3,022 results match your criteria Clostridium Difficile Colitis

C. difficile exploits a host metabolite produced during toxin-mediated disease.

Nature 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Several enteric pathogens can gain specific metabolic advantages over other members of the microbiota by inducing host pathology and inflammation. The pathogen Clostridium difficile is responsible for a toxin-mediated colitis that causes 450,000 infections and 15,000 deaths in the United States each year; however, the molecular mechanisms by which C. difficile benefits from this pathology remain unclear. Read More

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Long-Term Infectious Complications of Kidney Transplantation.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio

Infections remain a common complication of solid-organ transplantation. Most infections in the first month after transplant are typically health care-associated infections, whereas late infections, beyond 6-12 months, are community-acquired infections. Opportunistic infections most frequently present in the first 12 months post-transplant and can be modulated on prior exposures and use of prophylaxis. Read More

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Colocutaneous fistula following infection managed as an 'autocolostomy': a novel approach to a recognised complication.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 16;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

General Surgery, The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust, Dudley, UK

Colocutaneous fistula is a rare entity in colorectal disease. We present a case of colocutaneous fistula in a patient whose postoperative course following a laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid cancer was complicated by colitis. During the follow-up period, it was found that his bowel contents were preferentially discharging through this fistula which had taken up the role of an 'autocolostomy'. Read More

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Successful use of early, repeat fecal microbiota transplantation for initial treatment of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile colitis.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic Fairview Hospital, Cleveland, OH, and Northeast Ohio Medical University College of Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH, USA.

Disclaimer: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. Read More

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The interplay of SARS-CoV-2 and infection.

Future Microbiol 2021 04 13;16:439-443. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we practice medicine and lead our lives. In addition to pulmonary symptoms; COVID-19 as a syndrome has multisystemic involvement including frequent gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea. Due to microbiome alterations with COVID-19 and frequent antibiotic exposure, COVID-19 can be complicated by infection. Read More

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Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Leading to Clostridium Paraputrificum Bacteremia.

Cureus 2021 Mar 8;13(3):e13763. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Gastroenterology, BronxCare Health System, Bronx, USA.

 species are spore-forming gram-positive anaerobic rod bacteria that cause a broad range of infections in humans, including intra-abdominal infections, myonecrosis, and bacteremia. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is a severe form of infection caused by  .Clostridialbacteremia usually occurs in the settings of neutropenia, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia, malignancy, hemodialysis, inflammatory bowel disease, and AIDS. Read More

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toxins enhanced the production of CXC chemokine ligand 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α via Toll-like receptors in macrophages.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr;70(4)

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan.

infection (CDI) causes toxin-mediated enteropathy, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Rho-glucosylating toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) have been clearly implicated in pathogenesis, whereas the virulence of binary toxin (CDT) is still debated. We hypothesized that CDT is involved in the host immune response and plays a pivotal role in establishing virulence by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production; this is achieved through the integral Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathways. Read More

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Leukemoid Reaction in a Patient With Severe COVID-19 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Feb 27;13(2):e13598. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Hematology-Oncology, St. Barnabas Hospital Health System, The Bronx, USA.

Leukemoid reaction is a rare clinical condition defined by marked leukocytosis with predominantly mature neutrophils. It is an uncommon condition with reported incidence of less than 1% in hospitalized patients. The major causes of leukemoid reaction are severe infection (clostridium difficile colitis, tuberculosis, or severe shigellosis), malignancies, intoxication, and severe hemorrhage. Read More

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February 2021

Reactive arthritis: an unusual presentation of acute colitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA

A 20-year-old Caucasian man with a history of psoriasis presented to the emergency department due to a 2-week history of severe polyarthralgia and a 3-week history of non-bloody diarrhoea. The initial workup 2 days prior in an urgent care clinic returned negative for all enteric pathogens including nucleic acid amplification test. Investigations revealed colitis on CT and pseudomembranous colitis on colonoscopy. Read More

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Concomitant Vancomycin-Resistant and Colitis.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Apr;15(1):372-378. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Bronxcare Health System, Bronx, New York, USA.

