13,106 results match your criteria Cnidaria Envenomation


Nephrocystidium pickii Weissenberg, 1921 belongs to Myxozoa (Cnidaria) but is not conspecific with Myxidium lieberkuehni Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida: Variisporina: Myxidiidae): molecular-genetic evidence.

Syst Parasitol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Russia.

We isolated and re-investigated Nephrocystidium pickii Weißenberg, 1921 (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida: Variisporina) using light microscopy and phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. This species is a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L. (Actinopterygii: Esocidae) which localizes in the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillary. Read More

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December 2018

The potential role of the sphaeractinomyxon collective group (Cnidaria, Myxozoa) in the life cycle of mugiliform-infecting myxobolids, with the morphological and molecular description of three new types from the oligochaete Tubificoides insularis.

J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Dec 3;160:33-42. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal; University Institute of Health Sciences & Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies (CESPU), Rua Central da Gandra no. 1317, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal.

Three new types of sphaeractinomyxon (Cnidaria, Myxozoa) are described from the coelomic cavity of the marine oligochaete Tubificoides insularis, collected from the Alvor estuary, Algarve, Portugal. Another known type is also registered from this location and host: Sphaeractinomyxon type 10 of Rangel et al. (2016), which was originally described from the marine oligochaete Tubificoides pseudogaster in the Aveiro estuary, Portugal. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Octocoral-Associated Microbes-New Chances for Blue Growth.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 4;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences (iBB), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal.

Octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa Octocorallia) are magnificent repositories of natural products with fascinating and unusual chemical structures and bioactivities of interest to medicine and biotechnology. However, mechanistic understanding of the contribution of microbial symbionts to the chemical diversity of octocorals is yet to be achieved. This review inventories the natural products so-far described for octocoral-derived bacteria and fungi, uncovering a true chemical arsenal of terpenes, steroids, alkaloids, and polyketides with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antifouling, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial activities of enormous potential for blue growth. Read More

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December 2018

The evolution of ependymin-related proteins.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):182. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Marine Science, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Background: Ependymins were originally defined as fish-specific secreted glycoproteins involved in central nervous system plasticity and memory formation. Subsequent research revealed that these proteins represent a fish-specific lineage of a larger ependymin-related protein family (EPDRs). EPDRs have now been identified in a number of bilaterian animals and have been implicated in diverse non-neural functions. Read More

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December 2018

Unique diversity of sting-related toxins based on transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and Nemopilema nomurai (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

J Proteome Res 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

The scyphozoan jellyfish Cyanea capillata and Nemopilema nomurai are common blooming species in China. They possess heterogeneous nematocysts and produce various types of venom that can elicit diverse sting symptoms in humans. However, the differences in venom composition between the two species remain unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular phylogeny and diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) with a focus on shallow water species of the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Molecular Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology Laboratory, Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan; Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan.

The order Pennatulacea, commonly known as sea pens, are colony-forming benthos belonging within subclass Octocorallia (Anthozoa, Cnidaria). Sea pens are found worldwide from shallow to deep waters, and they are important components in sandy and muddy environments. Thus far, there has been only one molecular study focusing on the phylogenetic relationships within the order Pennatulacea, which mainly treated deep-sea species, and thus information on shallow water species is still lacking. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Characterization of mitochondrial proteomes of nonbilaterian animals.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 12;70(12):1289-1301. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Mitochondria require ~1,500 proteins for their maintenance and proper functionality, which constitute the mitochondrial proteome (mt-proteome). Although a few of these proteins, mostly subunits of the electron transport chain complexes, are encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the vast majority are encoded in the nuclear genome and imported to the organelle. Previous studies have shown a continuous and complex evolution of mt-proteome among eukaryotes. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Functional diversity and nutritional content in a deep-sea faunal assemblage through total lipid, lipid class, and fatty acid analyses.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(11):e0207395. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada.

