44,533 results match your criteria Clostridium Difficile Colitis


[Recommendations from a panel of experts on the usefulness of fidaxomicin for the treatment of infections caused by Clostridium difficile].

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Benito Almirante, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129 - 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Clostridium difficile infections have a high recurrence rate, which can complicate the prognosis of affected patients. It is therefore important to establish an early detection and an appropriate therapeutic strategy. The objective of this manuscript was to gather the opinion of an expert group about the predictive factors of poor progression, as well as when to use fidaxomicin in different groups of high-risk patients. Read More

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December 2018

A comparative study of the gut microbiota in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases-does a common dysbiosis exist?

Microbiome 2018 Dec 13;6(1):221. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Manitoba IBD Clinical and Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Background: Immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) represents a substantial health concern. It is widely recognized that IMID patients are at a higher risk for developing secondary inflammation-related conditions. While an ambiguous etiology is common to all IMIDs, in recent years, considerable knowledge has emerged regarding the plausible role of the gut microbiome in IMIDs. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Reduce Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;7(4). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Health Economics and Medicines Evaluation (CHEME), Bangor University, Normal Site, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2PZ, UK.

More appropriate and measured use of antibiotics may be achieved using point-of-care (POC) C-reactive protein (CRP) testing, but there is limited evidence of cost-effectiveness in routine practice. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of testing, compared with standard care, in adults presenting in primary care with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). Analyses considered (1) pragmatic use of testing, reflective of routine clinical practice, and (2) testing according to clinical guidelines. Read More

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December 2018

Fermentative bio-hydrogen production of food waste in the presence of different concentration of salt (Na⁺) and nitrogen.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea.

Fermentation of food waste in the presence of different concentrations of salt (Na⁺) and ammonia was conducted to investigate the interrelation of Na⁺ and ammonia contents for bio-hydrogen production. Analysis of the experimental results showed that the peak hydrogen production differed according to the ammonia and Na⁺ concentration. The peak hydrogen productions achieved were (97. Read More

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December 2018

Association between submerged aquatic vegetation and elevated levels of Escherichia coli and potential bacterial pathogens in freshwater lakes.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 2;657:319-324. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA; Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA; Department of Plant, and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Fecal indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli have been reported to persist and potentially grow in a wide variety of secondary habitats, such as water, beach sand, sediment, periphyton and some algae. However, little is known about their association with submerged macrophytes and how this may influence water quality. In this study, we examined the association of E. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of the virulence of a non-RT027, non-RT078 and binary toxin-positive Clostridium difficile strain associated with severe diarrhea.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 12;7(1):211. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Down Blvd, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

The expression of the Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT is generally observed in the RT027 (ST1) and RT078 (ST11) C. difficile isolates, which are associated with severe C. difficile infection (CDI). Read More

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December 2018

Infectious complications following probiotic ingestion: a potentially underestimated problem? A systematic review of reports and case series.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Dec 12;18(1):329. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Institute of Cardiology, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil.

Background: Little is studied about complications related to probiotic ingestion. This study proposes to present a synthesis and critical evaluation of the reports and series of cases on the infectious complications related to the ingestion of probiotics, which can raise awareness for the prescribing and use of probiotics for certain groups of patients.

Methods: Systematic review of reports and series of cases researched in the PubMed, SciELO and Scopus databases published until August 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibitory Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid on Germination Is Insufficient to Prevent Colitis: A Study in Hamsters and Humans.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:2849. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Bile acids (BA) influence germination and growth of . Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a BA minor in human, used for cholestatic liver diseases, inhibits germination and growth of , but was never tested with an infectious challenge versus control. We hypothesized that UDCA could prevent CDI. Read More

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November 2018

[Gastro-intestinal infections with Clostridium difficile in the elderly].

Soins Gerontol 2018 Jul - Aug;23(132):15-16

Service de médecine gériatrique, Hupifo, site Ambroise-Paré (AP-HP), 9 avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

In view of its high frequency and its consequences which can be dramatic for patients, it is necessary to know how to identify Clostridium difficile infection. The high risk of an epidemic means it is especially important to know how to treat it, in terms of the hygiene and isolation rules, as well as which medication to use. Read More

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December 2018

Antimicrobial properties of rosin acids-loaded nanoparticles against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Dec 7:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

a Institute of Sciences of Food Production , National Research Council (ISPA-CNR) , Bari , Italy.

