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    2781 results match your criteria Clinical and Vaccine Immunology[Journal]

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    DNA priming increases frequency of T-cell responses to a VSV HIV vaccine with specific enhancement of CD8(+) T-cell responses by IL-12 pDNA.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    HVTN 087 assessed the effect of increasing doses of pIL-12 adjuvant on the immunogenicity of a HIV-1 multi-antigen (MAG) DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation and boosted with an attenuated VSV-Gag vaccine. We randomized 100 healthy adults to receive placebo, or 3mg HIV-MAG (gag/pol, env, nef/tat/vif) DNA vaccine co-administered with pIL-12 at 0μg, 250μg, 1,000μg or 1,500μg intramuscularly by electroporation at 0, 1 and 3 months followed by intramuscular inoculation with 3.4×10(7) PFU VSV-Gag vaccine at 6 months. Read More

    The Use of Reverse Vaccinology in the Design and Construction of Nano-glycoconjugate Vaccines against Burkholderia pseudomallei.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Institute for Translational Sciences; Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. Read More

    Heat Shock Proteins in Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides: a minireview.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 USA
    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally up-regulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Read More

    Merozoite surface protein-1 from P. falciparum is a major target of opsonizing antibodies in individuals with acquired immunity against malaria.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Center for Molecular Biology of University of Heidelberg (ZMBH), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Naturally acquired immunity against malaria is largely mediated by serum antibodies controlling levels of blood stage parasites. A limited understanding of the antigenic targets and functional mechanisms of protective antibodies has hampered so far the development of efficient malaria vaccines. Besides directly inhibiting growth of Plasmodium parasites, antibodies can opsonize merozoites and recruit immune effector cells such as monocytes or neutrophils. Read More

    Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated induces Edema Toxin-neutralizing, Edema Factor-specific antibodies in human recipients.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF), Oklahoma City, OK, USA
    Edema Toxin (ET), composed of Edema Factor (EF) and Protective Antigen (PA), is a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis that alters host immune cell function and contributes to anthrax disease. Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated (AVP) contains low but detectable EF and can elicit EF-specific antibodies in human recipients of AVP. Active and passive vaccination of mice with EF can contribute to protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis spores or ET. Read More

    Protective vaccine efficacy of the complete form of PPE39 protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing/K strain in mice.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 Plus Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of MTBK_24820, a complete form of PPE39 protein derived from a predominant Beijing/K strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea. Mice were immunized with MTKB_24820, M. bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin, or adjuvant prior to a high-dosed Beijing/K strain aerosol infection. Read More

    Chlamydia trachomatis: The persistent pathogen.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.
    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium whose only natural host is man. Although asymptomatic in most women, genital tract chlamydial infections are a leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. C. Read More

    Mother-newborn pairs in Malawi have similar antibody repertoire to diverse malaria antigens.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Division of Malaria Research, Institute for Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Background: Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Read More

    Combined action of human commensal bacteria and amorphous silica nanoparticles on the viability and immune responses of dendritic cells.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Biomedical Science, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the host-microbe balance in gut and skin, tissues likely exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) present in drugs, food and cosmetics. We analysed the viability and the activation of DCs incubated with extracellular media (EMs) obtained from cultures of commensal (E. coli, S. Read More

    Equine arteritis virus elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract of persistently infected stallions.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. Read More

    The Impact of Poxvirus Vector Priming, Protein Co-Administration, and Vaccine Intervals on HIV gp120 Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Magnitude and Function in Infant Macaques.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Center for AIDS Research, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points. Read More

    Effect of vaccine-elicited antibodies on colonization of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and C strains in a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
    Capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines protect individuals from invasive disease and decrease carriage, which reduces spread of the organism in the population. In contrast, antibodies elicited by plain polysaccharide or protein antigen-based meningococcal (Men) vaccines have little or no effect on decreasing carriage. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which vaccine-induced human IgG antibodies affect colonization by serogroup B (MenB) or C (MenC) strains using a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model (16HBE14o-). Read More

    Immunogenicity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protective Ability in the Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University School of Medicine; and the Pediatric Research Institute, Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, Saint Louis, Missouri 63104
    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. Read More

    A combination of recombinant BCG expressing pneumococcal proteins induces cellular and humoral immune responses and protects against pneumococcal colonization and sepsis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Instituto Butantan, Brazil
    Pneumococcal diseases remain a substantial cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. The development of potentially serotype-transcending vaccines has been extensively studied; ideally such a vaccine should include antigens that are able to induce protection against colonization (likely mediated by IL-17A) and protection against invasive disease (likely mediated by antibody). The use of strong adjuvants or alternative delivery systems that are able to improve the immunological response of recombinant proteins has been proposed, but poses potential safety and practical concerns in children. Read More