Lipids are key compounds in marine ecosystems being involved in organism growth, reproduction, and survival. Despite their biological significance and ease of measurement, the use of lipids in deep-sea studies is limited, as is our understanding of energy and nutrient flows in the deep ocean. Here, a comprehensive analysis of total lipid content, and lipid class and fatty acid composition, was used to explore functional diversity and nutritional content within a deep-sea faunal assemblage comprising 139 species from 8 phyla, including the Chordata, Arthropoda, and Cnidaria. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

All you can eat: the functional response of the cold-water coral feeding on krill and copepods.

PeerJ 2018 5;6:e5872. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany.

The feeding behavior of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral (CWC) (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) is still poorly known. Its usual deep distribution restricts direct observations, and manipulative experiments are so far limited to prey that do not occur in CWC natural habitat. During a series of replicated incubations, we assessed the functional response of this coral feeding on a medium-sized copepod () and a large euphausiid (). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Description of three new species of (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria, Edwardsiidae): first records of the genus from Japan.

Zookeys 2018 1(794):1-21. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

is one genus of Edwardsiidae, a speciose family of burrowing worm-like sea anemones characterized by lacking a physa-like aboral end and by possessing nemathybomes on the whole body except at the distal end. This genus has been recorded worldwide, but there have been no specimens collected from Japan. In this study, we discovered four species in Japan for the first time: (Carlgren, 1931) and from the Ogasawara Islands, from Ena Bay, Kanagawa, and from Sugashima Island, Mie. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The putative immune recognition repertoire of the model cnidarian Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus is large and diverse.

Gene 2019 Feb 26;684:104-117. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Instituto of Genética, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cr. 30 # 45-08, Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address:

Immune recognition of molecular patterns from microorganisms or self-altered cells activate effector responses that neutralize and eliminate these potentially harmful agents. In virtually every metazoan group the process is carried out by pattern recognition receptors, typically constituted by immunoglobulin (Ig), leucine rich repeat (LRR), and/or lectin domains. In order to get insights into the ancestral immune recognition repertoire of animals, we have sequenced the transcriptome of bacterially challenged colonies of the model cnidarian Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus using the Illumina platform. Read More

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February 2019
4 Reads

Acute toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Hydra magnipapillata.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 21;205:130-139. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

South Sea Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea; Faculty of Marine Environmental Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are increasingly used in various products as coating and additive materials for household goods, personal-care products, and drug delivery systems. Because of their broad applications, the potential risks to nontarget organisms associated with their input into aquatic environments have generated much concern. We investigated the acute toxicity, morphological responses, and potential impact on physiology and metabolism in polyps exposed to spherical ZnO NPs of either 20 nm (ZnO NP) or 100 nm (ZnO NP). Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Comparative analysis of the Pocillopora damicornis genome highlights role of immune system in coral evolution.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 31;8(1):16134. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL, 33149, USA.

Comparative analysis of the expanding genomic resources for scleractinian corals may provide insights into the evolution of these organisms, with implications for their continued persistence under global climate change. Here, we sequenced and annotated the genome of Pocillopora damicornis, one of the most abundant and widespread corals in the world. We compared this genome, based on protein-coding gene orthology, with other publicly available coral genomes (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), as well as genomes from other anthozoan groups (Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia), and two basal metazoan outgroup phlya (Porifera, Ctenophora). Read More

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October 2018

Support for a clade of Placozoa and Cnidaria in genes with minimal compositional bias.

Elife 2018 10 30;7. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States.

The phylogenetic placement of the morphologically simple placozoans is crucial to understanding the evolution of complex animal traits. Here, we examine the influence of adding new genomes from placozoans to a large dataset designed to study the deepest splits in the animal phylogeny. Using site-heterogeneous substitution models, we show that it is possible to obtain strong support, in both amino acid and reduced-alphabet matrices, for either a sister-group relationship between Cnidaria and Placozoa, or for Cnidaria and Bilateria as seen in most published work to date, depending on the orthologues selected to construct the matrix. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

The Anemonia viridis Venom: Coupling Biochemical Purification and RNA-Seq for Translational Research.

