May 12;80:102719. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Geography, 1036 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1341 United States. Electronic address:

Background: For almost three decades, a U.S. government dataset has vetted and recorded all known cocaine trafficking events in the massive Western Hemisphere 'transit zone' (including Central America, the Caribbean, eastern Pacific, and Mexico) and tracked all cocaine seizures reported by counternarcotic forces there. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102719DOI Listing

Cannabidiol Prevents the Expression of the Locomotor Sensitization and the Metabolic Changes in the Nucleus Accumbens and Prefrontal Cortex Elicited by the Combined Administration of Cocaine and Caffeine in Rats.

Neurotox Res 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Departamento de Neurofarmacología Experimental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Avenida Italia 3318, 11600, Montevideo, Uruguay.

In the last years, clinical and preclinical researchers have increased their interest in non-psychotomimetic cannabinoids, like cannabidiol (CBD), as a strategy for treating psychostimulant use disorders. However, there are discrepancies in the pharmacological effects and brain targets of CBD. We evaluated if CBD was able to prevent the locomotor sensitization elicited by cocaine and caffeine co-administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-020-00218-9DOI Listing

Reorganization of theta phase-locking in the orbitofrontal cortex drives cocaine choice under the influence.

Sci Rep 2020 May 15;10(1):8041. Epub 2020 May 15.

Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, 146 rue Léo-Saignat, F-33000, Bordeaux, France.

Cortical theta oscillations of neuronal activity are a fundamental mechanism driving goal-directed behavior. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a neuronal correlate of individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative nondrug reward (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64962-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228935PMC
May 2020
5.078 Impact Factor

mGlu5 receptor availability in youth at risk for addictions: effects of vulnerability traits and cannabis use.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been implicated in experience-dependent neuroplasticity and drug-seeking behaviors. Type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptors might be particularly important. They are critically involved in synaptic plasticity and their availability has been reported to be lower in people with alcohol, tobacco, and cocaine use disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0708-xDOI Listing

Alcohol and illicit substances associated with fatal crashes in Queensland: An examination of the 2011 to 2015 Coroner's findings.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Feb 12;312:110190. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Road Safety Research Collaboration, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, 4556 QLD, Australia.

Problem: The problem of impaired driving is well documented in the literature but is heavily dependent upon self-report studies and/or databases that do not include in-depth information about the contributing origins of fatalities.

Aim: This study aimed to conduct an in-depth analysis of Coroner's findings for all fatally injured drivers in the state of Queensland in order to explore the prevalence of alcohol and different types of illicit substances (including drug combinations) in fatal crash reports.

Method: A total of 701 Coroner's reports related to drivers or controllers of vehicles involved in traffic related fatalities for the period of 2011-2015 were analysed, revealing 306 controllers (43. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110190DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine exposure on germline integrity and epigenome.

Neuropharmacology 2020 May 13;173:108127. Epub 2020 May 13.

Penn State University, Department of Biobehavioral Health, USA. Electronic address:

Converging evidence suggests that parental exposure to drugs of abuse can affect offspring phenotypes. The impacts of drug abuse on germ cell quality may mediate multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance, although biological pathways underlying this mode of inheritance are not yet characterized. Germline epigenetic marks are modified by drug exposure and have emerged as promising mechanistic candidates in recent work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108127DOI Listing

High Prevalence of Tobacco Product and E-Cigarette Use among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 May 15:1-6. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Population Health, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York City, New York, USA.

Electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees are at high risk for use of various illegal drugs; however, little is known about their tobacco use. Understanding tobacco use patterns in this population at high risk for illegal drug use can inform multi-product interventions. 954 EDM party attendees (ages 18-40) were surveyed in New York City in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1717536DOI Listing

Therapeutic Potential of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Agonists in Substance Use Disorders: A Synthesis of Preclinical and Human Evidence.

Cells 2020 May 12;9(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 27 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 3H7, Canada.

Targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has received increasing interest as a potential strategy to treat substance use disorders due to the localization of PPARs in addiction-related brain regions and the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate dopamine neurotransmission. Robust evidence from animal models suggests that agonists at both the PPAR-α and PPAR-γ isoforms can reduce both positive and negative reinforcing properties of ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and possibly psychostimulants. A reduction in the voluntary consumption of ethanol following treatment with PPAR agonists seems to be the most consistent finding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051196DOI Listing

CaMKII is activated in opioid induced Conditioned Place Preference, but αCaMKII Thr286 autophosphorylation is not necessary for its establishment.

Behav Brain Res 2020 May 11:112676. Epub 2020 May 11.

Section for Drug Abuse Research, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), particularly its α isoform, is known to be important for neuronal processes central for learning and memory and has also been implicated in the maladaptive learning involved in drug addiction.Thr286 autophosphorylation of αCaMKII has been shown to be indispensable for establishment of cocaine-induced CPP (Easton et al., 2014). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112676DOI Listing

Retention of patients in opioid substitution treatment: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(5):e0232086. Epub 2020 May 14.

