3,174 results match your criteria Clostridium Difficile Colitis

On the potential significance of the intrinsically disordered regions in the Clostridiodes difficile toxins A and B.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Background: Clostridiodes (or Clostridium) difficile is a spore-forming, Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium which may cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. During the C. difficile infection (CDI), the two primary bacterial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) or toxin B (TcdB), disrupt host cell function mainly through the inactivation of small GTPases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Read More

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How to Improve Health with Biological Agents-Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2022 Apr 20;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Antibiotics and Microbiology, National Medicines Institute, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw, Poland.

The proper functioning of the human organism is dependent on a number of factors. The health condition of the organism can be often enhanced through appropriate supplementation, as well as the application of certain biological agents. Probiotics, i. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Gastroenterology, Zigong First People's Hospital.

Objectives: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the outcomes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (C) among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched for studies that reported efficacy and/or safety of FMT therapy for recurrent CDI among IBD. We used the meta-prop command of the meta package in R to assess the efficacy and safety. Read More

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Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in domestic animals: A short review.

Anaerobe 2022 Apr 25;75:102574. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627. Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP, 31270-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Despite the known importance of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in animals, there are no published guidelines for the diagnosis of CDI. The performance of the available commercial methods, all standardized for human stool samples, can vary according to the animal species. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the literature on the detection of C. Read More

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Novel structural insights for a pair of monoclonal antibodies recognizing non-overlapping epitopes of the glucosyltransferase domain of toxin B.

Curr Res Struct Biol 2022 7;4:96-105. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Sanofi Pasteur, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

toxins are the primary causative agents for hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting different domains of toxin have been reported. Here we report the crystal structures of two mAbs, B1 and B2, in complex with the glycosyltransferase domain (GTD) of the toxin B (TcdB). Read More

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Bowel Preparation for Elective Hartmann Operation: Analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Use of pre-operative bowel preparation in colorectal resection has not been examined solely in patients who have had colorectal resection with primary colostomy (Hartmann procedure). We aimed to evaluate the association of bowel preparations with short-term outcomes after non-emergent Hartmann procedure. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File colectomy database was queried for patients who had elective open or laparoscopic Hartmann operation. Read More

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Clostridium difficile infection after ileostomy closure and anastomotic failure in rectal cancer surgery patients.

BJS Open 2022 Mar;6(2)

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Diverting ileostomy during resection of rectal cancer is frequently performed in patients at risk of anastomotic failure. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is reported to be frequent in patients who receive ileostomy closure with a questionable association to postoperative anastomosis leak. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CDI following ileostomy closure in patients who underwent rectal cancer surgery; the secondary aim was to assess the rate of postileostomy closure CDI in patients who presented with leakage at the original colorectal anastomosis site. Read More

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SEASON GAP score: A predictor of Clostridioides difficile infection among patients with tube feeding.

J Infect Chemother 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Luke's International Hospital: 9-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-8560, Japan.

Introduction: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is an important community- and hospital-acquired infection. Patients receiving tube feeding often have diarrhoea, and it is still unclear whether the traditional criteria for submitting samples for Clostridioides difficile (CD) testing as determined by the frequency of the diarrhoea apply to these patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study comparing the clinical features of tube-fed inpatients with suspected CDI, with CDI, and those without CDI admitted between 2004 and 2020. Read More

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Outcomes of Continuous Enteral Vancomycin Infusion in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Novel Treatment Modality for Severe Clostridium Difficile Colitis.

Cureus 2022 Mar 5;14(3):e22872. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Pulmonary & Critical Care, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

Background and objective Severe infection (CDI)-related colitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend oral vancomycin plus intravenous metronidazole as the first-line treatment and early total colectomy in case of medication failure. In critically ill patients at high surgical risk and with multiple comorbidities, loop ileostomy creation and enteral vancomycin infusion have been employed albeit with limited success. Read More

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Targeting Clostridioides difficile: New uses for old drugs.

Drug Discov Today 2022 Apr 4. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

College of Pharmaceutical Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Clostridioides difficile bacteria can cause life-threatening diarrhea and colitis owing to limited treatment options and unacceptably high recurrence rates among infected patients. This necessitates the development of alternative routes for C. difficile treatment. Read More

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Regulatory transcription factors of pathogenesis with a focus on toxin regulation.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 7:1-16. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

(CD), a nosocomial gut pathogen, produces two major exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, which disrupt the gut epithelial barrier and induce inflammatory/immune responses, leading to symptoms ranging from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis and potentially to death. The expression of toxins is regulated by various transcription factors (TFs) which are induced in response to CD physiological life stages, nutritional availability, and host environment. This review summarises our current understanding on the regulation of toxin expression by TFs that interconnect with pathways of flagellar synthesis, quorum sensing, motility, biofilm formation, sporulation, and phase variation. Read More

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Polymicrobial bacteraemia with and in an elderly man following antibiotic use.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 6;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

is a micro-organism well known to cause pseudomembranous colitis with rare extraintestinal manifestations. We present the case of an elderly male with multiple comorbidities who presented with acute onset of fever/chills and hypotension, found to have polymicrobial bacteraemia with and He was treated with piperacillin/tazobactam for bacteraemia, oral vancomycin for colitis and intravenous, followed by oral metronidazole for bacteraemia. cleared after 1 day, and cleared after 4 days. Read More

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Robotic pyelolithotomy in a solitary pelvic kidney complicated with fulminant Clostridium difficile: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Mar 25;16(1):126. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Division of Urology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.

