900 results match your criteria Clubfoot Imaging


Achilles tendon surgery in clubfoot: Are long term sequelae predictable?

Pediatr Med Chir 2022 May 3;44(1). Epub 2022 May 3.

Pediatric Orthopedic and Traumatology Unit, Children's Hospital, AON SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria.

Congenital Clubfoot (CCF) treatment involves a surgical procedure on the Achilles tendon most of the time, i.e. tenotomy or, in selected cases, Z-plasty lengthening. Read More

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Anterior tibial tendon transfer in idiopathic clubfoot: does the outcome differ with the initial treatment? Proposed classification to surgical indication.

Int Orthop 2022 Jun 28;46(6):1361-1366. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Orthopaedic Department, Ankle and Foot Clinic, Santa Casa Medical School and Hospitals, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To establish parameters and propose a radiographic classification for foot adduction/supination deformities to assist the indication of Garceau procedure. Secondly, to investigate whether the outcome of Garceau surgery depends on the initial treatment used, peritalar release, or the Ponseti method, and verify the maintenance of correction until skeletal maturity.

Methods: Prospective cohort study, with follow-up evaluations in 2009 and 2019. Read More

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Determination of the Effective Site for Percutaneous Achilles Tenotomy in Ponseti Management of African Idiopathic Clubfoot.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2021 Dec 15;111(6). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Background: Percutaneous Achilles tenotomy is an essential step in the Ponseti treatment of idiopathic clubfoot, with reported complications such as injury to the surrounding neurovascular structures and incomplete division of the Achilles tendon (AT). Knowledge of AT thickness would guide tenotomy blade insertion depth, obviating these related complications. We embarked on this study to ultrasonographically determine AT thickness at its different levels from the calcaneal insertion in children with idiopathic clubfoot. Read More

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December 2021

Multiple vas deferens with polyorchidism and many congenital malformations in a symptomatic 11-year-old male patient: a rare case report.

BMC Urol 2022 Feb 23;22(1):26. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Urological Surgery, Surgical Kidney Hospital, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic.

Background: Ductus deferens may manifest in a variety of anomalies such as its absence, duplication, ectopy, or diverticulum. Ectopic seminal tract opening has two main types, ectopic ejaculatory duct opening, and ectopic vas deferens opening. Generally, ductus deferens anomalies affect approximately 0. Read More

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February 2022

Lateral Cuneiform Ossification and Tibialis Anterior Tendon Width in Children Ages 3 to 6: Implications for Interference Screw Fixation of Tibialis Anterior Tendon Transfers in Children.

J Pediatr Orthop 2022 Apr;42(4):229-232

Scottish Rite for Children.

Background: While the transfer of the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) to the lateral cuneiform (LC) following serial casting has been used for nearly 60 years to treat relapsed clubfoot deformity, modern methods of tendon fixation remain largely unstudied. Interference screw fixation represents an alternative strategy that obviates concerns of plantar foot skin pressure-induced necrosis and proper tendon tensioning associated with button suspensory fixation. A better understanding of LC morphology in young children is a necessary first step in assessing the viability of this fixation technique. Read More

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Idiopathic Congenital Clubfoot.

Pediatrics 2022 02;149(2)

Departments of Orthopedics and Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, Kansas.

Idiopathic congenital clubfoot is the most common serious musculoskeletal birth defect in the United States and the world. The natural history of the deformity is to persist into adult life with a significant decrease in function and quality of life. The Ponseti method (serial casting, Achilles tenotomy, and bracing of the clubfoot) has become the most effective and accepted treatment of children born with clubfoot worldwide. Read More

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February 2022

Jones Fracture: A Late Sequelae of Undercorrected or Recurrent Congenital Talipes Equinovarus: A Report of 2 Cases.

JBJS Case Connect 2022 01 5;12(1). Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

Case: We present 2 cases in which patients previously treated for congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) presented with residual cavovarus deformity and lateral foot pain and were found to have Jones fractures. Both patients were indicated for surgical correction of their residual cavovarus deformity, although neither elected to proceed. These 2 patients were treated conservatively for their fractures with cast immobilization. Read More

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January 2022

Prenatal Diagnosis of Clubfoot: Where Are We Now? Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Nov 29;11(12). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, Trigoria, 00128 Rome, Italy.