Colitis is a chronic gastrointestinal system disease characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Infectious colitis is one of the most common causes of colitis and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. One of the rare causes of colitis includes vancomycin-resistant (VRE). Read More

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Protection from Lethal Clostridioides difficile Infection via Intraspecies Competition for Cogerminant.

mBio 2021 03 30;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

, a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, is the primary cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. Antibiotics are a major risk factor for infection (CDI), as they disrupt the gut microbial community, enabling increased germination of spores and growth of vegetative To date, the only single-species bacterial preparation that has demonstrated efficacy in reducing recurrent CDI in humans is nontoxigenic Using multiple infection models, we determined that precolonization with a less virulent strain is sufficient to protect from challenge with a lethal strain of , surprisingly even in the absence of adaptive immunity. Additionally, we showed that protection is dependent on high levels of colonization by the less virulent strain and that it is mediated by exclusion of the invading strain. Read More

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Clostridium difficile: Diagnosis and the Consequence of Over Diagnosis.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for significant disease burden and mortality. The clinical spectrum of C. difficile ranges from asymptomatic colonization to toxic megacolon and fulminant colitis. Read More

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Establishing causality in Salmonella-microbiota-host interaction: The use of gnotobiotic mouse models and synthetic microbial communities.

Bärbel Stecher

Int J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr 2;311(3):151484. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Pettenkoferstr. 9a, Munich, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site LMU Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Colonization resistance (CR), the ability to block infections by potentially harmful microbes, is a fundamental function of host-associated microbial communities and highly conserved between animals and humans. Environmental factors such as antibiotics and diet can disturb microbial community composition and thereby predispose to opportunistic infections. The most prominent is Clostridioides difficile, the causative agent of diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Read More

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Gut microbiome and infection: a closer look at the microscopic interface.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021 23;14:1756284821994736. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The pathogenesis of infection (CDI) was recognized with its link to the use of antimicrobials. Antimicrobials significantly alter gut microbiota structure and composition, which led to the discovery of the association of this gut perturbation with the development of CDI. A number of factors implicated in its pathogenesis, such as advancing age, proton-pump inhibitors, and gastrointestinal diseases, are linked to gut microbiota perturbations. Read More

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February 2021

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in the Setting of Acute Clostridium difficile Colitis.

Cureus 2021 Feb 9;13(2):e13244. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Internal Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, USA.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS can be secondary to multiple etiologies such as infections, medications, and immune processes. A rare, yet significant, etiology of HUS includes acute colitis. Read More

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February 2021

Clostridium Difficile and COVID-19: Novel Risk Factors for Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis.

Case Rep Vasc Med 2021 27;2021:8832638. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global health care crisis. COVID-19 patients are found to have increased thrombotic risk. Despite being on prophylactic anticoagulation, many develop serious arterial and venous thromboembolic events. Read More

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February 2021

Circumferential esophageal perforation resulting in tension hydropneumothorax in a patient with septic shock.

Acute Crit Care 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Esophageal perforations occur traumatically or spontaneously and are typically associated with high mortality rates. Early recognition and prompt management are essential. We present the case of a 76-year-old man who was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis, shock, and multi-organ failure. Read More

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The cytotoxic effect of Clostridioides difficile pore-forming toxin CDTb.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jun 6;1863(6):183603. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.

Clostridioides (C.) difficile is clinically highly relevant and produces several AB-type protein toxins, which are the causative agents for C. difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Read More

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New ribotype from ST11 group revealed higher pathogenic ability than RT078.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):687-699

Center of Tree Shrew Germplasm Resources, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Yunnan Innovation Team of Standardization and Application Research in Tree Shrew, Kunming, China.

is the predominant antibiotic-associated enteropathogen associated with diarrhoea or pseudomembranous colitis in patients worldwide. Previously, we identified RT078 isolates (CD21062) from elderly patients in China, including two new ribotype strains (CD10010 and CD12038) belonging to the ST11 group, and their genomic features were also investigated. This study compared sporulation, spore germination, toxin expression, flagellar characteristics, and adhesion among these strains in vitro and analysed their pathogenic ability in vivo using animal models. Read More

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December 2021

Advances and required improvements in methods to diagnosing infections in the healthcare setting.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2021 Mar 21:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Director Division of Medical Microbiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, and health-care costs.: We searched relevant papers in PubMed for the last 10 years. In major papers, we scanned the bibliographies to ensure that important articles were included. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of Infliximab for steroid-resistant immune-related adverse events: A retrospective study.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 8;14(4):65. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Osaka 541-8567, Japan.