Rosin acids (RA) from coniferous trees are used in folk medicine for healing various skin infections. Despite the antimicrobial potential of RA, their poor solubility in aqueous media may limit their use. In this work RA-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (RA-NPs) with enhanced antimicrobial properties against foodborne bacterial pathogens were produced. Read More

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December 2018

Mucosal healing and bacterial composition in response to enteral nutrition versus steroid based induction therapy - a randomized prospective clinical trial in children with Crohn's disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, APHP.

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is as efficacious as corticosteroids (CS) to induce remission in Crohn's disease (CD), without their adverse effects. EEN seems to be more efficient than steroids to induce mucosal healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only sparsely understood. We aimed in the present work to study the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN with Modulen IBD® versus CS in active pediatric CD and to assess its modulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota as compared to steroids. Read More

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December 2018

Neutralization of Clostridium difficile toxin B with VHH-Fc fusions targeting the delivery and CROPs domains.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208978. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

An increasing number of antibody-based therapies are being considered for controlling bacterial infections, including Clostridium difficile by targeting toxins A and B. In an effort to develop novel C. difficile immunotherapeutics, we previously isolated several single-domain antibodies (VHHs) capable of toxin A neutralization through recognition of the extreme C-terminal combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROPs) domain, but failed at identifying neutralizing VHHs that bound a similar region on toxin B. Read More

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December 2018
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Decreased Fecal Bacterial Diversity and Altered Microbiome in Children Colonized With Clostridium difficile.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Objectives: The gut microbiome is believed to play a role in the susceptibility to and treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). It is, however, unknown whether the gut microbiome is also affected by asymptomatic C difficile colonization. Our study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome of children based on C difficile colonization, and CDI risk factors, including antibiotic use and comorbid inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

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December 2018

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Children's Nutrition and Research Center, Houston, TX.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming part of the treatment algorithms against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) both in adult and pediatric gastroenterology practice. With our increasing recognition of the critical role the microbiome plays in human health and disease, FMT is also being considered as a potential therapy for other disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis), graft versus host disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Controlled trials with FMT for rCDI have not been performed in children, and numerous clinical and regulatory considerations have to be considered when using this untraditional therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Cotranslational Folding of a Pentarepeat β-Helix Protein.

J Mol Biol 2018 Dec 27;430(24):5196-5206. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Science for Life Laboratory Stockholm University, Box 1031, SE-171 21 Solna, Sweden. Electronic address:

It is becoming increasingly clear that many proteins start to fold cotranslationally before the entire polypeptide chain has been synthesized on the ribosome. One class of proteins that a priori would seem particularly prone to cotranslational folding is repeat proteins, that is, proteins that are built from an array of nearly identical sequence repeats. However, while the folding of repeat proteins has been studied extensively in vitro with purified proteins, only a handful of studies have addressed the issue of cotranslational folding of repeat proteins. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of short-term endurance exercise on gut microbiota in elderly men.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13935

Institute of Advanced Active Aging Research, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Regular exercise reduces the risks for cardiovascular diseases. Although the gut microbiota has been associated with fitness level and cardiometabolic risk factors, the effects of exercise-induced gut microbiota changes in elderly individuals are unclear. This study evaluated whether endurance exercise modulates the gut microbiota in elderly subjects, and whether these changes are associated with host cardiometabolic phenotypes. Read More

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December 2018
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Microbiome and Gut Dysbiosis.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:459-476

Department of Gastroenterology of Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Read More

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January 2018

[Fecal microbiota transplantation through colonoscopy for Clostridium difficile recurrent infection. Report of eight cases].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Aug;146(8):823-830

Departamento de Medicina Interna, Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Most cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) respond to a standard course of antibiotics, however recurrent CDI is becoming common and alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. In this scenario, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been suggested.

Aim: To describe the efficacy and safety of FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI. Read More

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Changes in Provider Treatment Patterns for Dupuytren's Contracture: Analysis of Trends in Medicare Beneficiaries.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018 Oct 3;6(10):e1932. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Background: Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for Dupuytren's contracture. We hypothesize that the gaining popularity of CCH has resulted in a change in treatment patterns among providers, with increased utilization of CCH injections in the management of Dupuytren's contracture from 2012 to 2014.

