44,390 results match your criteria Cocaine

Urine toxicology screening by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a quaternary hospital setting.

Clin Biochem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Clinical Biochemistry, Alfred Health, 55 Commercial Rd, Melbourne 3004, Australia; School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Commercial Rd, Melbourne 3004, Monash University, Australia.

Objective: Validation of a non-targeted method for urine drug screening (UDS) by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF), and comparison to an established GC-MS method in a hospital setting.

Methods: 217 UDS specimens sent to a quaternary hospital pathology department, were analysed by a CEDIA® immunoassay screen (six drug panels; amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolites, cannabinoids and opiates) on an Abbott Architect instrument. Specimens were subsequently analysed by an established non-targeted qualitative GC-MS method and results compared with a general unknown screening method by LC-QTOF that was under evaluation as a replacement method. Read More

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Pharmacotherapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Retention in Outpatient Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: To assess the relationship between short- and longer-term retention in outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and pharmacotherapy for comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in a single addiction psychiatry clinic, electronic health record data from July 14, 2014, through January 15, 2020, were queried for clinical ADHD diagnosis (DSM-5 criteria), ADHD pharmacotherapy, treatment duration, demographic variables, comorbid psychiatric and SUD diagnoses, and buprenorphine therapy. Individuals with ADHD (n = 203) were grouped by ADHD pharmacotherapy status (171 receiving medication compared to 32 receiving none). Read More

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February 2021

Increased cocaine motivation in tree shrews is modulated by striatal dopamine D1 receptor-mediated upregulation of Ca 1.2.

Addict Biol 2021 May 13:e13053. Epub 2021 May 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The progressively increased motivation for cocaine during abstinence is closely associated with the dysfunction of dopamine (DA) system. As DA receptors also dynamically regulate L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), in this study we examined how DA receptors (D1R or D2R) and LTCCs (Ca 1.2 or Ca 1. Read More

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Reinforcing and stimulant-like effects of methamphetamine isomers in rhesus macaques.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, United States

Monoamine releasers such as d-methamphetamine (d-MA) can reduce cocaine use in laboratory studies and have been forwarded for the management of cocaine use disorder (CUD). However, the proven abuse liability of d-MA has limited enthusiasm for clinical use. The levorotatory isomer of MA, l-MA, appears to have lesser stimulant effects, possibly due to its preferential norepinephrine-releasing properties compared to dopamine. Read More

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MC-100093, a novel β-lactam GLT-1 enhancer devoid of antimicrobial properties attenuates cocaine relapse in rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Pharmacy, Temple University, United States.

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) currently lacks FDA-approved treatments. In rodents, the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is downregulated in the nucleus accumbens following cocaine self-administration and increasing the expression and function of GLT-1 reduces the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. The beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone upregulates GLT-1 and attenuates cue- and cocaine-induced cocaine seeking without affecting motivation for natural rewards. Read More

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Cocaine-associated myocardial infarction: Features of diagnosis and treatment.

J Electrocardiol 2021 May 1;67:11-12. Epub 2021 May 1.

Cardiology Department of Centro Hospitalar Barreiro-Montijo, Portugal.

Temporal relation of myocardial infarction with cocaine use was first reported in 1982, coronary spasm being the presumed aetiology since most patients presented with normal coronary arteries. However, severe and diffused coronary atherosclerosis is also common in cocaine users with myocardial infarction. The management of these patients presenting with chest pain includes therapy directed to antagonize sympathetic activation and mechanical reperfusion or thrombolytic therapy if ischaemia continues. Read More

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Ubiquitous Dopamine Deficit Hypotheses in Cocaine Use Disorder Lack Support: Response to Leyton.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 May;178(5):469-470

University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, affiliated with The Royal, Ottawa (Cassidy); Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (Cassidy, Abi-Dargham, Martinez, Horga); Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. (Konova); Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y. (Abi-Dargham).

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Ubiquitous Dopamine Deficit Hypotheses in Cocaine Use Disorder Lack Support.

Marco Leyton

Am J Psychiatry 2021 May;178(5):469

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal.

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Effects of cocaine and HIV on decision-making abilities.

J Neurovirol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Our study aimed to understand the impact of cocaine dependence on high-risk decision-making abilities in individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and individuals with cocaine dependence. We recruited 99 participants (27 HIV/Cocaine, 20 HIV Only, 26 Cocaine Only, and 26 Healthy Controls). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was applied to assess decision-making abilities. Read More

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Fentanyl, Heroin, and Cocaine Overdose Fatalities are Shifting to the Black Community: An Analysis of the State of Connecticut.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Background: Historically, Blacks and Hispanics have had lower opioid-involved overdose death rates in Connecticut (CT). We examined if a shift has taken place where rates of Black fatal overdoses have now surpassed Whites in the state.

