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    2798 results match your criteria Clinical and Vaccine Immunology[Journal]

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    The Legacy of CVI.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Director, Basic Sciences Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (retired, 2012).
    Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (CVI) will be merged with the ASM open-access journal mSphere in January 2018. We commemorate this transition by exploring the history of CVI and its predecessor Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology (CDLI) and by acknowledging their contributors. Research on vaccine, clinical immunology, and clinical diagnostic immunology published through mSphere will be available to an ever larger audience and facilitate progress in field. Read More

    Protein Structure Facilitates High-resolution Immunological Mapping.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226
    Select Agents (SA) pose unique challenges towards licensing vaccines and therapies. In the case of toxin-mediated diseases, Health and Human Services assign guidelines for SA use, oversee vaccine and therapy development, and approve animal models and approaches to identify mechanism(s) for toxin neutralization. In this commentary, we discuss next generation vaccines and therapies against ricin toxin and botulinum toxin, SA-regulated toxins, which utilize structure-based approaches for counter measures to guide rapid response to future biothreats. Read More

    Stable chromosomal expression of Shigella flexneri 2a and 3a O-antigens in the live Salmonella oral vaccine vector Ty21a.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Laboratory of Mucosal Pathogens and Cellular Immunology, Microscopy and Imaging Core Facility, U.S. FDA-Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.
    We have been exploring the use of the live, attenuated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine strain as a versatile oral vaccine vector for the expression and delivery of multiple foreign antigens, including Shigella O-antigens. In this study, we separately cloned genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the S. flexneri serotype 2a and 3a O-antigens, which have been shown previously to provide broad cross-protection to multiple, disease-predominant S. Read More

    Progress Toward Development of a Vaccine Against Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Pediatrics Duke University Medical School, Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Pediatrics University of Pennsylvania, Vaxconsult.
    A vaccine against congenital human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. Congenital CMV causes substantial long-term morbidity in newborns, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and the public health impact of this infection on maternal and child health is under-recognized. Although progress toward development of a vaccine has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protective immunity for the fetus, knowledge about some of the key components of the maternal immune response necessary for preventing trans-placental transmission is accumulating. Read More

    High-Definition Mapping of Four Spatially Distinct Neutralizing Epitope Clusters on RiVax, a Candidate Ricin Toxin Subunit Vaccine.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, 12208
    RiVax is a promising recombinant ricin toxin A subunit (RTA) vaccine antigen that has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in humans and effective at protecting Rhesus macaques against lethal dose aerosolized toxin exposure. We previously used a panel of RTA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to demonstrate, by competition ELISA, that RiVax elicits similar serum antibody profiles in both humans and macaques. However, the actual mAb binding sites on RiVax have yet to be defined. Read More

    A novel yeast-based therapeutic vaccine for tuberculosis: GI-19007.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    As yet, very few vaccine candidates with activity in animals against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have been tested as therapeutic "post-exposure" vaccines. We recently described two pools of mycobacterial proteins with this activity and here we describe further studies in which four of these proteins (Rv1738, Rv2032, Rv3130, and Rv3841) were generated as a fusion polypeptide, and then delivered in a novel yeast-based platform ("Tarmogen®") which itself has immunostimulatory properties including activation of Toll-like receptors. This platform can deliver antigens into both the Class-I and Class-II antigen presentation pathways, and stimulate strong TH1 and TH17 responses. Read More

    Kinetics, longevity and cross-reactivity of anti-neuraminidase antibody after natural infection with influenza A viruses.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    The kinetics, longevity and breadth of antibodies to influenza neuraminidase (NA) in archival, sequential serum/plasma samples from influenza A virus (IAV) H5N1 survivors, and from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) virus were determined using an enzyme linked lectin based assay. The reverse genetics-derived H4N1 viruses harboring an hemagglutinin (HA) segment from A/duck/Shan Tou/461/2000 (H4N9) and an NA segment derived from either IAV H5N1 clade 1, IAV H5N1 clade 2.3. Read More