Background: Robotic-assisted surgeries have gradually become the standard of care for many procedures, especially in the field of urology. Despite the widespread use of robotic assistance in surgeries, data on its postoperative complications are extremely limited. We detail a rare presentation of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis requiring surgical intervention in a patient with a solitary ectopic pelvic kidney who underwent a robotic-assisted pyelolithotomy. Read More

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The Essential Role of Rac1 Glucosylation in Toxin B-Induced Arrest of G1-S Transition.

Front Microbiol 2022 7;13:846215. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Institute for Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

infection (CDI) in humans causes pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), which is a severe pathology characterized by a loss of epithelial barrier function and massive colonic inflammation. PMC has been attributed to the action of two large protein toxins, Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB). TcdA and TcdB mono-O-glucosylate and thereby inactivate a broad spectrum of Rho GTPases and (in the case of TcdA) also some Ras GTPases. Read More

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Gastrointestinal microbiome and : Eradicate, leave it as it is, or take a personalized benefit-risk approach?

World J Gastroenterol 2022 Feb;28(7):766-774

Non-Infectious Disease Metabolomics Group, Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg 197376, Russia.

() is generally regarded as a human pathogen and a class 1 carcinogen, etiologically related to gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, can also be regarded as a commensal symbiont. Unlike other pathogenic/ opportunistic bacteria, colonization in infancy is facilitated by T helper type 2 immunity and leads to the development of immune tolerance. Read More

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February 2022

Detection of bacterial co-infections and prediction of fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department using a 29 mRNA host response classifier.

medRxiv 2022 Mar 17. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Objective: Clinicians in the emergency department (ED) face challenges in concurrently assessing patients with suspected COVID-19 infection, detecting bacterial co-infection, and determining illness severity since current practices require separate workflows. Here we explore the accuracy of the IMX-BVN-3/IMX-SEV-3 29 mRNA host response classifiers in simultaneously detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection, bacterial co-infections, and predicting clinical severity of COVID-19.

Methods: 161 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (52. Read More

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Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy Raising Concern for Myocardial Ischemia.

Cureus 2022 Feb 10;14(2):e22091. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Cardiology, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, USA.

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), or Takotsubo syndrome, is considered a reversible dysfunction of the left ventricle that may mimic an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients may present with chest pain, dyspnea, syncope, or other serious complications including cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias, and thrombus formation. Diagnostic criteria for SIC include several factors, including electrocardiogram changes, cardiac biomarker elevations, ventricular regional wall abnormalities on echocardiogram, and absence of occlusive coronary disease on coronary angiography. Read More

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February 2022

Clostridioides difficile: Current overview and future perspectives.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2022 7;129:215-245. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Toxins Group, National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, United Kingdom.

The most common world-wide cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and colitis is the toxin producing bacterium, Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile). Here we review the background and characteristics of the bacterium and the toxins produced together with the epidemiology and the complex pathogenesis that leads to a broad clinical spectrum of disease. Read More

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A Case of Pseudomembranous Colitis of Unknown Etiology.

Cureus 2022 Feb 4;14(2):e21914. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Internal Medicine, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Pseudomembranous colitis (PC) is a nonspecific bowel injury resulting from decreased oxygenation, endothelial damage, and impaired blood flow to the mucosa. Although the most well-known cause of PC is , several diseases and medications can cause or predispose individuals to PC, such as microscopic colitis, infectious organisms, inflammatory conditions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and chemotherapy agents. Here, we present the case of a patient who completed treatment for infection but developed worsening PC of unknown etiology. Read More

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February 2022

Acute Responses to Infectious and Inflammatory Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2022 Mar;33(1):85-98

Eleanor R. Fitzpatrick is Clinical Nurse Specialist, Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 111 S 11th Street, 4141 Gibbon Building, Philadelphia, PA 19107

Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal system are life-threatening and occur frequently in hospitalized adults. Inflammatory and inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract seen in the acutely and critically ill have numerous causes. In acute pancreatitis and toxic infections caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile, where severe infections can develop, inflammation plays a causative and crucial role. Read More

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A Case Report and Review of the Literature: Reactive Arthritis Caused by .