    An N-terminal Pfs230 domain produced in baculovirus as a biological active transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), 455 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20001-2621, USA.
    Transmission-blocking vaccines have the potential to accelerate malaria parasite elimination by inducing antibodies that block parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Pfs230, a gametocyte surface protein involved in gamete function, has long been a promising candidate. Due to the large size (3,135 amino acids), complex domains, and repeating six-cysteine (6-Cys) motifs with a multitude of disulfide bonds, the feasibility of expression of a full-length protein has been difficult. Read More

    Assignment of weight-based antibody units for four additional serotypes to a human anti-pneumococcal standard reference serum 007sp.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Pfizer Vaccine Research and Development, USA.
    The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Read More

    Rubella Surveillance and Diagnostic Testing among a Low-Prevalence Population, New York City, 2012-2013.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Bureau of Immunization, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, New York, USA.
    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) receives clinical and laboratory reports for rubella. Because rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays may produce false-positive results and rubella infections may be asymptomatic, interpretation of positive IgM results can be challenging. Rubella reports received by DOHMH in 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. Read More

    The Cross-Species Mycobacterial Growth Inhibition Assay (MGIA) Project, 2010-2014.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    The development of a functional biomarker assay in the tuberculosis (TB) field would be widely recognized as a major advance in efforts to develop and to test novel TB vaccine candidates efficiently. We present preliminary studies using mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) to detect Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine responses across species, and we extend this work to determine whether a standardized MGIA can be applied in characterizing new TB vaccines. The comparative MGIA studies reviewed here aimed to evaluate robustness, reproducibility, and ability to reflect in vivo responses. Read More

    Dose Selection for an Adjuvanted Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Protein Vaccine for Older Adults Based on Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
    This is the second phase 1 study of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing RSV fusion protein (sF) adjuvanted with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) in a squalene-based 2% stable emulsion (GLA-SE). In this randomized, double-blind study, 261 subjects aged ≥60 years received inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a vaccine containing 120 μg sF with escalating doses of GLA (1, 2.5, or 5 μg) in SE, or a vaccine containing 80 μg sF with 2. Read More

    A Cation-binding Surface Protein as a Vaccine Antigen to Prevent Moraxella catarrhalis Otitis Media and Infections in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Structural Biology, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York.
    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen. Read More

    Identification of an Atypical Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Japan by Using a Novel Classification of Bovine Leukemia Based on Immunophenotypic Analysis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 5;24(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Bovine leukemia is classified into two types: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL). EBL is caused by infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which induces persistent lymphocytosis and B-cell lymphoma in cattle after a long latent period. Although it has been demonstrated that BLV-associated lymphoma occurs predominantly in adult cattle of >3 to 5 years, suspicious cases of EBL onset in juvenile cattle were recently reported in Japan. Read More

    The Pneumococcal Serotype 15C Capsule Is Partially O-Acetylated and Allows for Limited Evasion of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-Elicited Anti-Serotype 15B Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), carries the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ The coding sequence of wciZ contains eight consecutive TA repeats [(TA)8]. Read More

    Conjugation of PspA4Pro with Capsular Streptococcus pneumoniae Polysaccharide Serotype 14 Does Not Reduce the Induction of Cross-Reactive Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Laboratório Especial de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
    Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens, plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data show an increasing incidence of infections caused by nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae The use of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help prevent serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes. Read More

    Bioactive Immune Components of Anti-Diarrheagenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum Products.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). At this time, there are no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Read More

    Protein Malnutrition Alters Tryptophan and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Homeostasis and Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Rotavirus-Infected Gnotobiotic Pigs with Human Infant Fecal Microbiota Transplant.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine Department, Food Animal Health Research Program (FAHRP), The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA
    Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets and infected with virulent human rotavirus (HRV). Read More

    Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC Nonstructural Proteins Induced by Infecting Pigs with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China
    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs. The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. Read More

    Cytokines Are Markers of the Clostridium difficile-Induced Inflammatory Response and Predict Disease Severity.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    The host immune response affects pathogen virulence in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Thus, cytokine responses to CDI likely are associated with disease initiation and progression. Understanding the molecular drivers of inflammation and biochemical markers of disease severity is important for developing novel therapies and predicting disease prognosis. Read More

    Longitudinal IP-10 Serum Levels Are Associated with the Course of Disease Activity and Remission in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, persistent autoimmune disease, 10 to 15% of RA patients achieve sustained disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-free remission over time. The biological mechanisms underlying the resolution of persistent inflammation in RA are still unidentified, and there is a lack of prognostic markers. It is well established that increased serum levels of gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) are associated with (acute) increased inflammatory responses (e. Read More

