181 results match your criteria Cnidaria Envenomation


Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai causes myotoxicity through the metalloprotease component of venom.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jul 26;151:113192. Epub 2022 May 26.

CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), No. 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao 266237, China.

Jellyfish envenomation is a common medical problem in many countries. However, the myotoxicity and effector molecules of scyphozoan venoms remain uninvestigated. Here, we present the myotoxicity of nematocyst venom from Nemopilema nomurai (NnNV), a giant venomous scyphozoan from China, for the first time, using in vivo models with inhibitors. Read More

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Biochemical and Toxinological Characterization of Venom from (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

Biomed Res Int 2022 17;2022:8170252. Epub 2022 May 17.

Laboratório Multidisciplinar de Pesquisa, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista 12916-900, Brazil.

is a colonial benthic hydroid from the Class Hydrozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) distributed in the tropical and subtropical marine waters from Atlantic Ocean, Indo-Pacific, and Mozambique. Its colonies somewhat resemble plants, causing confusion in the bathers who accidentally touch the animal. Acute burning/local pain, edema, erythema, and pruritus were symptoms already described, but its venom composition is unknown, as well as the participation of toxins for the symptom's development. Read More

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Rhabdomyolysis due to jellyfish envenomation in Western Australian waters.

Med J Aust 2022 05 5;216(8):397-399. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

University of Western Australia, Perth, WA.

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Severe box jellyfish envenomation in 2 children.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2022 Jan-Feb;45:102217. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Aix-Marseille University, Faculty of Medecine, Marseille, France; Department of Infant Medicine and Specialized Pediatrics, University Hospital of La Timone, AP-HM, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

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First envenomation report of the Cnidarian Physalia physalis in Indonesia.

Int Marit Health 2021;72(2):110-114

Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran Campus, Bali, Indonesia.

Despite the high number of victims every year, Physalia physalis's envenomations in Indonesia are scientifically unsounded. This annual event occurred mainly in Java's southern beaches and the Eastern Bali Islands, which are the most tourist destinations. The lack of scientific reports can lead to unaware and uneducated beachgoers resulting in a high number of victims, which in turn may ruin the economic sectors. Read More

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Fatal jellyfish envenoming-Pediatric and geographic vulnerabilities.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Sep 18;66(5):2006-2009. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Lethal jellyfish envenoming is a very rare event. Two illustrative cases of fatalities following envenomation from the multi-tentacled box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, are reported that involved a six-year-old boy and a three-year-old girl, both of whom had been playing in shallow beach waters in remote Northern Territory communities (Australia). A recommended approach to autopsy in suspected cases is described, which should include examination of the clothing and skin surfaces for the fine tentacles of Chironex fleckeri. Read More

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September 2021

Proteomic Changes during the Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom in HaCaT Human Keratinocyte.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Jellyfish venom is well known for its local skin toxicities and various lethal accidents. The main symptoms of local jellyfish envenomation include skin lesions, burning, prickling, stinging pain, red, brown, or purplish tracks on the skin, itching, and swelling, leading to dermonecrosis and scar formation. However, the molecular mechanism behind the action of jellyfish venom on human skin cells is rarely understood. Read More

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Acute Skin Manifestation of Sea Anemone Envenomation.

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 19;60(4):536-537. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, New Taipei City Municipal Tucheng Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

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Topical Exposure to Venom Triggers Oedematogenic Effects: Enzymatic Contribution and Identification of Venom Metalloproteinase.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China.

Scyphozoan envenomation is featured as severe cutaneous damages due to the toxic effects of venom components released by the stinging nematocysts of a scyphozoan. However, the oedematogenic property and mechanism of scyphozoan venoms remain uninvestigated. Here, we present the oedematogenic properties of the nematocyst venom from (NnNV), a giant stinging scyphozoan in China, for the first time, using in vivo and in vitro models with class-specific inhibitors. Read More

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January 2021

Rapid and Accurate Species-Specific PCR for the Identification of Lethal Box Jellyfish in Thailand.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 30;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Ramathibodi Poison Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Box jellyfish are extremely potent venom-producing marine organisms. While they have been found worldwide, the highest health burden has been anticipated to be the tropical Indo-Pacific of Southeast Asia (SEA). At least 12 Cubozoan species have now been documented in Thai waters, and many of them inflict acutely lethal strings, especially those under the order Chirodropida. Read More

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December 2020

Differences in Cardiac Effects of Venoms from Tentacles and the Bell of Live : Using Non-Invasive Pulse Wave Doppler.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Dec 29;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia.