    A single intramuscular dose of a plant-made virus-like-particle vaccine elicits a balanced humoral and cellular response and protects young and aged mice from influenza H1N1 challenge despite a modest/absent humoral response.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Background: Virus-like-particle (VLP) influenza vaccines can be given intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) and may have advantages over split-virion formulations in the elderly. We tested a plant-made VLP vaccine candidate bearing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) delivered either IM or IN in young and aged mice. Methods: Young adult (5-8 weeks) and aged (16-20 months) female BALB/c mice received a single 3μg dose based on HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (IM or IN), split-virion vaccine (IM) or left naïve. Read More

    Development of a High-Throughput Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fluorescent Foci-Based Microneutralization Assay.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Translational Medicine, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD.
    Neutralizing antibodies specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a major protective mechanism against RSV infection as demonstrated by the efficacy of the immune-prophylactic monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, in preventing RSV associated lower respiratory tract infections in premature infants. Accordingly, the RSV neutralization assay has become a key functional method to assess the neutralizing activity of serum antibodies in pre-clinical animal models, epidemiology studies and clinical trials. In this study, we qualified a 24-hour, RSV A green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescent foci assay-based microneutralization (RSVA FFA-MN) method that requires no medium exchange or pre or post-infection processing to detect GFP-expressing RSV-A2 infected cells using a high-content imaging system for automated image acquisition and foci enumeration. Read More

    Recent Approaches to Optimize Laboratory Assessment of Antinuclear Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine and ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a hallmark feature of a number of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD) and testing is usually performed as part of the initial diagnostic workup when suspicion of an underlying autoimmune disorder is high. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique is the preferred method for detecting ANA as it demonstrates binding to specific intracellular structures within the cells resulting in a number of staining patterns that are usually categorized based on the cellular components recognized and the degree of binding reflected by the fluorescent intensity or titer. As a screening tool, the ANA patterns can further guide confirmatory testing useful in unravelling a specific clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Read More

    High-Resolution Epitope Positioning of a Large Collection of Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Single Domain Antibodies on Ricin Toxin's Enzymatic and Binding Subunits.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208
    We previously produced a heavy chain-only antibody VH domain (VHH)-displayed phage library from two alpacas that had been immunized with ricin toxoid and non-toxic mixtures of ricin's enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits (Vance et al J. Biol. Chem. Read More

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase 2 trial comparing the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a single ≥2x10(8) colony forming units [cfu] standard-dose versus a ≥2x10(9) cfu high-dose of CVD 103-HgR live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, with Shanchol inactivated oral vaccine as an open label immunologic comparator.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Centre pour le Développement des Vaccins, Bamako, Mali, Center for Vaccine Development and Institute for Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, U.S.A.
    Reactive immunization with a single-dose cholera vaccine that could rapidly (within days) protect immunologically-naïve individuals during "virgin soil" epidemics would facilitate cholera control. One dose of attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™) containing ≥2x10(8) colony forming units (cfu) induces vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (correlate of protection) in >90% of U.S. Read More

    Identification of novel antigens recognized by serum antibodies in bovine tuberculosis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA.
    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis remains an important zoonotic disease posing a serious threat to livestock and wildlife. The current TB tests relying on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cattle have performance limitations. To identify new serodiagnostic markers of bovine TB, we screened a panel of 101 recombinant proteins, including 10 polyepitope fusions, by multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) with well-characterized serum samples serially collected from cattle with experimental or naturally acquired M. Read More

    Development of an extended specificity multiplex immunoassay for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-specific antigen in urine using human monoclonal antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Respiratory and Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Reference Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.
    Current pneumococcal vaccines cover the most common 10 to 23 serotypes of the 92 presently described. However, with the increased usage of pneumococcal serotype-based vaccines the risk of serotype-replacement and an increase in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes remains. Serotype surveillance of pneumococcal infection relies heavily on culture techniques, which are known to be insensitive, particularly in non-invasive disease. Read More