    Maternal Humoral Immune Correlates of Peripartum Transmission of Clade C HIV-1 in the Setting of Peripartum Antiretrovirals.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Despite the widespread use of antiretrovirals (ARV), more than 150,000 pediatric HIV-1 infections continue to occur annually. Supplemental strategies are necessary to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. We previously reported that maternal HIV envelope-specific anti-V3 IgG and CD4 binding site-directed antibodies, as well as tier 1 virus neutralization, predicted a reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in the pre-ARV era U. Read More

    Breadth and Duration of Meningococcal Serum Bactericidal Activity in Health Care Workers and Microbiologists Immunized with the MenB-FHbp Vaccine.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Aug 4;24(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland, Oakland, California, USA
    MenB-FHbp is a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with two factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigens from subfamilies A and B. For licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses to four reference strains. Only limited information is available on the breadth or duration of protective SBA responses to genetically diverse disease-causing strains. Read More

    Antibody-Based Correlates of Protection Against Cholera Analysis of a Challenge Study in a Cholera-Naïve Population.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    PaxVax, Inc., Redwood City, CA.
    Immunologic correlates of protection can be used to infer vaccine efficacy for populations in which challenge trials or field studies are infeasible. In a recent cholera challenge trial (WH Cohen et al, Clinical Infectious Disease 62: 1329-1335, 2016), 134 North American cholera-naïve volunteers were randomized to receive either the live, attenuated single-dose cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR or placebo, and titers of vibriocidal antibodies against classical Inaba were assessed 10 days after treatment. Subsequent to the immunologic evaluation, each subject ingested a fixed quantity of virulent V. Read More

    Loss of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella during Current or Convalescent Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Malawian Children.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi
    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the humoral and cellular immunity of the host to NTS, which increases the susceptibility of the host to iNTS infection. Read More

    Not All Antigens Are Created Equally: Progress, Challenges, and Lessons Associated with Developing a Vaccine for Leishmaniasis.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. Read More

    Identification of Novel Seroreactive Antigens in Johne's Disease Cattle by Using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Array.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
    Johne's disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relationship between M. avium subsp. Read More

    Development of a Novel Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Platform That Mimics the Immature Form of Alphavirus.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    VLP Therapeutics, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are noninfectious multiprotein structures that are engineered to self-assemble from viral structural proteins. Here, we developed a novel VLP-based vaccine platform utilizing VLPs from the chikungunya virus. We identified two regions within the envelope protein, a structural component of chikungunya, where foreign antigens can be inserted without compromising VLP structure. Read More

    Waning Immunity and Microbial Vaccines-Workshop of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Since the middle of the 20th century, vaccines have made a significant public health impact by controlling infectious diseases globally. Although long-term protection has been achieved with some vaccines, immunity wanes over time with others, resulting in outbreaks or epidemics of infectious diseases. Long-term protection against infectious agents that have a complex life cycle and antigenic variation remains a key challenge. Read More


    Human Neutrophil Lipocalin in Activated Whole Blood Is a Specific and Rapid Diagnostic Biomarker of Bacterial Infections in the Respiratory Tract.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Infectious Disease, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The distinction between bacterial and viral causes of infections of the respiratory tract is a major but important clinical challenge. We investigated the diagnostic performance of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) in respiratory tract infections compared to those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Patients were recruited from the emergency department and from a primary care unit (n = 162). Read More

    Identification of Protective B-Cell Epitopes within the Novel Malaria Vaccine Candidate Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen 1.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 5;24(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum schizont egress antigen 1 (PfSEA-1A) are associated with protection against severe malaria in children. Vaccination of mice with SEA-1A from Plasmodium berghei (PbSEA-1A) decreases parasitemia and prolongs survival following P. berghei ANKA challenge. Read More

    Long-Term Persistence of Cell-Mediated and Humoral Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus Vaccines and the Role of the AS03 Adjuvant System in Adults during Two Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Center for Vaccinology, Ghent University and University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    We investigated the role of AS03A (here AS03), an α-tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system, on the long-term persistence of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines. In two studies, a total of 261 healthy adults (≤60 years old) were randomized to receive two doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg of hemagglutinin (HA) or nonadjuvanted vaccine containing 15 μg of hemagglutinin (in study A) or 3. Read More

    Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide Immunity in the Elderly.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Immunity to pneumococcal infections is impaired in older people, and current vaccines are poorly protective against pneumococcal disease in this population. Naturally acquired immunity to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides develops during childhood and is robust in young adults but deteriorates with advanced age. In particular, antibody levels and function are reduced in older people. Read More