was the first in an expanding list of cubozoan jellyfish whose sting was identified as causing Irukandji syndrome. Nematocysts present on both the bell and tentacles are known to produce localised stings, though their individual roles in Irukandji syndrome have remained speculative. This research examines differences through venom profiling and pulse wave Doppler in a murine model. Read More

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December 2020

Identifying and revealing the geographical variation in Nemopilema nomurai venom metalloprotease and phospholipase A activities.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 2;266:129164. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao, 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, No. 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Venom geographical variation is common among venomous animals. This phenomenon presents problems in the development of clinical treatments and medicines against envenomation. The venomous giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai, Scyphozoan, is a blooming jellyfish species in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea that causes numerous jellyfish sting cases every year. Read More

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Danio rerio as an alternative vertebrate model for jellyfish venom study: The toxinological aspects of Nemopilema nomurai venom.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Dec 3;335:91-97. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, South Korea; Institute of Animal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, South Korea. Electronic address:

Nemopilema nomurai venom (NnV) is severely toxic to many organisms. However, the mechanism of its poisoning has not been properly understood yet. The present work demonstrates that zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an alternative vertebrate model for studying NnV jellyfish venom for the first time. Read More

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December 2020

Protective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on toxic metalloproteinases-mediated skin damage induced by Scyphozoan jellyfish envenomation.

Sci Rep 2020 10 29;10(1):18644. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Korea.

Jellyfish stingings are currently raising serious public health concerns around the world. Hence, the search for an effective first aid reagent for the envenomation has been the goal of many investigators in the field. There have been a few previous reports of in vivo as well as in vivo studies suggesting the metalloproteinase activity of scyphozoan jellyfish venom, such as N. Read More

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October 2020

Health-risk assessment of Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) envenomations on urban beaches in São Luís city, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2020 25;53:e20200216. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Departamento de Oceanografia e Limnologia, São Luís, MA, Brasil.

Introduction: The Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) is a cosmopolitan species, with a widespread distribution and responsible for a great number of injuries caused by cnidarians worldwide, including Brazil. Geoprocessing technology, however, has never been used to assess the spatial distribution of these animals on beaches. The aim of this study was to carry out a health risk assessment of Portuguese man-of-war (P. Read More

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October 2020

Modulatory Activities of Plant Extracts on Jellyfish Cytotoxicity.

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Sep 15;31(3):266-272. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Biophysics Institute, National Research Council (CNR), Genova, Italy; Department of Pharmacy (DIFAR), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

Introduction: The potential efficacy of selected plant extracts to counteract the dermal toxicity of jellyfish envenomation was investigated using an in vitro cell culture model.

Methods: We studied plant extracts from Carica papaya, Ananas comosus, and Bouvardia ternifolia, known for their antivenom properties, in pairwise combinations with tissue homogenates of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, Phyllorhiza punctata, and Cassiopea andromeda, to evaluate modulations of jellyfish cytotoxic effects. L929 mouse fibroblasts were incubated with pairwise jellyfish/plant extract combinations and examined by MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Read More

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September 2020

Epidemiology of the cnidarian stings on Moroccan Mediterranean beaches.

Trop Doct 2020 Oct 1;50(4):322-325. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Faculty of sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.

An epidemiological study on the stings of was carried out on four Mediterranean beaches in Morocco. Data were retrieved from patients seeking medical treatment after a jellyfish sting. A total of 1321 patients presented with stings during the summer of 2018. Read More

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October 2020

Irukandji-like syndrome caused by single-tentacle box jellyfish found in Thailand, 2007-2019.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(2):91-96

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Irukandji syndrome definition is still widely misunderstood. Irukandji-like syndrome is more unclear than Irukandji syndrome. This study aimed to describe Irukandji-like syndrome in cases involving stinging by single-tentacle box jellyfish species in Thailand. Read More

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December 2020

Tentacle Transcriptomes of the Speckled Anemone (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: Oulactis sp.): Venom-Related Components and Their Domain Structure.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2020 Apr 24;22(2):207-219. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Medicinal Chemistry, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia.

Cnidarians are one of the oldest known animal lineages (ca. 700 million years), with a unique envenomation apparatus to deliver a potent mixture of peptides and proteins. Some peptide toxins from cnidarian venom have proven therapeutic potential. Read More

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A diver's guide to subaquatic envenomation in the Mediterranean.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Sep;49(3):225-228

Department of Anaesthetics, St George's Hospital, London, UK.

Introduction: Between 40,000 and 50,000 divers and swimmers are envenomated each year and diving as a hobby is becoming increasingly popular. In the Mediterranean, envenomation is most often by Weever fish, Scorpion fish and jellyfish but coral and sea urchins may also be venomous.