Data Science Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Retention in opioid substitution (OST) treatment is associated with substantial reductions in all cause and overdose mortality. This systematic review aims to identify both protective factors supporting retention in OST, and risk factors for treatment dropout.

Methods: A systematic search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Web of Science (January 2001 to October 2019). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232086PLOS

Cocaine using patient who presents with dyspnoea.

Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2020 Jan-Apr;22(1):46-49. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

UGC Neumología. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía. Córdoba.

We present the case of a 17-year-old male patient with a history of cocaine use who consulted for chest pain and dyspnoea. A pneumomediastinum is defined as the irruption of air in the mediastinal space, and is associated with different causes, including addiction to inhaled drugs. It occurs in people with predisposing factors and the presence of precipitating factors such as consumption of inhaled drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18176/resp.0007DOI Listing

Evaluation of the impact of family relations on prisoners' health in Spain.

Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2020 Jan-Apr;22(1):32-38. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Social Work and Social Services. University of Murcia. Murcia.

Objectives: Literature on this issue has shown a high prevalence of alcohol and other drug use in the prison population. Although many risk factors have been linked to this behavior in prison, it is not common to find research that analyses the influence of family/social contact in prison.

Material And Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 2,709 inmates (2,484 men and 225 women) in 9 prisons in Spain, data was collected through self-report questionnaires, including information at socio-demographic level, family-social contact and use of alcohol and other drugs in the last month in prison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18176/resp.0005DOI Listing

Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Construct Validity of the Internalized Sex Work Stigma Scale among a Cohort of Cisgender Female Sex Workers in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

J Sex Res 2020 May 13:1-11. Epub 2020 May 13.

Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Internalized sex work stigma among cisgender female sex workers (FSW) is produced within contexts of social marginalization and associated with a range of ill-effects, including psychological distress, and lower rates of healthcare-seeking. This study seeks to uncover latent domains of the new Internalized Sex Work Stigma Scale (ISWSS) using data from 367 FSW in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The sample was 56% white with high substance use (82% smoked crack cocaine, 58% injected any drug). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2020.1755821DOI Listing

Elevated C-reactive Protein and Role of Steroids in Cocaine-associated Levamisole-induced Vasculitis.

Cureus 2020 Apr 9;12(4):e7597. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Medicine, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, USA.

Levamisole is a common contaminant in cocaine and has led to the emergence of an entity known as levamisole-induced vasculitis (LIV). There is no consensus on the management of this condition. We describe a patient who presented with acute on chronic LIV who was treated with pulse dose steroids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213659PMC

The contribution of syndemic conditions to cardiovascular disease risk.

AIDS Care 2020 May 13:1-9. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The syndemic conditions of low education, childhood maltreatment, depression, HIV, alcohol and cocaine use, and obesity have been established as independent risk factors for cardiovascular risk, but research examining the association between syndemic conditions and cardiovascular risk in high-risk populations is lacking. A total of  = 503 participants underwent an ultrasound of the carotid artery to assess for atherosclerotic plaque. Participants, HIV-infected ( = 202) and HIV-uninfected ( = 301) with and without a history of cocaine use, were a mean age of 36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1761518DOI Listing

Toxin-induced cardiac arrest: frequency, causative agents, management and hospital outcome.

Tunis Med 2020 Feb;98(2):123-130

Background: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a public health problem, with various etiologies and a fatal issue in 90-95% of cases. Toxin-induced cardiac arrests (TICA) are poorly described. Scarcity of national data prompted us to carry-out this study. Read More

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February 2020

The Utility of Index Case Recruitment for Establishing Couples' Eligibility: An Examination of Consistency in Reporting the Drug Use of a Primary Partner Among Sexual Minority Male Couples.

Couple Family Psychol 2019 Dec;8(4):221-232

Department of Psychology, Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, NY. USA.

Sexual minority men are disproportionately impacted by substance use, which is associated with greater HIV transmission behaviors. Novel approaches to drug use prevention and treatment are needed. Couple-based approaches have garnered significant attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213537PMC
December 2019

Berberine Facilitates Extinction of Drug-Associated Behavior and Inhibits Reinstatement of Drug Seeking.

Front Pharmacol 2020 24;11:476. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

College of Forensic Medicine, Hebei Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center of Forensic Medical Molecular Identification, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

A high rate of relapse is a major clinical problem among drug-addicted individuals. Persistent traces of drug-associated reward memories contribute to intense craving and often trigger relapse. A number of interventions on drug-associated memories have shown significant benefits in relapse prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194034PMC

Cebranopadol reduces cocaine self-administration in male rats: Dose, treatment and safety consideration.

Neuropharmacology 2020 May 8;172:108128. Epub 2020 May 8.