Front Microbiol 2022 16;13:837422. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Virology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

With an annual incidence of 250-300 per 100,000 inhabitants, reactive arthritis is not uncommon. However, the fact that infection (CDI) can also lead to this complication is largely unknown. We report on a 69-years-old man who developed reactive arthritis of his right knee joint one week after antibiotic-associated diarrhea with evidence of of the hypervirulent ribotype 027. Read More

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February 2022

Antibiotic Stewardship and Inpatient Clostridioides difficile Testing in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: The Need for Multilevel Checks and Balances.

Transplant Proc 2022 Mar 3. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

and Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Background: Diarrhea among recipients of solid organ transplants is a commonly encountered problem and is often multifactorial in etiology. Owing to the combination of perioperative antibiotic administration and the immunosuppressed status of transplant recipients, a high degree of suspicion for Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) colitis is prudent. Read More

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Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis for Critical Asthma.

Pediatrics 2022 04;149(4)

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.

Background: Children hospitalized for critical asthma (CA) in the pediatric ICU (PICU) are commonly prescribed stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) to mitigate risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We sought to describe trends for SUP prescribing and explore for differences in rates of GI bleeding, gastritis, and SUP-related complications for those with and without SUP exposure.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter cohort study using the Pediatric Hospital Information System registry among 42 children's hospitals from 2010 to 2019 including children 3 to 17 years of age admitted to the PICU for CA. Read More

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Delayed Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Colitis in a 48-Year-Old Woman with a Homozygous Mutation of the UGT1A1 Gene While on Chemotherapy for Colorectal Carcinoma.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Feb 28;23:e934361. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department 9, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania.

BACKGROUND There are many causes of chronic colitis and diarrhea, including the effects of chemotherapy. Mutations in the UGT1A1 gene can be associated with increased toxicity from irinotecan-based chemotherapy. This report is of a case of delayed diagnosis of Clostridium difficile (C. Read More

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February 2022

Clostridial Diseases of Horses: A Review.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Feb 17;10(2). Epub 2022 Feb 17.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, San Bernardino Lab, University of California-Davis, San Bwernardino, CA 92408, USA.

The clostridial diseases of horses can be divided into three major groups: enteric/enterotoxic, histotoxic, and neurotoxic. The main enteric/enterotoxic diseases include those produced by type C and , both of which are characterized by enterocolitis. The main histotoxic diseases are gas gangrene, Tyzzer disease, and infectious necrotic hepatitis. Read More

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February 2022

Clostridioides Difficile Enteritis: Case Report and Literature Review.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Feb 6;11(2). Epub 2022 Feb 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Background: is a well-known pathogen causing diarrhea of various degrees of severity through associated infectious colitis. However, there have been reports of infectious enteritis mainly in patients with ileostomy, causing dehydration through high-output volume; Case presentation: We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient, malnourished, who presented with high-output ileostomy following a recent hospitalization where he had suffered an ileo-colic resection with ileal and transverse colon double ostomy, for stricturing Crohn's disease. toxin A was identified in the ileal output confirming the diagnosis of acute enteritis. Read More

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February 2022

High rate of Clostridioides difficile colonization in patients admitted to intensive care: A prospective cohort study.

Anaerobe 2022 Apr 21;74:102538. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Medical Science Post-Graduation Program, Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, Porto Alegre, RS, 90035003, Brazil; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Infectious Diseases Service, Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, Porto Alegre, RS, 90035903, Brazil. Electronic address:

Here, we evaluated the frequency of C. difficile colonization and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care units in Brazil. From ninety-two patients screened 16 (17. Read More

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Transfer of FRozen Encapsulated multi-donor Stool filtrate for active ulcerative Colitis (FRESCO): study protocol for a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Trials 2022 Feb 22;23(1):173. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Internal Medicine IV, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the precise cause remains unknown, disturbances in the intestinal microbial community have been linked to its pathogenesis. Randomized controlled trials in UC and relapsing Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) have established fecal microbiota (FM) transfer (FMT) as an effective therapy. Read More

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February 2022

Flagellum and toxin phase variation impacts intestinal colonization and disease development in a mouse model of infection.

Gut Microbes 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2038854

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

is a major nosocomial pathogen that can cause severe, toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent work has shown that exhibits heterogeneity in swimming motility and toxin production through phase variation by site-specific DNA recombination. The recombinase RecV reversibly inverts the flagellar switch sequence upstream of the operon, leading to the ON/OFF expression of flagellum and toxin genes. Read More

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Quantifying risk factors for microscopic colitis: A nationwide, retrospective cohort study.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2022 Apr 21;41(2):181-189. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, OH, 44109, USA.

Background: Microscopic colitis (MC) is associated with several risk factors; however, their relative risk has been variable and not thoroughly evaluated. We aimed to quantify the risk of medical comorbidities and medications associated with MC and treatment offered to these patients.

Methods: A population-based retrospective analysis in International Business Machines (IBM) Explorys (1999-2018), a pooled, de-identified database of 63 million patients in the USA, was performed. Read More

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