Mar Drugs 2018 Oct 25;16(11). Epub 2018 Oct 25.

National Research Council-Institute for the Study of Anthropogenic Impacts and Sustainability in the Marine Environment (IAS-CNR), Laboratory of Molecular Ecology and Biotechnology, Capo Granitola, Via del mare, Campobello di Mazara (TP), 91021 Sicily, Italy.

Blue biotechnologies implement marine bio-resources for addressing practical concerns. The isolation of biologically active molecules from marine animals is one of the main ways this field develops. Strikingly, cnidaria are considered as sustainable resources for this purpose, as they possess unique cells for attack and protection, producing an articulated cocktail of bioactive substances. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads
2.853 Impact Factor

Innexins: Expression, Regulation, and Functions.

Front Physiol 2018 11;9:1414. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Laboratorio de Fisiología Experimental, Instituto Antofagasta, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile.

The innexin (Inx) proteins form gap junction channels and non-junctional channels (named hemichannels) in invertebrates. These channels participate in cellular communication playing a relevant role in several physiological processes. Pioneer studies conducted mainly in worms and flies have shown that innexins participate in embryo development and behavior. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Tentacle Musculature in the Cubozoan Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis.

Biol Bull 2018 Oct 24;235(2):91-101. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

The diploblastic cnidarian body plan comprising the epidermis and gastrodermis has remained largely unchanged since it evolved roughly 600 Ma. The origin of muscle from the mesoderm in triploblastic lineages is a central evolutionary question in higher animals. Triploblasts have three embryonic germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, which develop into organs, muscle, and skin, respectively. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads

Jet-paddling jellies: swimming performance in the Rhizostomeae jellyfish .

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 12;221(Pt 24). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

Jellyfish are a successful and diverse class of animals that swim via jet propulsion, with swimming performance and propulsive efficiency being related to the animal's feeding ecology and body morphology. The Rhizostomeae jellyfish lack tentacles but possess four oral lobes and eight trailing arms at the centre of their bell, giving them a body morphology quite unlike that of other free-swimming medusae. The implications of this body morphology on the mechanisms by which thrust is produced are unknown. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Studies of Myxidium giardi Cépède, 1906 infections in Icelandic eels identifies a genetically diverse clade of myxosporeans that represents the Paramyxidium n. g. (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae).

Parasit Vectors 2018 Oct 22;11(1):551. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Institute for Experimental Pathology, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Background: The myxosporean Myxidium giardi Cépède, 1906 was described infecting the kidney of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), having spindle-shaped myxospores and terminal sub-spherical polar capsules. Since then, numerous anguillid eels globally have been documented to have similar Myxidium infections. Read More

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October 2018

Using lipidomic methodology to characterize coral response to herbicide contamination and develop an early biomonitoring model.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 23;648:1275-1283. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, 2 Hou-Wan Rd., Checheng, Pingtung 944, Taiwan; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The use of omics technologies to profile an organism's systemic response to environmental changes can improve the effectiveness of biomonitoring. In cell physiology, the dynamic characteristics of membranes can be used to identify lipid profiles that detect environmental threats and assess the health problems associated with them. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated by profiling glycerophosphocholines (GPCs, a major membrane lipid class) in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum after exposure to Irgarol 1051. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Comparative toxicities of four benzophenone ultraviolet filters to two life stages of two coral species.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 11;651(Pt 2):2391-2399. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

The benzophenone (BP) organic ultraviolet (UV) filters have been measured in seawater at ng/L to μg/L levels, but more data on their effects in non-target marine organisms are needed. Corals can be exposed to BPs due to wastewater discharges and coastal recreational activities. In this study, toxicities and bioaccumulation of BP-1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone), BP-3 (oxybenzone), BP-4 (sulisobenzone) and BP-8 (dioxybenzone) to larvae and adults of two coral species, Pocillopora damicornis and Seriatopora caliendrum, were assessed at concentrations ranging from 0. Read More

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February 2019
10 Reads
4.100 Impact Factor

New records of benthic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 3;4455(3):454-470. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Laboratorio de Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos (LABSIM), Universidad del Mar, campus Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, 70902, México..