Methods: The Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data Public Use Files were used to identify all surgeons who submitted claims for surgical fasciectomy, needle aponeurotomy (NA), and CCH injection. Read More

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October 2018

Closed Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Strains Obtained by Nanopore Sequencing.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 6;7(9). Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Division of Microbiology, Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Here we report the genome sequences of two toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strains, one environmental sample (83F) and one clinical sample (CDC51232). The genomes were closed by a combination of long-read and short-read sequencing. The strains belong to C. Read More

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September 2018

Complete Genome Sequences of Historic Clostridioides difficile Food-Dwelling Ribotype 078 Strains in Canada Identical to That of the Historic Human Clinical Strain M120 in the United Kingdom.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 27;7(12). Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Division of Gastroenterology & Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes severe intestinal diseases in humans. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first C. difficile foodborne type strain (PCR ribotype 078) isolated from food animals in Canada in 2004, which has 100% similarity to the genome sequence of the historic human clinical strain M120. Read More

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September 2018

Analyses of long non-coding RNA and mRNA profiling in the spleen of diarrheic piglets caused by type C.

PeerJ 2018 30;6:e5997. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Background: () type C is the most common bacteria causing piglet diarrheal disease and it greatly affects the economy of the global pig industry. The spleen is an important immune organ in mammals; it plays an irreplaceable role in resisting and eradicating pathogenic microorganisms. Based on different immune capacity in piglets, individuals display the resistance and susceptibility to diarrhea caused by type C. Read More

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November 2018

The Fecal Metagenomics of Malayan Pangolins Identifies an Extensive Adaptation to Myrmecophagy.

Front Microbiol 2018 23;9:2793. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China.

The characteristics of flora in the intestine of an animal, including the number and abundance of different microbial species and their functions, are closely related to the diets of the animal and affect the physical condition of the host. The Malayan pangolin () is an endangered species that specializes in myrmecophagy. Analyzing the microbiome in the intestine of the pangolin is imperative to protect this species. Read More

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November 2018

Pomegranate extract specifically inhibits growth and toxin production without disturbing the beneficial bacteria in vitro.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 16;11:2357-2362. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany,

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pomegranate juice against the growth and toxin production of multidrug-resistant hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/BI and also against the growth of beneficial bacteria to prevent or suppress infection (CDI).

Materials And Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were taken as parameters for the assessment of antimicrobial property of the pomegranate juice. Four different hypervirulent strains NAP1/027/BI, spp. Read More

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November 2018

Host-targeted niclosamide inhibits C. difficile virulence and prevents disease in mice without disrupting the gut microbiota.

Nat Commun 2018 12 7;9(1):5233. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Molecular Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay St., Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. Disruption of the protective gut microbiota by antibiotics enables colonization by multidrug-resistant C. difficile, which secrete up to three different protein toxins that are responsible for the gastrointestinal sequelae. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-claudin antibodies as a concept for development of claudin-directed drugs.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Osaka University

Claudin (CLDN) proteins, a tetra-transmembrane family containing over 20 members, have been identified as a key structural and functional component of intercellular seals, tight junctions (TJs). CLDNs are involved in the barrier and fence functions of TJs. Loosening the TJ barrier is one strategy for increasing drug absorption and delivery to the brain. Read More

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December 2018

Lectin activity of the TcdA and TcdB toxins of .

Infect Immun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia.

is a major cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. produces two cytotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, both toxins are multi-domain proteins that lead to cytotoxicity through the modification and inactivation of small GTPases of the Rho/Rac family. Previous studies have indicated that host glycans are targets for TcdA and TcdB, with interactions thought to be with both α- and β-linked galactose. Read More

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December 2018

Diversity analysis of intestinal microflora between healthy and diarrheal neonatal piglets from the same litter in different regions.

Anaerobe 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agriculture University, Jiangxi, Nanchang, China. Electronic address:

Though the problem of neonatal piglet diarrhea is well known, the differences in the bacterial diversity and community composition between healthy and diarrheal piglets are still unknown. We investigated these differences in neonatal piglets from Jiangxi Province, China. Healthy (H, n = 20) and diarrheal (D, n = 20) piglets were selected from six regions. Read More

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December 2018
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An assessment of the persistence of pathogenic bacteria removal in chicken manure compost employing clay as additive via meta-genomic analysis.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Nov 30;366:184-191. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, China. Electronic address:

The aim was to evaluate pathogenic bacteria (PB) survival during the composting of chicken manure (CM) amended with five different dosages of clay compared to CM without clay-applied treatment. The results showed that 85-87% of PB relative abundances (RAs) were significantly reduced in lower dosages of applied clay (T2 and T3). However, the maximum survival of PB was noticed in the T6 and T5 treatments, but most of the PB belong to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phylum and their derivative bacterial species. Read More

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November 2018

Leveraging Quality Improvement Science to Reduce C. difficile Infections in a Community Hospital.

Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Background: The most common infection acquired in US hospitals is Clostridium difficile, which can lead to protracted diarrhea, severe abdominal cramping, and infectious colitis and an attributable mortality of 6.5% (Lessa FC, et al, Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. Read More

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December 2018

How often are health care personnel hands colonized with multidrug- resistant organisms? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Infect Control 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Geriatric and Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI; Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: Hands of health care personnel (HCP) can transmit multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), resulting in infections. Our aim was to determine MDRO prevalence on HCP hands in adult acute care and nursing facility settings.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL was performed. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term colonisation with donor bacteriophages following successful faecal microbial transplantation.

Microbiome 2018 Dec 10;6(1):220. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Its success is typically attributed to the restoration of a diverse microbiota. Viruses (including bacteriophages) are the most numerically dominant and potentially the most diverse members of the microbiota, but their fate following FMT has not been well studied. Read More

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December 2018

Clostridium septicum: A usual suspect? Aortic rupture following right hemicolectomy: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 Nov 22;54:51-54. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Surgery, Epworth Health, Melbourne Australia; Gastrointestinal Clinical Institute, Epworth HealthCare, Melbourne Australia.

Introduction: There is a known association between Clostridium Septicum, mycotic aneurysm and colon neoplasm.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 90 year old female admitted with abdominal pain to the general surgery unit. Admission CT scan demonstrated a thick walled caecum and pericaecal inflammation suspicious for a perforated carcinoma. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Bezlotoxumab use as adjunctive therapy with the third fecal microbiota transplant in refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis; a case report and concise literature review.

Anaerobe 2018 Dec 3;55:112-116. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mercy Clinic Hospitalist, Physician Building, 7301 Rogers Ave, Fort Smith, AR 72903, United States. Electronic address:

Clostridium difficile is the most commonly reported pathogen to cause nosocomial infections in the United States with a high burden affecting morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure. The use of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is one of the current standard therapies for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDIr). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208171. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

[Foodbourne Botulism: A Forgotten Disease].

Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):691-693. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Serviço de Medicina Interna. Hospital Sousa Martins. Guarda. Portugal.

Botulism is a serious illness caused by exposure to botulinum toxin. It is manifested by flaccid, paralysis, symmetric and in descending pattern affecting cranial and peripheral nerves. Given the frequent need for invasive mechanical ventilation, these patients should be approached in an intensive care setting. Read More

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November 2018

Radical SAM-dependent adenosylation catalyzed by l-tyrosine lyases.

Org Biomol Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily is currently the largest known enzyme family. These enzymes reductively cleave SAM to produce a highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical, which abstracts a hydrogen from the substrate and initiates diverse reactions. The canonic dAdo radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction can be changed to radical addition reactions by using olefin-containing substrate analogues, which result in adenosylation reactions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
3.562 Impact Factor

Linkages between epithelial microbiota and host transcriptome in the ileum during high grain challenges: implications for gut homeostasis in goats.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

A high-grain diet (HG) can result in ruminal subacute acidosis, which is detrimental to gut health and can lead to decreased productivity. This study investigated the ileal epithelial microbiota and its relationship with host epithelial function in goats fed an HG diet (concentrate: hay, 90: 10) and a Control diet (concentrate: hay, 55: 45) aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ileal adaptation to subacute acidosis. The HG challenge increased ileal volatile fatty acid concentration (P = 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Capsules with Targeted Colonic Versus Gastric Delivery in Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comparative Cohort Analysis of High and Lose Dose.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Finch Therapeutics, Somerville, MA, USA.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium. difficile infection (rCDI). FMT capsules have emerged, and it is unknown if delivery location and dose impact efficacy. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Increased sensitivity of microbiological testing of cornea organ culture medium by additional resin treatment.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 10;3(1):e000173. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Tissue Bank, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: This validation study investigates the treatment of cornea organ culture medium (Modified Eagle Medium, Biochrom GmbH, Berlin, Germany) with RESEP, a new medical device for antibiotics removal, before microbiological testing with BACTEC blood culture bottles.

