Crit Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 7:1-16. Epub 2022 Apr 7.
Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
(CD), a nosocomial gut pathogen, produces two major exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, which disrupt the gut epithelial barrier and induce inflammatory/immune responses, leading to symptoms ranging from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis and potentially to death. The expression of toxins is regulated by various transcription factors (TFs) which are induced in response to CD physiological life stages, nutritional availability, and host environment. This review summarises our current understanding on the regulation of toxin expression by TFs that interconnect with pathways of flagellar synthesis, quorum sensing, motility, biofilm formation, sporulation, and phase variation. Read More