Hydroids of the Pacific coast of Mexico have been little studied. For the coast of Oaxaca, only five papers provide information on species of the region, with some records included in those publications being questionable. Seven species, Pennaria disticha, Clytia linearis, Clytia cf. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

On several species of Oswaldella Stechow, 1919 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), including the description of a new species.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 9;4457(3):397-414. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva / Departamento de Zoología, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, Apdo. Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain..

Oswaldella is the most speciose genus of Antarctic hydroids, being one of the most characteristic genera of hydrozoans of the Antarctic benthic marine ecosystem. A relatively high number of taxonomic characters allow species identification, but some key ones are difficult to study properly with a light microscope. In order to improve knowledge of species of the genus, a SEM survey of five of the 27 known nominal species of Oswaldella was carried out, including type material of O. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Redescription of Mastigias papua (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) with designation of a neotype and recognition of two additional species.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 10;4457(4):520-536. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Environmental Systems Graduate Group, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343..

Mastigias, the 'golden' or 'spotted' jellyfish, is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. Specimens are identified routinely as Mastigias papua, although eight species were described historically, and molecular analyses evince at least three phylogenetic species. Understanding species diversity in Mastigias has become a priority because of its growing relevance in studies of boom-bust dynamics related to environmental change, cryptic species, local adaptation, parallel evolution, and peripatric speciation. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Benthic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from off George V Coast (East Antarctica).

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 26;4441(1):121-136. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva / Departamento de Zoología, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain, Apdo. Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain..

Hydrozoans are one of the main and most characteristic zoological groups of Antarctic benthic communities, yet there are Antarctic areas where the hydrozoan fauna is completely unknown or scarcely known as off George V Coast (East Antarctica). Hitherto, only two studies have dealt with hydroids from this area and only 16 species have been reported. The present study contributes to increase knowledge of the benthic hydroid fauna off George V Coast by studying material collected during a sampling survey associated with the CEAMARC project. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Two new endemic species of Gorgoniidae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico.

Zootaxa 2018 Jul 3;4442(4):523-538. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras, Laboratorio de Fauna Arrecifal, Carretera al Sur km 4.5, CP 23080, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico..

Two new species of the genera Eugorgia and Leptogorgia were discovered while underwater collecting at the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico. Sea fan species diversity and density population in these four volcanic islands is low (<12 spp.), and the possibility of endemism is high given their isolation from the mainland (403 km southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Baja California peninsula). Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Names of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) established by Charles McLean Fraser (1872-1946), excluding those from Allan Hancock Expeditions.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 1;4487(1):1-83. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2C6. Research Associate, Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 9W2..

An account is given of the names of families, genera, and species of hydroids established by C.M. Fraser of Canada, excluding those from Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions and the Allan Hancock Caribbean Sea Expedition. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

A new species of Petalobrissus Lambert 1916 (Echinoidea: Faujasiidae) from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin (Brazil).

Zootaxa 2018 May 25;4422(4):581-590. Epub 2018 May 25.

Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Instituto de Biologia, LABIMAR - Laboratório de Invertebrados Marinhos - Crustacea, Cnidaria & Fauna associada, Ondina, Salvador, BA, CEP 40170-290, Brasil..

A new Late Cretaceous species of Petalobrissus, Petalobrissus lehugueurae sp. nov., is described from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Read More

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Myxobolus bragantinus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from the gill filaments of the redeye mullet, Mugil rubrioculus (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), on the eastern Amazon coast.

Zootaxa 2018 Sep 17;4482(1):177-187. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Postgraduate Programme in Environmental Biology (PPBA), Federal University of Pará (UFPa)/IECOS, campus of Bragança, Pará, Brazil Carcinology Laboratory, Federal University of Pará (UFPa)/IECOS, campus of Bragança, Pará, Brazil.