    Development and qualification of an opsonophagocytic killing assay to assess immunogenicity of a bioconjugated Escherichia coli vaccine.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., Bacterial Vaccines Discovery & Early Development, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    The global burden of disease caused by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is increasing as the prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains rises. A multivalent ExPEC O-antigen bioconjugate vaccine could have a substantial impact in preventing bacteremia and urinary tract infections. Development of an ExPEC vaccine requires a readout to assess the functionality of antibodies. Read More

    DNA Priming Increases Frequency of T-Cell Responses to a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus HIV Vaccine with Specific Enhancement of CD8(+) T-Cell Responses by Interleukin-12 Plasmid DNA.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 087 vaccine trial assessed the effect of increasing doses of pIL-12 (interleukin-12 delivered as plasmid DNA) adjuvant on the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 multiantigen (MAG) DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation and boosted with a vaccine comprising an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus expressing HIV-1 Gag (VSV-Gag). We randomized 100 healthy adults to receive placebo or 3 mg HIV-MAG DNA vaccine (ProfectusVax HIV-1 gag/pol or ProfectusVax nef/tat/vif, env) coadministered with pIL-12 at 0, 250, 1,000, or 1,500 μg intramuscularly by electroporation at 0, 1, and 3 months followed by intramuscular inoculation with 3.4 × 10(7) PFU VSV-Gag vaccine at 6 months. Read More

    The Use of Reverse Vaccinology in the Design and Construction of Nano-glycoconjugate Vaccines against Burkholderia pseudomallei.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Institute for Translational Sciences; Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. Read More

    Heat Shock Proteins in Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally upregulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Read More

    Merozoite Surface Protein 1 from Plasmodium falciparum Is a Major Target of Opsonizing Antibodies in Individuals with Acquired Immunity against Malaria.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Naturally acquired immunity against malaria is largely mediated by serum antibodies controlling levels of blood-stage parasites. A limited understanding of the antigenic targets and functional mechanisms of protective antibodies has hampered the development of efficient malaria vaccines. Besides directly inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium parasites, antibodies can opsonize merozoites and recruit immune effector cells such as monocytes and neutrophils. Read More

    Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated Induces Edema Toxin-Neutralizing, Edema Factor-Specific Antibodies in Human Recipients.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
    Edema toxin (ET), composed of edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA), is a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis that alters host immune cell function and contributes to anthrax disease. Anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) contains low but detectable levels of EF and can elicit EF-specific antibodies in human recipients of AVP. Active and passive vaccination of mice with EF can contribute to protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis spores or ET. Read More

    Protective Vaccine Efficacy of the Complete Form of PPE39 Protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing/K Strain in Mice.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 Plus Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of MTBK_24820, a complete form of PPE39 protein derived from a predominant Beijing/K strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea. Mice were immunized with MTKB_24820, M. bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), or adjuvant prior to a high-dosed Beijing/K strain aerosol infection. Read More

    Chlamydia trachomatis: the Persistent Pathogen.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is humans. Although presenting as asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. C. Read More

    Mother-Newborn Pairs in Malawi Have Similar Antibody Repertoires to Diverse Malaria Antigens.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Division of Malaria Research, Institute for Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse, and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Read More

    Combined Action of Human Commensal Bacteria and Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles on the Viability and Immune Responses of Dendritic Cells.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the host-microbe balance in the gut and skin, tissues likely exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) present in drugs, food, and cosmetics. We analyzed the viability and the activation of DCs incubated with extracellular media (EMs) obtained from cultures of commensal bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis) or pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) in the presence of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). EMs and NPs synergistically increased the levels of cytotoxicity and cytokine production, with different nanoparticle dose-response characteristics being found, depending on the bacterial species. Read More

    Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits a Mucosal Antibody Response in the Reproductive Tract of Persistently Infected Stallions.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. Read More