The primary methods for prenatal diagnosis of Clubfoot are ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An ultrasound is performed between the 1st trimester and the 28th week of pregnancy and it is reported to be used as a diagnostic method alone or in combination with MRI. So far, an international consensus on the most effective screening method has not been reached. Read More

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November 2021

Triceps Surae Muscle Characteristics in Spastic Hemiparetic Stroke Survivors Treated with Botulinum Toxin Type A: Clinical Implications from Ultrasonographic Evaluation.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 12 12;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 12.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Equinovarus foot is one of the most commonly spasticity related conditions in stroke survivors, leading to an impaired gait and poor functional performances. Notably, spastic muscles undergo a dynamic evolution following typical pathophysiological patterns. Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT-A) is the gold standard for focal spasticity treatment, and ultrasound (US) imaging is widely recommended to guide injections and monitor muscle evolution. Read More

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December 2021

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Three Approaches for Botulinum Toxin Injection into Tibialis Posterior Muscle in Chronic Stroke Patients with Equinovarus Foot: An Observational Study.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 11 22;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Spasticity and Movement Disorders "ReSTaRt" Unit, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Section, Policlinico Riuniti Hospital, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Spastic equinovarus (SEV) foot deformity is commonly observed in patients with post-stroke spasticity. Tibialis posterior (TP) is a common target for botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) injection, as a first-line treatment in non-fixed SEV deformity. For this deep muscle, ultrasonographic guidance is crucial to achieving maximum accuracy for the BoNT-A injection. Read More

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November 2021

Surgical Management of Foot and Ankle Deformities in Cerebral Palsy.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2022 Jan;39(1):37-55

UCSF Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco, 1500 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Center, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, 744 52nd Street, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at a high risk of developing foot and ankle deformities that can impact function, brace/shoe fit, and seating. The 3 commonly observed foot and ankle segmental malalignment patterns include equinus, planovalgus, and equinovarus. Assessment of foot deformities is multifaceted, requiring the collection and integration of data from a combination of sources that include the clinical history, standardized physical examination, observational and quantitative gait analysis, GMFCS classification, and radiographic findings. Read More

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January 2022

Increased Collagen Crosslinking in Stiff Clubfoot Tissue: Implications for the Improvement of Therapeutic Strategies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 2;22(21). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Orthopaedics, University J.E. Purkinje and Masaryk Hospital, 401 13 Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic.

Congenital clubfoot is a complex musculoskeletal deformity, in which a stiff, contracted tissue forms in the medial part of the foot. Fibrotic changes are associated with increased collagen deposition and lysyl oxidase (LOX)-mediated crosslinking, which impair collagen degradation and increase the tissue stiffness. First, we studied collagen deposition, as well as the expression of collagen and the amount of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline crosslinks in the tissue of relapsed clubfoot by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

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November 2021

Does the use of ultrasound guidance during percutaneous Achilles tendon tenotomy improve outcomes of clubfoot management? A randomized controlled trial.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2022 Mar;31(2):e190-e194

Department of Orthopaedics, PGIMER Chandigarh, India.

Achilles tenotomy is a crucial aspect in the non-operative management of clubfoot as per Ponseti's casting protocol. Achilles tenotomy is routinely carried out percutaneously in a blind manner without any image guidance. This study aimed to determine the role of ultrasound-guided percutaneous Achilles tenotomy (PAT) in improving outcomes in clubfoot management. Read More

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Concomitant Talocalcaneal Coalition as a Risk Factor for Early Relapse Following Ponseti Treatment of Idiopathic Clubfoot.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Sep 15;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Concomitant talocalcaneal coalition (TCC) in idiopathic clubfeet is not well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with very early relapsing idiopathic clubfeet associated with TCC. Although cases have been successfully treated with the Ponseti casting method, all recurred within 2 months of removing the final cast. Read More

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September 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of Baraitser - Winter syndrome using exome sequencing: Clinical report and review of literature.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Nov 24;64(11):104318. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieio Hospital Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Baraitser - Winter Cerebrofrontofacial Syndrome (BWCFF) is a rare disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism and mental retardation of varying grades. The clinical phenotype of BWCFF indicates variable phenotypic expression involving various congenital malformations such as cardiac, renal and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Nevertheless, the prenatal presentation of BWCFF is rarely described, making prenatal diagnosis challenging. Read More