Mullets (Mugilidae) are economically-important fish exploited extensively by artisanal fisheries on the Amazon coast of Brazil. In the present study, 150 specimens of redeye mullet (Mugil rubrioculus) acquired from the public fish market were examined, and the gill filaments of 90 (60%) were found to be infected with spores of Myxobolus. The mature spores were spherical, with a mean diameter of 6. Read More

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September 2018

Uncertainty and variability of extension rate, density and calcification rate of a hermatypic coral (Orbicella faveolata).

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 1;650(Pt 1):1576-1581. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Unidad Académica Mazatlán, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Joel Montes Camarena S/N, 82040 Mazatlán, Mexico.

Skeleton growth variables of hermatypic corals, such as extension rate, density and calcification rate, are widely used to study coral response to environmental stressors, establish chronological age models and reconstruct the evolution of key climate variables. In this work, we addressed methodological aspects of the measurement of coral growth variables and the implications of their variability. A core of Orbicella faveolata was collected from the Puerto Morelos coral reef, in the Mexican Caribbean, and we measured and analysed 10 parallel transects of a core slab, covering 30 years. Read More

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February 2019

Spatial mismatch in fish and coral loss following 2016 mass coral bleaching.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 10;650(Pt 1):1487-1498. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Electronic address:

Record-breaking temperatures between 2015 and 2016 led to unprecedented pan-tropical bleaching of scleractinian corals. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the effects were most pronounced in the remote, northern region, where over 90% of reefs exhibited bleaching. Mass bleaching that results in widespread coral mortality represents a major disturbance event for reef organisms, including reef fishes. Read More

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February 2019
5 Reads

Investigation on the expression stability of common reference genes in Aurelia sp.1 under hypoxia.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Sep 30;64(12):26-31. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, P. R. China2. Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100, P. R. China.

RT-qPCR (Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) is a reliable molecular biology technique used for gene expression detection due to its high sensibility and good reproducibility. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR are often not available to investigate the expression of target genes in jellyfish under different conditions. To determine the responsible genes of jellyfish under hypoxia, primers to amplify the actin gene was designed for the amplification according to the conserved actin amino acid sequences of cnidarian. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Simulated fate of catchment-derived sediment on the Great Barrier Reef shelf.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 17;135:954-962. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Ecosciences Precinct, 41 Boggo Road, Dutton Park, QLD 4102, Australia.

Numerical experiments using a 3D model of fine sediment transport in the Great Barrier Reef region indicate deposition of the bulk mass of catchment sediments from river plumes within a few tens of kilometres from river mouths. A very fine fraction of easily resuspended catchment sediment has a capacity to propagate over much greater distances reaching out into the mid-shelf and outer-shelf regions. The model suggests such particles, instrumental to the development of low density flocs in the marine environment, can play a critical role in altering optical properties of water masses over the shelf during wet years. Read More

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October 2018

Sediment characteristics influence the fertilisation success of the corals Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 16;135:941-953. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 4810, Queensland, and Perth, 6009, Western Australia, Australia; Western Australian Marine Science Institution, Perth, 6009, Western Australia, Australia.

Elevated suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) often impact coral fertilisation success, but sediment composition can influence effect thresholds, which is problematic for accurately predicting risk. Here, we derived concentration-response thresholds and cause-effect pathways for SSCs comprising a range of realistic mineral and organic compositions on coral fertilisation success. Effect concentration thresholds (EC: 10% fertilisation inhibition) varied markedly, with fertilisation highly sensitive to inshore organic-clay rich sediments and bentonite clay at <5 mg L. Read More

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October 2018

Exceptional biodiversity of the cryptofaunal decapods in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 31;135:636-647. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.