Methods: Drug overdose fatality rates were calculated by number of deaths per year per 100,000 population from 2012 to 2019 in Connecticut. Read More

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Type 2 Brugada Electrocardiogram Pattern Due to Supra-Therapeutic Phenytoin Level.

Cureus 2021 Apr 9;13(4):e14381. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

Brugada syndrome (BS) is a hereditary cardiac disease leading to sudden cardiac death. It does not display any structural cardiac abnormalities. It was first described in 1992, as the syndrome of 'right bundle branch block, persistent ST segment elevation, and sudden death. Read More

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Nalmefene, a Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonist/Kappa Opioid Receptor Partial Agonist, Potentiates Cocaine Motivation But Not Intake with Extended Access Self-Administration in Adult Male Mice.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 8:108590. Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

The mu opioid receptor antagonist/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) partial agonist nalmefene (NMF), a close structural analog of naltrexone (NTX), has been shown to reduce cocaine reward in preclinical models. Given the greater KOR potency and improved bioavailability compared to NTX, NMF may be a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cocaine use disorder (CUD). Here we examine the effects of NMF pretreatment on chronic daily extended access (4h) cocaine intravenous self-administration (IVSA) in adult male C57Bl/6J mice. Read More

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A sex-dependent role for the prelimbic cortex in impulsive action both before and following early cocaine abstinence.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Although impulsive action is strongly associated with addiction, the neural underpinnings of this relationship and how they are influenced by sex have not been well characterized. Here, we used a titrating reaction time task to assess differences in impulsive action in male and female Long Evans rats both before and after short (4-6 days) or long (25-27 days) abstinence from 2 weeks of cocaine or water/saline self-administration (6 h daily access). Neural activity in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core was assessed at each time point. Read More

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Substances use disorders and liver injury: a concise review.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy.

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are often associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and psychiatric comorbidities. In addition, they are often subjected to polytherapy. For these reasons SUDs patients are at greater risk of developing liver disease. Read More

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Advantages and disadvantages of disulfiram coadministered with popular addictive substances.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 7:174143. Epub 2021 May 7.

Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 01-163 Warsaw, Poland; Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Preclinical Research (CBP), Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Read More

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Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young adulthood by age and college attendance.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health.

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Read More

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Acupuncture reduces cocaine psychomotor responses by activating the rostromedial tegmental nucleus.

Addict Biol 2021 May 10:e13052. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, South Korea.

The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, has emerged as an integral player in both rewarding and nociceptive responses. While previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture modulates DA transmission in the mesolimbic reward system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and can reduce drug self-administration, the central links between peripheral acupuncture signals and brain reward systems are not well-characterized. Thus, we hypothesised that acupuncture would elicit inhibitory signals from RMTg neurons to brain reward systems. Read More

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Availability of Illegal Drugs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Western Germany.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:648273. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, LVR-Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

In response to the COVID-19-pandemic, a lockdown was established in the middle of March 2020 by the German Federal Government resulting in drastic reduction of private and professional traveling in and out of Germany with a reduction of social contacts in public areas. We seek evidence on whether the lockdown has led to a reduced availability of illegal drugs and whether subjects with substance-related problems tried to cope with possible drug availability issues by increasingly obtaining drugs via the internet, replacing their preferred illegal drug with novel psychoactive substances, including new synthetic opioids (NSO), and/or by seeking drug treatment. A questionnaire was anonymously filled in by subjects with substance-related disorders, typically attending low-threshold settings, drug consumption facilities, and inpatient detoxification wards from a range of locations in the Western part of Germany. Read More

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The rise of illicit fentanyls, stimulants and the fourth wave of the opioid overdose crisis.

Daniel Ciccarone

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides an update on recently published literature on the rise of illicit fentanyls, risks for overdose, combinations with other substances, e.g. stimulants, consequences, and treatment. Read More

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Adverse reactions to illicit drugs (marijuana, opioids, cocaine) and alcohol.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southdale Allergy and Asthma Clinic, LLC, Minneapolis, MN USA. Electronic address:

Drug allergy has been a research topic within the allergy field for decades. However, many drug reactions presumed to be of allergic nature, are not and originate from different mechanisms. Drug-induced reactions can affect numerous organ systems, present with a variety of symptoms, and have more than one mechanism of action. Read More

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Lateral habenula cannabinoid CB1 receptor involvement in drug-associated impulsive behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 6:108604. Epub 2021 May 6.

Electrophysiology Research Section, Cellular Neurobiology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Animal and human studies show that cannabis or its derivatives can increase relapse to cocaine seeking following withdrawal. Moreover, cannabis use in humans is associated with impulse control deficits and animal studies implicate endogenous cannabinoids (eCB) in several impulsivity constructs. However, the brain areas where cannabinoids might control impulsivity or cocaine seeking are largely unknown. Read More

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The Impact of Cocaine Exposure in Adolescence: Behavioral Effects and Neuroplastic Mechanisms in Experimental Models.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milano, Italy.