The present study investigated outcomes of infliximab (IFX) treatment among 8 Japanese patients with various types of cancer (4 with malignant melanoma, 3 with lung cancer and 1 with renal cancer) who developed severe steroid-resistant immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in association with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to determine its efficacy and safety. Information, including patient background, treatment progress, examination data and imaging data, was collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Adverse reactions were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. Read More

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Transgenic plants expressing a Clostridium difficile spore antigen as an approach to develop low-cost oral vaccines.

Biotechnol Prog 2021 Mar 5:e3141. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratorio de Biofarmacéuticos Recombinantes, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Gastrointestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile lead to significant impact in terms of morbidity and mortality, causing from mild symptoms, such as a low-grade fever, watery stools, and minor abdominal cramping as well as more severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea, pseudomembrane colitis, and toxic megacolon. Vaccination is a viable approach to fight against C. difficile and several efforts in this direction are ongoing. Read More

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In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Storage at -20°C and Proximal Gastrointestinal Conditions on Viability of Equine Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 03 18;98:103360. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA; Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), a technique used to restore normal intestinal microbial communities, has been successful in treating humans with Clostridioides difficile colitis. Subsequently, FMT is being used in veterinary patients with suspected intestinal dysbiosis. Unfortunately, little data are available regarding best practices for FMT in horses. Read More

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[Fecal microbiome change in patients with ulcerative colitis after fecal microbiota transplantation].

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Mar;24(2):168-175

Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук, Новосибирск, Россия.

Intestinal human microbiota is a dynamic system that is under the pressures of its host organism and external factors. Microbiota disruption caused by these factors can lead to severe diseases including inflammatory and oncological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. One of the possible approaches in managing the intestinal microbiota is fecal microbiota transplantation (FT) - transfer of the microbiota from the stool of a healthy donor to the intestinal tract of a recipient patient. Read More

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Diagnosis and management of Clostridioides difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) may complicate the course of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The clinical presentation of CDI in this population is often atypical, and patients may experience exacerbations of their underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) secondary to C. difficile. Read More

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Loss of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Signaling Promotes IL-22-Dependent Host Defenses against Acute Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 16;89(5). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Infection with the bacterial pathogen causes severe damage to the intestinal epithelium that elicits a robust inflammatory response. Markers of intestinal inflammation accurately predict clinical disease, however, the extent to which host-derived proinflammatory mediators drive pathogenesis versus promote host protective mechanisms remains elusive. In this report, we employed mice as a model of spontaneous colitis to examine the impact of constitutive intestinal immune activation, independent of infection, on disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Rate and consequences of missed Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection diagnosis from nonreporting of Clostridioides difficile results of the multiplex GI PCR panel: experience from two-hospitals.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12;100(2):115346. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Pathology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: It is common among microbiology laboratories to blind the Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) BioFire FilmArray GI Panel result in fear of overdiagnosis.

Methods: We examined the rate of missed community-onset C. Read More

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Clostridioides difficile on dairy farms and potential risk to dairy farm workers.

Anaerobe 2021 Feb 25;69:102353. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, USA.

Clostridioides difficile causes severe colitis in people and is a significant enteric pathogen in many species of animals, including swine, horses, and potentially cattle. C. difficile is shed in feces, and transmission occurs horizontally via the fecal-oral route. Read More

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February 2021

Determining the optimal surgical timing of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis by using four objective factors and computed tomography findings: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Mar 9;80:105633. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of General Surgery, Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 281 Miyazato, Uruma-city, Okinawa, 9042293, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Clostridium difficile colitis is increasingly seen in everyday clinical situations, and most cases are treated with antibiotics. Fulminant C. difficile colitis (FCDC) is rare; however, it is extremely virulent, and understanding its appropriate surgical treatment is critical. Read More

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A Simple Emergency Department-Based Score Predicts Complex Hospitalization in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Division of Gastroenterology, NYU Langone Health, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at NYU Langone Health, 240 East 38th Street, 23rd Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background And Aims: Thirty percent of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients hospitalized with flare require salvage therapy or surgery. Additionally, 40% experience length of stay (LOS) > 7 days. No emergency department (ED)-based indices exist to predict these adverse outcomes at admission for IBD flare. Read More

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February 2021