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November 2021

Clubfoot pathology in fetus and pathogenesis. A new pathogenetic theory based on pathology, imaging findings and biomechanics-a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(13):1095

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" - Viale Oxford 81, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Several studies have described the pathology of idiopathic congenital clubfoot (ICCF) in fetus. Numerous pathogenetic theories have been postulated on ICCF, but many of them lack any objective evidence. Pathologic studies in fetus together with MRI studies in patients with ICCF seem to favor the theory of a muscular imbalance of the foot activators during fetal growth as the main pathogenetic factor of ICCF. Read More

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A Decade in Review after Idiopathic Scoliosis Was First Called a Complex Trait-A Tribute to the Late Dr. Yves Cotrel for His Support in Studies of Etiology of Scoliosis.

Genes (Basel) 2021 07 1;12(7). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80012, USA.

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is a prevalent and important spine disorder in the pediatric age group. An increased family tendency was observed for a long time, but the underlying genetic mechanism was uncertain. In 1999, Dr. Read More

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Correlation of radiographic parameters with clinical correction in idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus undergoing Ponseti treatment.

Int Orthop 2021 12 27;45(12):3139-3146. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Kilo 6 Qena-Safaga highway, Qena, Egypt.

Purpose: Idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus is the most commonly encountered congenital deformity of the foot. Ponseti technique of manipulation is the treatment of choice. The Pirani classification is a reliable scoring system for clinical evaluation of clubfeet. Read More

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December 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of isolated clubfoot: Diagnostic accuracy and long-term postnatal outcomes.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Sep 7;264:60-64. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Unit of Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell'Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy; Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of congenital talipes equinovarus (cTEV), rates of surgery and postnatal outcomes in relation to the prenatal classification of severity.

Study Design: This is a retrospective observational cohort study on fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of cTEV between 2004 and 2018. All cases of isolated cTEV in singleton pregnancies were included. Read More

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September 2021

Realignment Midfoot Osteotomy: A Preoperative Planning Method and Intraoperative Surgical Technique.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2022 Jan-Feb;61(1):170-174. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Chief, Foot & Ankle Surgery at St. Mary's Medical Center and the Palm Beach Children's Hospital, West Palm Beach, FL; Director, Foot & Ankle Deformity Center & Fellowship at the Paley Orthopedic and Spine Institute, West Palm Beach, FL. Electronic address:

Deformities of the midfoot are often treated with midfoot osteotomies. The goal of the midfoot osteotomy is to create a plantigrade forefoot to hindfoot relationship. Many different techniques are described for performing midfoot osteotomies. Read More

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January 2022

Posterior Spinal Fusion for Scoliosis in the Oldest Reported Patient with Crane-Heise Syndrome: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 07 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Case: A 14-year-old adolescent girl with Crane-Heise syndrome-the oldest such patient in the literature-presented to our clinic with progressive scoliosis, including a 90° T6-L3 apex right curve. She underwent a T3-pelvis posterior spinal fusion. Intraoperatively, she had small, poorly visualized upper thoracic pedicles, incomplete fusion of the posterior spinal elements, and limitations of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Read More

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Sonoelastographic Findings in Clubfeet.

Int J Gen Med 2021 23;14:2763-2775. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest, Romania, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bucharest, Romania.

Purpose: One of the main features of congenital idiopathic clubfoot is the increased stiffness of soft tissues. With the growing popularity and availability of sonoelastography as a method to assess the stiffness of different tissues, we considered applying it to congenital clubfeet in order to to determine whether sonoelastography can be a useful imaging method for the evaluation of clubfeet, to assess whether there are any differences in stiffness of specific tendons between clubfeet and normal contralateral feet and to observe which treatment methods have an impact on the aspect of these structures on the elastograms.

Patients And Methods: A case-control study was performed involving 10 adolescent patients with unilateral idiopathic congenital clubfeet who were treated either with the Ponseti method or surgically with posteromedial release (PMR) during early infancy. Read More

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Impact of the volume of the myelomeningocele sac on imaging, prenatal neurosurgery and motor outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 06 23;11(1):13189. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Children's Hospital & Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

To investigate the association of the myelomeningocele (MMC) volume with prenatal and postnatal motor function (MF) in cases who underwent a prenatal repair. Retrospective cohort study (11/2011 to 03/2019) of 63 patients who underwent a prenatal MMC repair (37 fetoscopic, 26 open-hysterotomy). At referral, measurements of the volume of MMC was performed based on ultrasound scans. Read More

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Gordon syndrome: Dental implications and a case report.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 Nov 26;41(6):727-734. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Craniofacial Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Aim: This article describes the craniofacial and dental features of an individual with Gordon syndrome. The dental management implications and considerations of treating patients with Gordon Syndrome and similar conditions resulting in limited mouth opening are discussed.