    Impact of Poxvirus Vector Priming, Protein Coadministration, and Vaccine Intervals on HIV gp120 Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Magnitude and Function in Infant Macaques.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Center for AIDS Research, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV envelope (Env) protein only, (ii) poxvirus vector (modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA])-HIV Env prime and HIV Env boost, and (iii) coadministration of HIV Env and MVA-HIV Env at all time points. Read More

    Effect of vaccine-elicited antibodies on colonization of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and C strains in a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
    Capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines protect individuals from invasive disease and decrease carriage, which reduces spread of the organism in the population. In contrast, antibodies elicited by plain polysaccharide or protein antigen-based meningococcal (Men) vaccines have little or no effect on decreasing carriage. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which vaccine-induced human IgG antibodies affect colonization by serogroup B (MenB) or C (MenC) strains using a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model (16HBE14o-). Read More

    Immunogenicity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protective Ability in the Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, and Pediatric Research Institute, Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. Read More

    A Combination of Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strains Expressing Pneumococcal Proteins Induces Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses and Protects against Pneumococcal Colonization and Sepsis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Oct 5;24(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
    Pneumococcal diseases remain a substantial cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. The development of potentially serotype-transcending vaccines has been extensively studied; ideally, such a vaccine should include antigens that are able to induce protection against colonization (likely mediated by interleukin-17A [IL-17A]) and invasive disease (likely mediated by antibody). The use of strong adjuvants or alternative delivery systems that are able to improve the immunological response of recombinant proteins has been proposed but poses potential safety and practical concerns in children. Read More

    An N-terminal Pfs230 domain produced in baculovirus as a biological active transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), 455 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20001-2621, USA.
    Transmission-blocking vaccines have the potential to accelerate malaria parasite elimination by inducing antibodies that block parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Pfs230, a gametocyte surface protein involved in gamete function, has long been a promising candidate. Due to the large size (3,135 amino acids), complex domains, and repeating six-cysteine (6-Cys) motifs with a multitude of disulfide bonds, the feasibility of expression of a full-length protein has been difficult. Read More

    Assignment of weight-based antibody units for four additional serotypes to a human anti-pneumococcal standard reference serum 007sp.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Pfizer Vaccine Research and Development, USA.
    The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Read More

    Rubella Surveillance and Diagnostic Testing among a Low-Prevalence Population, New York City, 2012-2013.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Bureau of Immunization, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, New York, USA.
    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) receives clinical and laboratory reports for rubella. Because rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays may produce false-positive results and rubella infections may be asymptomatic, interpretation of positive IgM results can be challenging. Rubella reports received by DOHMH in 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. Read More

    The Cross-Species Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition Assay (MGIA) Project, 2010-2014.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    The development of a functional biomarker assay in the tuberculosis (TB) field would be widely recognized as a major advance in efforts to develop and to test novel TB vaccine candidates efficiently. We present preliminary studies using mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) to detect Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine responses across species, and we extend this work to determine whether a standardized MGIA can be applied in characterizing new TB vaccines. The comparative MGIA studies reviewed here aimed to evaluate robustness, reproducibility, and ability to reflect in vivo responses. Read More

    Dose Selection for an Adjuvanted Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Protein Vaccine for Older Adults Based on Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
    This is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing RSV fusion protein (sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) in a squalene-based 2% stable emulsion (GLA-SE). In this randomized, double-blind study, 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a vaccine containing 120 μg sF with escalating doses of GLA (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in SE, or a vaccine containing 80 μg sF with 2. Read More

    A Cation-binding Surface Protein as a Vaccine Antigen to Prevent Moraxella catarrhalis Otitis Media and Infections in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Structural Biology, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York.
    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen. Read More

    Identification of an Atypical Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Japan by Using a Novel Classification of Bovine Leukemia Based on Immunophenotypic Analysis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Bovine leukemia is classified into two types: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL). EBL is caused by infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which induces persistent lymphocytosis and B-cell lymphoma in cattle after a long latent period. Although it has been demonstrated that BLV-associated lymphoma occurs predominantly in adult cattle of >3 to 5 years, suspicious cases of EBL onset in juvenile cattle were recently reported in Japan. Read More