The Chagos Archipelago is geographically remote and isolated from most direct anthropogenic pressures. Here, we quantify the abundance and diversity of decapod crustaceans inhabiting dead coral colonies, representing a standardised microhabitat, across the Archipelago. Using morphological and molecular techniques we recorded 1868 decapods from 164 nominal species within 54 dead coral colonies, but total species estimates (Chao1 estimator) calculate at least 217 species. Read More

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October 2018

Scleractinian coral microplastic ingestion: Potential calcification effects, size limits, and retention.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 27;135:587-593. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, 290 Broadway, New York, NY 10007, USA. Electronic address:

The impact that microplastics (<5 mm) have on scleractinian coral is largely unknown. This study investigated calcification effects, size limits, and retention times of microbeads and microfibers in two Caribbean species, Montastraea cavernosa and Orbicella faveolata, in a series of three experiments. No calcification effects were seen in the two-day exposure to a microbead concentration of 30 mg L. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Marginal coral reefs show high susceptibility to phase shift.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 10 26;135:551-561. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Laboratório de Manejo, Ecologia e Conservação Marinha, Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, Butantã, Instituo Oceanográfico, Sala 112, 055080-120 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Phase shift, resulting from coral reef degradation, has been frequently recorded on reefs in optimal conditions, while marginal reefs were considered more resistant due to few records. Noting the lack of marginal reef phase shift studies, we quantitatively assessed their geographic extent in the Southwest Atlantic. Using metadata and a calculated phase shift index, we identified phase shifts from corals to both zoanthid and macroalgal dominance. Read More

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October 2018

Ortholinea concentrica n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from the Patagonian seabass Acanthistius patachonicus (Jenyns, 1840) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off Patagonia, Argentina.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 8;117(12):3953-3963. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Centro de Investigación Aplicada y Transferencia Tecnológica en Recursos Marinos Almirante Storni (CIMAS - CCT CONICET - CENPAT), San Antonio Oeste, Río Negro, Argentina.

The Patagonian seabass Acanthistius patachonicus (Jenyns, 1840) (Serranidae) is a marine fish valued for commercial and sport fisheries from Argentina. We report a new myxosporean (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) infecting the urinary system of the Patagonian seabass from San Antonio Bay, San Matías Gulf, on the Atlantic Ocean. The mature myxospores were subspherical, 8. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Response of Cellular Innate Immunity to Cnidarian Pore-Forming Toxins.

Molecules 2018 Oct 4;23(10). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Medical Sciences, School of Healthcare and Medical Sciences, Sunway University, No. 5 Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 47500, Malaysia.

A group of stable, water-soluble and membrane-bound proteins constitute the pore forming toxins (PFTs) in cnidarians. They interact with membranes to physically alter the membrane structure and permeability, resulting in the formation of pores. These lesions on the plasma membrane causes an imbalance of cellular ionic gradients, resulting in swelling of the cell and eventually its rupture. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

AbeTx1 Is a Novel Sea Anemone Toxin with a Dual Mechanism of Action on Shaker-Type K⁺ Channels Activation.

Mar Drugs 2018 Oct 1;16(10). Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Campus Gasthuisberg O&N2, Herestraat 49, P.O. Box 922, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Voltage-gated potassium (K) channels regulate diverse physiological processes and are an important target for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of peptide toxins with diverse and selective pharmacology on K channels. From the nematocysts of the sea anemone , a peptide that we named AbeTx1 was purified and functionally characterized on 12 different subtypes of K channels (K1. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Macrobenthic fauna from an upwelling coastal area of Peru (Warm Temperate South-eastern Pacific province -Humboldtian ecoregion).

Biodivers Data J 2018 10(6):e28937. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Center for Conservation and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United States of America Center for Conservation and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Washington, DC United States of America.

Background: A total of 162 species and subspecies of marine macroinvertebrates were recorded in the submerged soft and hard substrates around the PERU LNG marine terminal and surrounding area, in the central coast of Peru, 167 km south of Lima, Peru. The collection of specimens was carried out from June 2011 to June 2015 as part of the research studies conducted by the Biodiversity Monitoring and Assessment Program (BMAP) around the marine terminal. The area is part of the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem, one of the most important upwelling systems in the world. Read More

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September 2018

Innate immunity and cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae mutualism.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 01 27;90:199-209. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. Electronic address:

The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydra, jellyfish) is one the most distantly related animal phyla to humans, and yet cnidarians harbor many of the same cellular pathways involved in innate immunity in mammals. In addition to its role in pathogen recognition, the innate immune system has a role in managing beneficial microbes and supporting mutualistic microbial symbioses. Some corals and sea anemones undergo mutualistic symbioses with photosynthetic algae in the family Symbiodiniaceae. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Molecular cloning, antiserum preparation and expression analysis during head regeneration of α-crystallin type heat shock protein in .

