1,340 results match your criteria Clostridial Gas Gangrene


Animal-related factors predicting fatal cases of blackleg and gas gangrene in cattle.

Vet Rec 2021 Jun 9:e558. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Unit of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Blackleg and gas gangrene are acute clostridial infections primarily affecting cattle. The objectives of this study were to identify (i) animal-related factors influencing the occurrence and (ii) prognostic pathological findings supporting the differentiation of fatal blackleg and gas gangrene cases in the cattle population from 1998 to 2018 in Styria, Austria.

Methods: Two binomial logistic models were applied to analyse the research questions. Read More

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Large Clostridial Toxins: Mechanisms and Roles in Disease.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2021 Jun 2:e0006421. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Molecular Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Large clostridial toxins (LCTs) are a family of bacterial exotoxins that infiltrate and destroy target cells. Members of the LCT family include Clostridioides difficile toxins TcdA and TcdB, Paeniclostridium sordellii toxins TcsL and TcsH, Clostridium novyi toxin TcnA, and Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL. Since the 19th century, LCT-secreting bacteria have been isolated from the blood, organs, and wounds of diseased individuals, and LCTs have been implicated as the primary virulence factors in a variety of infections, including C. Read More

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Gas Gangrene Following Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer of a 34-Year-Old Patient - a Case Report.

Acta Chir Plast 2021 ;63(1):18-22

Gas gangrene is a rare and potentially fatal surgical complication, most often associated with contaminated traumatic wounds or more rarely following cases of abdominal surgery. The following article describes a case of gas gangrene in the right lower limb of a 34-year-old patient following an elective posterior tibial tendon transfer. The surgery was performed in bloodless fashion, utilizing a surgical tourniquet. Read More

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Rapidly progressive and fatal distant spontaneous gas gangrene due to after biopsy of malignant cecal mass.

IDCases 2021 22;24:e01129. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

University of California, San Francisco, 155 N Fresno St, Suite 307, Fresno, CA, 93701, United States.

species are known to cause myonecrosis and gas gangrene which are often fatal infections in the setting of trauma but also spontaneously in certain populations such as colorectal malignancy, immunosuppression, and neutropenia. We report a case of an 83-year-old male who developed fatal and rapidly progressive gas gangrene due to within 48 h after biopsy of suspected malignant cecal mass. To our knowledge, such a drastic, rapid and fatal presentation after a diagnostic biopsy of malignant mass has not been previously reported and is something to be watchful for in suspected colon cancer cases. Read More

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Vaccination against pathogenic clostridia in animals: a review.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 23;53(2):284. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Anaerobic Vaccine Research and Production, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Shahid Beheshti Blvd., P.O. Box: 31975/148, Hesarak, Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran.

Clostridium is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, and spore-forming bacterium, which is found in the surrounding environments throughout the world. Clostridium species cause botulism, tetanus, enterotoxaemia, gas gangrene, necrotic enteritis, pseudomembranous colitis, blackleg, and black disease. Clostridium infection causes severe economic losses in livestock and poultry industries. Read More

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Epinephrine Auto-Injection After Allergic Reaction Leading to Gas Gangrene of the Leg.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Apr 21;22:e930889. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Mercy Health - St. Elizabeth Youngstown Hospital, Youngstown, OH, USA.

BACKGROUND Clostridial myonecrosis, also known as gas gangrene, is a highly lethal necrotizing soft tissue infection. While commonly associated with trauma, clostridial myonecrosis may be the result of parenteral injection of medications. Epinephrine is the most commonly reported medication leading to gas gangrene. Read More

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Pathogenicity and virulence of .

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):723-753

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

is an extremely versatile pathogen of humans and livestock, causing wound infections like gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), enteritis/enterocolitis (including one of the most common human food-borne illnesses), and enterotoxemia (where toxins produced in the intestine are absorbed and damage distant organs such as the brain). The virulence of this Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobe is largely attributable to its copious toxin production; the diverse actions and roles in infection of these toxins are now becoming established. Most toxin genes are encoded on conjugative plasmids, including the pCW3-like and the recently discovered pCP13-like plasmid families. Read More

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December 2021

Extensive clostridial myonecrosis after gluteal intramuscular injection in immunocompromised patient treated with surgical debridement and negative-pressure wound therapy.

Trauma Case Rep 2021 Apr 18;32:100469. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Health Studies, University of Zadar, Croatia.

Gas gangrene is infectious disease caused by infection. We are presenting extremely rare case of gluteal clostridial myonecrosis after intramuscular injection of diclofenac in immunocompromised young patient on a long-standing corticosteroid therapy presented with sepsis and initially absent clinical signs of severe anaerobic infection. After delayed diagnosis, she was treated with aggressive surgical removal of necrosed tissue and targeted antibiotic therapy which led to a rapid improvement allowing application of a negative-pressure wound therapy device with favorable outcome. Read More

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Clostridial abdominal wall gas gangrene secondary to sigmoid cancer perforation.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of General Surgery, The University of Tunis El Manar, Ben Arous, Tunisia.