    The Pneumococcal Serotype 15C Capsule Is Partially O-Acetylated and Allows for Limited Evasion of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-Elicited Anti-Serotype 15B Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), carries the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ The coding sequence of wciZ contains eight consecutive TA repeats [(TA)8]. Read More

    Conjugation of PspA4Pro with Capsular Streptococcus pneumoniae Polysaccharide Serotype 14 Does Not Reduce the Induction of Cross-Reactive Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Laboratório Especial de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
    Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens, plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data show an increasing incidence of infections caused by nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae The use of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help prevent serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes. Read More

    Bioactive Immune Components of Anti-Diarrheagenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum Products.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). At this time, there are no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Read More

    Protein Malnutrition Alters Tryptophan and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Homeostasis and Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Rotavirus-Infected Gnotobiotic Pigs with Human Infant Fecal Microbiota Transplant.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine Department, Food Animal Health Research Program (FAHRP), The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA
    Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets and infected with virulent human rotavirus (HRV). Read More

    Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC Nonstructural Proteins Induced by Infecting Pigs with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs. The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. Read More

    Cytokines Are Markers of the Clostridium difficile-Induced Inflammatory Response and Predict Disease Severity.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    The host immune response affects pathogen virulence in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thus, cytokine responses to CDI likely are associated with disease initiation and progression. Understanding the molecular drivers of inflammation and biochemical markers of disease severity is important for developing novel therapies and predicting disease prognosis. Read More

    Longitudinal IP-10 Serum Levels Are Associated with the Course of Disease Activity and Remission in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, persistent autoimmune disease, 10 to 15% of RA patients achieve sustained disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-free remission over time. The biological mechanisms underlying the resolution of persistent inflammation in RA are still unidentified, and there is a lack of prognostic markers. It is well established that increased serum levels of gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) are associated with (acute) increased inflammatory responses (e. Read More

    Maternal Humoral Immune Correlates of Peripartum Transmission of Clade C HIV-1 in the Setting of Peripartum Antiretrovirals.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Despite the widespread use of antiretrovirals (ARV), more than 150,000 pediatric HIV-1 infections continue to occur annually. Supplemental strategies are necessary to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. We previously reported that maternal HIV envelope-specific anti-V3 IgG and CD4 binding site-directed antibodies, as well as tier 1 virus neutralization, predicted a reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in the pre-ARV era U. Read More

    Breadth and Duration of Meningococcal Serum Bactericidal Activity in Health Care Workers and Microbiologists Immunized with the MenB-FHbp Vaccine.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland, Oakland, California, USA
    MenB-FHbp is a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with two factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigens from subfamilies A and B. For licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses to four reference strains. Only limited information is available on the breadth or duration of protective SBA responses to genetically diverse disease-causing strains. Read More

    Antibody-Based Correlates of Protection Against Cholera Analysis of a Challenge Study in a Cholera-Naïve Population.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    PaxVax, Inc., Redwood City, CA.
    Immunologic correlates of protection can be used to infer vaccine efficacy for populations in which challenge trials or field studies are infeasible. In a recent cholera challenge trial (WH Cohen et al, Clinical Infectious Disease 62: 1329-1335, 2016), 134 North American cholera-naïve volunteers were randomized to receive either the live, attenuated single-dose cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR or placebo, and titers of vibriocidal antibodies against classical Inaba were assessed 10 days after treatment. Subsequent to the immunologic evaluation, each subject ingested a fixed quantity of virulent V. Read More

    Loss of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella during Current or Convalescent Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Malawian Children.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi
    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the humoral and cellular immunity of the host to NTS, which increases the susceptibility of the host to iNTS infection. Read More

    Not All Antigens Are Created Equally: Progress, Challenges, and Lessons Associated with Developing a Vaccine for Leishmaniasis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. Read More

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