J Genet 2018 Sep;97(4):911-924

Provincial Key Laboratory of Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources in Anhui, Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotic, Environment and Ecological, Safety in Anhui, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.

Our previous study based on the transcriptome profiling indicated that a fragment of α-crystallin type heat shock protein (α-Hsp) gene was one of the numerous cDNA sequences expressed differentially at various stages of head regeneration in . To further investigate the role that which plays during hydra regeneration, a full-length cDNA of gene of was isolated by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The full-length cDNA of gene was 1156 bp, containing a 765 bp open-reading frame (ORF), which encodes a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 29. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

An axial Hox code controls tissue segmentation and body patterning in .

Science 2018 09;361(6409):1377-1380

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.

Hox genes encode conserved developmental transcription factors that govern anterior-posterior (A-P) pattering in diverse bilaterian animals, which display bilateral symmetry. Although Hox genes are also present within Cnidaria, these simple animals lack a definitive A-P axis, leaving it unclear how and when a functionally integrated Hox code arose during evolution. We used short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown and CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis to demonstrate that a Hox-Gbx network controls radial segmentation of the larval endoderm during development of the sea anemone Loss of Hox-Gbx activity also elicits marked defects in tentacle patterning along the directive (orthogonal) axis of primary polyps. Read More

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September 2018

Cell type-specific expression profiling unravels the development and evolution of stinging cells in sea anemone.

BMC Biol 2018 Sep 27;16(1):108. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 9190401, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Cnidocytes are specialized cells that define the phylum Cnidaria. They possess an "explosive" organelle called cnidocyst that is important for prey capture and anti-predator defense. An extraordinary morphological and functional complexity of the cnidocysts has inspired numerous studies to investigate their structure and development. Read More

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September 2018

Embryonic development of thecate hydrozoan Gonothyraea loveni (Allman, 1859).

Dev Growth Differ 2018 Oct 26;60(8):483-501. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Biological Faculty, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Progress of Evo-Devo requires broad phylogenetic sampling providing the data for comparative analysis as well as new objects suitable for experimental investigation. Representatives of the early-branching animal phylum Cnidaria and particularly hydrozoans draw great attention due to the high diversity of embryonic and post-embryonic development and life-cycles in general. Most detailed studies on embryonic development in hydrozoans were performed on the species shedding their gametes with subsequent embryo development in the water column. Read More

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October 2018

Spencerozyma siamensis sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species in Puccinomycotina isolated from coral in Thailand.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Nov 25;68(11):3611-3614. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

1​Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Strain DMKU13-2, representing a novel anamorphic yeast species in the class Microbotryomycetes, subphylum Puccinomycotina, phylum Basidiomycota, was isolated from a soft coral collected in the sea off Ko Mu island, Thailand. The phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene indicated that this strain was a novel species in the genus Spencerozyma and distant from Spencerozyma crocea, the only species of the genus. The novel species differed from the type of S. Read More

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November 2018
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Epithelial folding in the morphogenesis of the colonial marine hydrozoan, Dynamena pumila.

Biosystems 2018 Nov 21;173:157-164. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Embryology, Laboratory of Developmental Biophysics, Russia; Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology RAS, Laboratory of Morphogenesis Evolution, Russia. Electronic address:

Epithelial folding (EF) is a fundamental morphogenetic process that can be observed in the development of many organisms ranging from metazoans to green algae. Being early branching metazoans, cnidarians represent the best models to study evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic processes, including EF. Hydrozoa is the most evolutionary advanced group of the phylum Cnidaria. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read