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Spontaneus gas gangrene due to Clostridium septicum in a neutropenic patient.

Med Clin (Barc) 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria, España.

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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Protects Against Infection in Mice.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 8;11:633440. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Japan.

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to protect against Gram-negative bacteria by acting as a pathogen recognition receptor that senses mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. However, the role of TLR4 in Gram-positive bacterial infection is less well understood. type A is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes gas gangrene characterized by severe myonecrosis. Read More

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Essential oil combinations against Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum - the causative agents of gas gangrene.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Aims: The inhibitory and bactericidal effect of a wide range of essential oils, and their selected combinations against two pathogens (Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum), the causative pathogens of gas gangrenous infections were investigated. Fractional inhibitory indices were also calculated to determine the interactions.

Methods And Results: The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays were used to determine the efficacy of the essential oils. Read More

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February 2021

Spontaneous emphysematous splenitis: Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in three Golden Retriever dogs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 May 16;62(3):309-315. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Diagnostic Imaging Department, Pride Veterinary Centre, Derby, UK.

Spontaneous emphysematous splenitis is a life-threatening condition reported rarely in humans; however, published reports in dogs are currently lacking. The aim of this multicentric, retrospective, case series design study was to describe radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging findings in Golden Retriever dogs diagnosed with spontaneous emphysematous splenitis. A total of three dogs were sampled. Read More

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Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2021 Mar 7;35(1):135-155. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90074, USA; R M Alden Research Laboratory, 2021 Santa Monica Boulevard, Suite #740 East, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA.

Necrotizing soft tissue infections occur after traumatic injuries, minor skin lesions, nonpenetrating injuries, natural childbirth, and in postsurgical and immunocompromised patients. Infections can be severe, rapidly progressive, and life threatening. Survivors often endure multiple surgeries and prolonged hospitalization and rehabilitation. Read More

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Gas gangrene-associated gliding motility is regulated by the Clostridium perfringens CpAL/VirSR system.

Anaerobe 2020 Dec 29;66:102287. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridium perfringens strains cause a wide variety of human and animal disease, including gas gangrene or myonecrosis. Production of toxins required for myonecrosis, PFO and CPA, is regulated by the C. perfringens Agr-like (CpAL) system via the VirSR two-component system. Read More

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December 2020

Intratumoral Injection of -NT Spores in Patients with Treatment-refractory Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jan 12;27(1):96-106. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

BioMed Valley Discoveries Inc., Kansas City, Missouri.

Purpose: Intratumorally injected -NT (nontoxic; lacking the alpha toxin), an attenuated strain of , replicates within hypoxic tumor regions resulting in tumor-confined cell lysis and inflammatory response in animals, which warrants clinical investigation.

Patients And Methods: This first-in-human study (NCT01924689) enrolled patients with injectable, treatment-refractory solid tumors to receive a single intratumoral injection of -NT across 6 dose cohorts (1 × 10 to 3 × 10 spores, 3+3 dose-escalation design) to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and the maximum tolerated dose.

Results: Among 24 patients, a single intratumoral injection of -NT led to bacterial spores germination and the resultant lysis of injected tumor masses in 10 patients (42%) across all doses. Read More

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January 2021

Clostridial Gas Gangrene - A Rare but Deadly Infection: Case series and Comparison to Other Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections.

Orthop Surg 2020 Dec 4;12(6):1733-1747. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Trauma, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Objective: Clostridial gas gangrene (GG) or clostridial myonecrosis is a very rare but life-threatening necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) caused by anaerobic, spore-forming, and gas-producing clostridium subspecies. It is the most rapidly spreading and lethal infection in humans, also affecting muscle tissue. The high mortality, of up to 100%, in clostridial GG is mediated by potent bacterial exotoxins. Read More

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December 2020

In silico analysis of a chimeric fusion protein as a new vaccine candidate against type A and alpha toxins.

Comp Clin Path 2020 Jul 14:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Anaerobic Bacterial Vaccines Production, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

In silico analysis is the most important approach to understand protein structure and functions, and the most important problem for designing and producing a fusion construct is producing large amounts of functional protein. type A and produce alpha () and alpha toxins respectively. can cause gas gangrene and gastrointestinal diseases. Read More

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Clostridium perfringens α-toxin specifically induces endothelial cell death by promoting ceramide-mediated apoptosis.