Methods And Analysis: 10-100 colony forming units of and were inoculated in 9mL of cornea organ culture medium. In group A, the medium was withdrawn with RESEP and treated for 20 min at room temperature, and then inoculated in BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F/Anaerobic/F blood culture bottles. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Microbiota profile in new-onset pediatric Crohn's disease: data from a non-Western population.

Gut Pathog 2018 29;10:49. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

7Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, USA.

Background: The role of microbiota in Crohn's disease (CD) is increasingly recognized. However, most of the reports are from Western populations. Considering the possible variation from other populations, the aim of this study was to describe the microbiota profile in children with CD in Saudi Arabia, a non-Western developing country population. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The antimicrobial peptide CopA3 inhibits toxin A-induced viability loss and apoptosis in neural cells.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Divison of Life Science and Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido, South Korea.

Numerous studies have reported that enteric neurons involved in controlling neurotransmitter secretion and motility in the gut critically contribute to the progression of gut inflammation. toxins, which cause severe colonic inflammation, are also known to affect enteric neurons. Our previous study showed that toxin A directly induces neural cell toxicities, such as viability loss and apoptosis. Read More

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November 2018
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Convergence of Bigelow and Arrhenius models over a wide range of heating temperatures.

Int J Food Microbiol 2018 Nov 20;291:173-180. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Université de Brest, EA3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne, UMT14.01 SporeRisk, 6 rue de l'Université, F-29334 Quimper, France.

The heat resistance of the bacterial spores of Moorella thermoacetica, Clostridium sporogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus coagulans was determined over a wide range of temperatures using the capillary method and thermoresistometer Mastia. The results showed that the two experimental methods gave similar heat resistance values excepted for Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The effect of temperature on thermal resistance was evaluated using the Arrhenius and Bigelow models. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Diversity and metabolism of xylose and glucose fermenting microbial communities in sequencing batch or continuous culturing.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Delft University of technology, Department of Biotechnology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, the Netherlands.

A mechanistic understanding of microbial community establishment and product formation in open fermentative systems can aid the development of bioprocesses utilising organic waste. Kinetically, a single rate-limiting substrate is expected to result in one dominant species. Four enrichment cultures were operated to ferment either xylose or glucose in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) or a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) mode. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacologic Approach to Management of Clostridium difficile Infection.

Crit Care Nurs Q 2019 Jan/Mar;42(1):2-11

Department of Pharmacy, St Elizabeth Healthcare, Edgewood, Kentucky (Drs Martin, Vincent, Gillian, Moore, and Ratermann); Department of Pharmacy Services, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, and Division of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, Cincinnati, Ohio (Dr Droege).

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is the leading cause of nosocomial infections in hospitals in the United States. Critically ill patients are at high risk for C. difficile infection (CDI) and face potentially detrimental effects, including prolonged hospitalization, risk of recurrent disease, complicated surgery, and death. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Critically Ill Adults.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain high across intensive care units in the United States despite national efforts to decrease this escalating health care burden. Most published literature and guidelines address treatment rather than prevention, yet this approach may be too downstream to limit morbidity and mortality from the disease and its complications. Mechanisms to successfully prevent CDI include reducing modifiable risk factors and minimizing horizontal transmission of C. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Enhanced butanol production by optimization of medium parameters using YM1.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 15;25(7):1308-1321. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

A new isolate of the solvent-producing YM1 was used to produce butanol in batch culture fermentation. The effects of glucose concentration, butyric acid addition and C/N ratio were studied conventionally (one-factor-at-a-time). Moreover, the interactions between glucose concentration, butyric acid addition and C/N ratio were further investigated to optimize butanol production using response surface methodology (RSM). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Administration of antibiotics contributes to cholestasis in pediatric patients with intestinal failure via the alteration of FXR signaling.

Exp Mol Med 2018 Nov 30;50(12):155. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The link between antibiotic treatment and IF-associated liver disease (IFALD) is unclear. Here, we study the effect of antibiotic treatment on bile acid (BA) metabolism and investigate the involved mechanisms. The results showed that pediatric IF patients with cholestasis had a significantly lower abundance of BA-biotransforming bacteria than patients without cholestasis. Read More

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November 2018
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