Drug addiction is a devastating disorder with a huge economic and social burden for modern society. While an individual may slip into drug abuse throughout his/her life, adolescents are at higher risk but, up to date, only few studies attempted to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular bases of such vulnerability. Indeed, preclinical evidence indicates that psychostimulants and adolescence interact and contribute to promoting a dysfunctional brain. Read More

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Cocaine-induced projection-specific and cell type-specific adaptations in the nucleus accumbens.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Cocaine craving, seeking, and relapse are mediated, in part, by cocaine-induced adaptive changes in the brain reward circuits. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates and prioritizes different emotional and motivational inputs to the reward system by processing convergent glutamatergic projections from the medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and other limbic and paralimbic brain regions. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the principal projection neurons in the NAc, which can be divided into two major subpopulations, namely dopamine receptor D1- versus D2-expressing MSNs, with complementing roles in reward-associated behaviors. Read More

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Comparison of Treatments for Cocaine Use Disorder Among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218049. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: In the US and the United Kingdom, cocaine use is the second leading cause of illicit drug overdose death. Psychosocial treatments for cocaine use disorder are limited, and no pharmacotherapy is approved for use in the US or Europe.

Objective: To compare treatments for active cocaine use among adults. Read More

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Cocaine-Induced Bronchial Laceration: A Rare Incidence.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14252. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Internal Medicine, Corpus Christi Medical Center, Corpus Christi, USA.

Tracheobronchial injuries are either traumatic or iatrogenic but can be lethal in a high dependency setting if not managed promptly. There are few reported cases of cocaine-induced airway damage and barotrauma due to thermal or ischemic injury and increased intra-alveolar pressure. We present a sui generis case of cocaine-induced bronchial laceration with pneumomediastinum which was challenging to diagnose based on the patient's recent history of hospitalization, as well as the patient's reluctance to share the history of cocaine use. Read More

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High and highly bonded: Fused football fans who use cocaine are most likely to be aggressive toward rivals.

Martha Newson

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 3:103263. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; Centre for the Study of Social Cohesion, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Cocaine use among British football fans has yet to be quantified, despite its association with football-related aggression by the media. Identity fusion, a potent form of social bonding, is a well-established predictor of fan violence, which has never been investigated in relation to stimulant use.

Methods: British football fans (n = 1486) completed a self-selected online survey about how bonded they were to their club and fellow fans, their cocaine use, and aggressive behavior toward rival fans over the prior 12-months. Read More

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PI3-Kinase p110β in Cortical Circuitries and Cocaine-Dependent Maladaptative Behaviors.

Yann Ehinger

Biol Psychiatry 2021 May;89(10):e55-e57

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

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Effects of the ACA on Health Care Coverage for Adults With Substance Use Disorders.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 May 7:appips202000377. Epub 2021 May 7.

Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeon, Columbia University, New York (Olfson, Wall); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (Olfson, Wall, Mauro, Choi); Departments of Mental Health (Mojtabai and Barry) and Health Policy and Management (Barry), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (Mojtabai).

Objective: The authors assessed changes in health care coverage in nationally representative samples of low- and middle-income adults with and without substance use disorders following the 2014 Affordable Care Act marketplace launch and Medicaid expansion.

Methods: Data from the 2012-2018 (N=407,985) National Survey on Drug Use and Health identified low- and middle-income nonelderly adults with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, or heroin use disorders. A sociodemographically adjusted difference-in-differences analysis assessed the trends in Medicaid and individually purchased private insurance between adults with and without substance use disorders. Read More

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Examining Factors Associated with Gender Identity Among Individuals Disengaged from HIV Care in Argentina.

Int J Behav Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Research Department, Fundación Huésped, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Transgender women (TGW) consistently show lower adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), than cisgender people (CP) living with HIV. This study examined sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with gender identity among individuals disengaged from HIV care in Argentina.

Methods: Data for this study was obtained at baseline from the Conexiones y Opciones Positivas en la Argentina 2 (COPA2) study. Read More

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Insight into the Role of the STriatal-Enriched Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) in A Receptor-Mediated Effects in the Central Nervous System.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:647742. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

National Centre for Drug Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanitá, Rome, Italy.

The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase STEP is a brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase that plays a pivotal role in the mechanisms of learning and memory, and it has been demonstrated to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Recently, we found a functional interaction between STEP and adenosine A receptor (AR), a subtype of the adenosine receptor family widely expressed in the central nervous system, where it regulates motor behavior and cognition, and plays a role in cell survival and neurodegeneration. Specifically, we demonstrated the involvement of STEP in AR-mediated cocaine effects in the striatum and, more recently, we found that in the rat striatum and hippocampus, as well as in a neuroblastoma cell line, the overexpression of the AR, or its stimulation, results in an increase in STEP activity. Read More

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