Anaerobe 2020 Oct 20;65:102262. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 770-8514, Japan. Electronic address:

Clostridium perfringens type A-induced gas gangrene is characterized by severe myonecrosis, and α-toxin has been revealed to be a major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that CD31 endothelial cell counts decrease in muscles infected with C. Read More

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October 2020

Verbascoside Protects Mice From Clostridial Gas Gangrene by Inhibiting the Activity of Alpha Toxin and Perfringolysin O.

Front Microbiol 2020 14;11:1504. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Gas gangrene, caused mainly by the anaerobic bacterium (), causes death within 48 h of onset. Limited therapeutic strategies are available, and it is associated with extremely high mortality. Both alpha toxin (CPA) and perfringolysin O (PFO) are important virulence factors in the development of gas gangrene, suggesting that they are therapeutic targets. Read More

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Diabetes-associated Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Foot.

Intern Med 2020 11 14;59(21):2805-2806. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of General Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Japan.

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November 2020

A Middle-Aged Woman With Hematochezia, Hypotension, and Leg Cramps.

Chest 2020 07 2;158(1):e21-e24. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, University of CT Health Center, Farmington, CT. Electronic address:

Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman with a history of mantle cell lymphoma presented to the ED with complaints of vomiting, bleeding per rectum, and leg cramps, that started 6 h prior to her arrival. She had received chemotherapy a week prior. Her leg cramps were not associated with pain or swelling of the legs; she also denied any trauma to the legs. Read More

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A rare cause of pneumoperitoneum due to clostridium perfringens in a cirrhotic patient.

Acta Chir Belg 2020 Jul 1:1-3. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.

Abdominal gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens is a rare differential diagnosis to pneumoperitoneum caused by bowel perforation. There are only a handful of case reports on this topic. We present the case of a 58 year old cirrhotic patient who represented to our ER after complicated surgery for retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Read More

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The Agr-Like Quorum-Sensing System Is Important for Type A Strain ATCC 3624 To Cause Gas Gangrene in a Mouse Model.

mSphere 2020 06 17;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, San Bernardino, California, USA

type A is involved in gas gangrene in humans and animals. Following a traumatic injury, rapid bacterial proliferation and exotoxin production result in severe myonecrosis. alpha toxin (CPA) and perfringolysin (PFO) are the main virulence factors responsible for the disease. Read More

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Non-traumatic gas gangrene due to Clostridium sporogenes.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 06;20(6):754

Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

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A case report of iatrogenic gas gangrene post colonoscopy successfully treated with conservative management- is surgery always necessary?

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 May 27;20(1):163. Epub 2020 May 27.

The Mater Hospital, Townsville, Australia.

Background: Colonoscopy is a routine procedure in diagnosis and treatment of colonic disease. While generally regarded as a safe procedure, potentially fatal complications can occur. Gas gangrene is one such complication, with very high mortality. Read More

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in Gas Gangrene: Still a Smoked Gun!

J Transl Int Med 2020 03 9;8(1):54-56. Epub 2020 May 9.

Intensive care Departement, Brugmann University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

Gas gangrene (GG) remains a life-threatening and deadly disease. Early recognition together with daily surgical debridement remains the mainstay of therapy. We sought to describe a fatal case of necrotizing soft tissue infection, which was a gas gagrene in this case. Read More

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Distant myonecrosis by atraumatic infection in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.

IDCases 2020 5;20:e00784. Epub 2020 May 5.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus known to cause myonecrosis, also known as gas gangrene, a life-threatening necrotizing soft tissue infection. Though it accounts for just 1 % of all infections attributable to spp., is a highly virulent and aggressive pathogen. Read More

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Amentoflavone Attenuates Gas Gangrene by Targeting Alpha-Toxin and Perfringolysin O.

Front Pharmacol 2020 28;11:179. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Cadre's Ward, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

() type A strains are the main cause of gas gangrene in humans and animals. Treatment of this lethal disease is limited, and the prognosis is not good. Alpha-toxin (CPA) and perfringolysin O (PFO) secreted by play irreplaceable roles in cytotoxicity to host cells, persistence in host tissues, and lethality of gas gangrene pathology. Read More

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February 2020

Antibiotic resistance, genome analysis and further safe traits of Clostridium perfringens ICVB082; a strain capable of producing an inhibitory compound directed only against a closely related pathogenic strain.

Anaerobe 2020 Apr 15;62:102177. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Université Lille, INRA, ISA, Université d'Artois, Université Littoral Côte d'Opale, EA 7394-ICV Institut Charles Viollette, F-59000, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Eleven strains of clostridia were isolated from chickens suffering from necrotic enteritis (NE) disease, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as C. perfringens (Clin1, ICVB079, ICVB080, ICVB081, ICVB082, ICVB083, ICVB085, ICVB088, ICVB089, ICVB090), C. sporogenes (ICVB086) and C. Read More

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