    Parasitic Infections in Pregnancy Decrease Placental Transfer of Antipneumococcus Antibodies.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
    Many factors can influence maternal placental antibody transfer to the fetus, which confers important immune protection to the newborn infant. However, little is known about the effect of maternal parasitic infection on placental antibody transfer. To investigate this, we selected from a parent study of 576 pregnant Kenyan women four groups of women with term deliveries (≥37 weeks), including uninfected women (n = 30) and women with solo infections with malaria (n = 30), hookworm (n = 30), or schistosomiasis (n = 10). Read More

    Cytomegalovirus Virions Shed in Urine Have a Reversible Block to Epithelial Cell Entry and Are Highly Resistant to Antibody Neutralization.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes sensorineural hearing loss and developmental disabilities in newborns when infections are acquired in utero Pregnant women may acquire CMV from oral exposure to CMV in urine or saliva from young children. Neutralizing antibodies in maternal saliva have the potential to prevent maternal infection and, in turn, fetal infection. As CMV uses different viral glycoprotein complexes to enter different cell types, the first cells to be infected in the oral cavity could determine the type of antibodies needed to disrupt oral transmission. Read More

    An HIV Envelope gp120-Fc Fusion Protein Elicits Effector Antibody Responses in Rhesus Macaques.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Institute of Human Virology and Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    A goal for HIV prevention programs is to develop safe, effective vaccines that elicit durable and broadly protective antibodies. Many vaccine programs focus on the immune responses to critical epitopes in the gp120 portion of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and seek to improve the quality and quantity of antibodies by altering the sequence, conformation, oligomerization, or glycosylation of gp120 to activate appropriate germ line B cells and mimic the subsequent maturation pathways seen in infected individuals. As a complement to these strategies, we developed dimeric fusion protein immunogens consisting of HIVBaL gp120 monomer attached to a Gly/Ser linker that is, in turn, fused to one half of the dimeric Fc domain from rhesus macaque IgG1 (Env-rFc). Read More

    Early Detection of Circulating Antigen and IgM-Associated Immune Complexes during Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA.
    The presence of circulating antigen in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis was demonstrated using dual-path platform (DPP) technology. The antigen capture immunoassays employed rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing predominantly M. tuberculosis complex-specific epitopes and were able to detect soluble substances and whole cells of mycobacteria. Read More

    Decreased Vector Gene Expression from E2b Gene-Deleted Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccines Intensifies Proinflammatory Immune Responses.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are promising vaccine candidates due to their intrinsic immunogenicity and potent transgene expression; however, widespread preexisting Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, or conventional, E1 and E3 gene-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-]) vaccines. Even in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, recent murine and human studies have confirmed E2b gene-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-,E2b-]) vaccines to be highly efficacious inducers of transgene-specific memory responses and significantly less toxic options than Ad5[E1-] vaccines. While these findings have been substantially confirmed, the molecular mechanisms underlying the different reactions to these vaccine platforms are unknown. Read More

    Transcutaneous Immunization with a Band-Aid Prevents Experimental Otitis Media in a Polymicrobial Model.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 5;24(6). Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's and The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease, and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM, and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial coinfection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a band-aid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA), chimV4, and integration host factor. Read More

    Exploring Human Antimicrobial Antibody Responses on a Single B Cell Level.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 May 5;24(5). Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Analysis of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from single B cell cloning has been highly beneficial for antimicrobial immunotherapy, vaccine design, and advancing our understanding of pathogen-triggered effects on the human immunoglobulin repertoire. Sequencing of variable domains of single B cells, and characterization of binding and functional activities of MAbs derived from those sequences, provides in-depth insight not only into sites of susceptibility for antibody-mediated neutralization or opsonization of the pathogen but also into the dynamics of protective antibody evolution during infection. This information can be utilized to rapidly develop novel immunotherapies of completely human origin and provides a roadmap for structure-based vaccine design that aims to elicit similar protective antibody responses. Read More

    Recent Progress in the Prevention of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 May 5;24(5). Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    The widespread use of meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has highlighted the challenge of providing protection against serogroup B disease. Over a period of 4 decades, vaccine development has focused on subcapsular protein antigens, first with outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against epidemic outbreaks, and more recently on new multicomponent vaccines designed to offer better cross-protection against the antigenically diverse strains responsible for endemic disease. Because of the low incidence of meningococcal disease, the protective efficacy of these vaccines has not been determined in clinical studies, and their licensure has been based on serological data; however, the serological assays used to predict protective coverage have limitations. Read More

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