Methods: A 14-year-old South African male was referred to the Dental Genetics Clinic with the main complaint of carious teeth. Read More

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November 2021

TARP syndrome associated with renal malformation and optic nerve atrophy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 24;14(5). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics at Fundación Santa Fé de Bogotá, Hospital Universitario de la Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogota, Bogota, Colombia.

Talipes equinovarus, atrial septal defect, Robin sequence and persistent left superior vena cava (TARP) syndrome is a congenital disease caused by mutations in the RBBM10 gene. It has a low prevalence and a high rate of mortality in the neonatal stage. In this case report, we present a case of a 32-week gestational age preterm newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction, with a persistent left superior vena cava, interatrial communication and a horseshoe kidney. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging of severe idiopathic club foot treated with one-week accelerated Ponseti (OWAP) technique.

Foot Ankle Surg 2022 Apr 12;28(3):338-346. Epub 2021 May 12.

Annajah Medical School, Palestine. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate changes in tarsal bones relationship after the use of one week accelerated Ponseti method in the treatment of severe idiopathic clubfoot using MRI. We hypothesize that one-week accelerated Ponseti is at least as effective as standard techniques in achieving the desirable MRI parameters.

Methods: This is a prospective study of 8 children with severe idiopathic clubfeet (Pirani 6) (4 unilateral and 4 bilateral) treated before the age of three months with one-week accelerated Ponseti technique, as described in a former study with minimum 2-year follow-up. Read More

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A Patient with a Type I Split Cord Malformation and an Open Myelomeningocele without Advanced Lower Limb Paresis: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.

NMC Case Rep J 2021 Apr 2;8(1):75-78. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yamagata University, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Yamagata, Japan.

We report a rare case of a split cord malformation (SCM) combined with an open myelomeningocele (MMC) on the right hemicord. The patient was a male neonate, who exhibited an MMC in the lumbosacral region at birth. Both of his lower limbs moved with slight spasticity, but no atrophic changes or clubfoot deformities were seen. Read More

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Limb body wall complex complicating a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy: MRI for demonstration of fetal morphology.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 12;14(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, Pondicherry, India.

Limb body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare, lethal malformation characterised by body wall defects, craniofacial and limb anomalies with or without various other organ anomalies. We report a case of dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy discordant for LBWC, diagnosed by ultrasound (US) and confirmed by MRI at 21 weeks' gestation, managed expectantly and delivered at 35 weeks by emergency caesarean section with a favourable outcome of the unaffected twin. The anomalous twin, who died soon after birth, had a sizeable thoracoabdominal wall defect, eviscerated liver and bowel loops attached to the placenta, short cord, ectopia cordis, lung hypoplasia, kyphoscoliosis, right upper limb amelia and left clubfoot with polydactyly. Read More

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Infrared Thermal Imaging for Evaluation of Clubfoot After the Ponseti Casting Method-An Exploratory Study.

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:595506. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Conservative treatment, Ponseti method, has been considered as a standard method to correct the clubfoot deformity among Orthopedic society. Although the result of conservative methods have been reported with higher success rates than surgical methods, many more problems have been reported due to improper casting, casting pressure or bracing discomfort. Nowadays, infrared thermography (IRT) is widely used as a diagnostic tool to assess musculoskeletal disorders or injuries by detecting temperature abnormalities. Read More

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Statistical shape modelling to analyse the talus in paediatric clubfoot.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Aug 25;235(8):849-860. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

One fifth of idiopathic clubfoot deformities cannot be fully corrected by Serial Ponseti casting and deformity recurs in 20%-30% of cases. To avoid x-ray exposure, the joints with largely unossified bones are diagnosed with magnetic resonance images (MRI). Typically, geometric measurements are made in the MRI planes; however, this method is inaccurate compared to measurements on three-dimensional (3D) models of the joint. Read More

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