Molecular Modeling and Biopharmaceutical Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA. Electronic address:

As a novel first-in-class potent analgesic acting as an agonist of multiple opioid receptors, cebranopadol showed high efficacy and good tolerability in a broad range of preclinical models and clinical trials related to pain. In the present study, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cebranopadol as a potential treatment of cocaine dependence, we tested the effects of cebranopadol with single and repeated doses (25, 50, 75, or 100 μg/kg, oral gavage) using rat models of cocaine fixed-ratio (FR) self-administration (SA), cocaine progressive-ratio (PR) SA, and sucrose pellet SA. In single-dosing treatment paradigm, cebranopadol significantly and dose-dependently reduced cocaine SA under FR and PR schedules and suppressed food intake under FR schedule without causing apparent side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108128DOI Listing

The effect of oxytocin, gender, and ovarian hormones on stress reactivity in individuals with cocaine use disorder.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 125 Doughty Street, Suite 190, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

Rationale: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which plays a critical role in the human stress response. Men and women with CUD differ in reactivity to social stressors. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in anxiolytic and natural reward processes, and has shown therapeutic potential for addictive disorders and stress reduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05516-wDOI Listing

Portable surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis performed with microelectrode-templated silver nanodendrites.

Analyst 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

QuSENS Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.

Using a handheld Raman spectrometer, we demonstrate how silver nanodendritic substrates formed on microelectrode platforms can be used for ultrasensitive detection of target analytes, such as cocaine and melamine. The nanostructured substrates are formed through the electrochemical deposition of silver on electrically insulated silicon substrates with the aid of an alternating current (AC) signal applied to the microelectrodes. A nanostructure lateral growth rate of 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an00484gDOI Listing

Leveraging health information exchange for clinical research: Extreme underreporting of hospital service utilization among patients with substance use disorders.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Apr 27;212:107992. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Friends Research Institute, 1040 Park Avenue, Suite 103, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Background: Substance use disorders are associated with inefficient and fragmented use of healthcare services. The Chesapeake Regional Information System for Our Patients, Inc. (CRISP) is a Health Information Exchange (HIE) linking disparate systems of care in the mid-Atlantic region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107992DOI Listing

A plant-derived cocaine hydrolase prevents cocaine overdose lethality and attenuates cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 May 6;102:109961. Epub 2020 May 6.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA; Center of Immunotherapy, Vaccines, and Virotherapy, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine use disorders include short-term and acute pathologies (e.g. overdose) and long-term and chronic disorders (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.109961DOI Listing

Investigation of topical intranasal cocaine for sinonasal procedures: a randomized, phase III clinical trial.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: The objective of this trial was to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of topical cocaine as part of the effort to gain regulatory approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration.

Methods: This phase III, randomized, prospective, double-blind, multicenter, single-dose, placebo- and dose-controlled, parallel-group study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical intranasal cocaine (RX0041-002). A total of 925 subjects were screened and a total of 648 subjects were randomized: 95 to placebo; 275 to 4% RX0041-002; and 278 to 8% RX0041-002. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22561DOI Listing

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of cocaine and its metabolites in behaviorally divergent inbred mouse strains.

Genes Brain Behav 2020 May 8:e12666. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Cocaine is a psychostimulant with a high potential for abuse and addiction. Risk for cocaine use disorder is driven, in part, by genetic factors. Animal models of addiction-relevant behaviors have proven useful for studying both genetic and non-genetic contributions to drug response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12666DOI Listing

Ceftriaxone and mGlu2/3 interactions in the nucleus accumbens core affect the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in male and female rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Florida, 114 Psychology, 945 Center Dr, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250, USA.

Rationale: The beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone reliably attenuates the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. While the restoration of nucleus accumbens core (NA core) GLT-1 expression is necessary for ceftriaxone to attenuate reinstatement, AAV-mediated GLT-1 overexpression is not sufficient to attenuate reinstatement and does not prevent glutamate efflux during reinstatement.

Aims: Here, we test the hypothesis that ceftriaxone attenuates reinstatement through interactions with glutamate autoreceptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 in the NA core. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05514-yDOI Listing

Psychometric properties of measures of substance use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of reliability, validity and diagnostic test accuracy.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 May 7;20(1):106. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Family Medicine and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Synthesis of psychometric properties of substance use measures to identify patterns of use and substance use disorders remains limited. To address this gap, we sought to systematically evaluate the psychometric properties of measures to detect substance use and misuse.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature on measures of substance classes associated with HIV risk (heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy, alcohol) that were published in English before June 2016 that reported at least one of the following psychometric outcomes of interest: internal consistency (alpha), test-retest/inter-rater reliability (kappa), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-00963-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203822PMC

[Neural mechanisms underlying stress-induced enhancement of cocaine craving behaviors].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2020 ;155(3):135-139

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University.

Stress potentiates craving for addictive drugs including cocaine. To elucidate neural mechanisms underlying this effect of stress, we developed an experimental paradigm combining cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) with a restraint stress. Acute restraint stress exposure immediately before posttest significantly increased cocaine CPP scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/fpj.19147DOI Listing
January 2020