Envenomation: Most stings cause local inflammation, oedema and pain. Read More

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September 2019

Dermatological Progression of a Probable Box Jellyfish Sting.

Wilderness Environ Med 2019 Sep 30;30(3):310-320. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Scripps Memorial Hospital La Jolla, La Jolla, CA.

This case report describes the typical features of the dermatological progression of a patient stung by a (probable) box jellyfish. The purpose is to guide clinicians and patients to an understanding of what to expect after such a sting using the clinical narrative and unique sequential photographs of the injury. With knowledgeable consultation from experienced physicians and meticulous care, this envenomation healed without the need for skin grafting. Read More

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September 2019

Toxic jellyfish in Thailand.

Int Marit Health 2019;70(1):22-26

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.

Jellyfish stings are common in Thailand. Stings can range from mild skin irritation to severe systemic symptoms resulting in death. Jellyfish envenomation is becoming an important public health concern. Read More

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A survey of jellyfish sting knowledge among Thai divers in Thailand.

Int Marit Health 2019;70(1):11-16

Department of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Western University, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

Background: In tropical regions, jellyfish envenomation is a persistent hazard for people who spend time in the sea. Jellyfish stings can be dangerous, and among the people who face the greatest risk are scuba divers. This study therefore sought to determine the level of knowledge divers in Thailand have about the threat of jellyfish envenomation. Read More

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Proteomic Analysis of Novel Components of Jellyfish Venom: Deciphering the Mode of Action.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 03 8;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Nowadays, proliferation of jellyfish has become a severe matter in many coastal areas around the world. Jellyfish is one of the most perilous organisms and leads to significant deleterious outcomes such as harm to the fishery, damage the coastal equipment, and moreover, its envenomation can be hazardous to the victims. Till now, the components of venom (NnV) are unknown owing to scant transcriptomics and genomic data. Read More

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Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) envenoming presenting as suspected decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Mar;49(1):57-60

Orkney Hyperbaric Unit, Stromness, Orkney, Scotland.

Lion's mane jellyfish stings are usually characterised by local inflammation, especially weals. Systemic symptoms are not widely described although there is a well known fictional description of a fatal reaction to envenoming. We describe five divers presenting with suspected decompression sickness, where the probable diagnosis was jellyfish envenoming. Read More

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Fatal Pulmonary Edema in a Child After Jellyfish Stings in Korea.

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 Dec 9;29(4):527-530. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Jellyfish have been increasing at a global scale in recent years. These blooms not only have deleterious effects on marine ecosystems, they also increase the risk of jellyfish stings and accompanying envenomation. Here, we report a fatal case of pulmonary edema caused by jellyfish envenomation in a child in Korea. Read More

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December 2018

Millepora species (Fire Coral) Sting: A Case Report and Review of Recommended Management.

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 Dec 17;29(4):521-526. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Fire corals (Millepora spp) are the second most common reef-forming organisms and are frequently found in tropical and subtropical waters. Fire corals are not true corals but rather hydrozoans more closely related to jellyfish and sea nettles. Rigidly affixed to the reef and with a branching structure, each fire coral is a colony of numerous individual hydrozoans forming a collective symbiotic organism. Read More

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December 2018

Combined Proteome and Toxicology Approach Reveals the Lethality of Venom Toxins from Jellyfish Cyanea nozakii.

J Proteome Res 2018 11 8;17(11):3904-3913. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Qingdao 266071 , P. R. China.

Jellyfish are a type of poisonous cnidarian invertebrate that secrete lethal venom for predation or defense. Human beings often become victims of jellyfish stings accidentally while swimming or fishing and suffer severe pain, itching, swelling, inflammation, shock, and even death. Jellyfish venom is composed of various toxins, and the lethal toxin is the most toxic and hazardous component of the venom, which is responsible for deaths caused by jellyfish stings and envenomation. Read More

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November 2018

Environmental and Ecological Effects of Climate Change on Venomous Marine and Amphibious Species in the Wilderness.

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 09 27;29(3):343-356. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Boston, MA (Dr Erickson).

Introduction: Recent analyses of data show a warming trend in global average air and sea surface ocean temperatures. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, the sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased. This article will focus on climate change and projected effects on venomous marine and amphibious creatures with the potential impact on human health. Read More

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September 2018

Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 03 23;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant, and often come into accidental contact with humans and, therefore, represent a threat for public health and safety. The venom of Scyphozoa is a complex mixture of bioactive substances-including thermolabile enzymes such as phospholipases, metalloproteinases, and, possibly, pore-forming proteins-and is only partially characterized. Read More

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