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    272 results match your criteria Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology [Journal]

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    Gut Microbiota-Based Therapies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 15;9(2):e134. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with changes in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is multifactorial and may relate to alterations in the gut microbiota, changes in visceral sensation and motility, and genetic and environmental factors. Administration of systemic antibiotics may increase the risk of IBS by altering gastrointestinal homeostasis. Read More

    Antibodies against glycoprotein 2 display diagnostic advantages over ASCA in distinguishing CD from intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behçet's disease.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 Feb 15;9(2):e133. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Key Laboratory of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.
    Objectives: There is an increasing need to identify reliable biomarkers for distinguishing Crohn's disease (CD) from other gastrointestinal disorders sharing similar clinical and pathological features. This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic potential of antibodies to zymogen granule glycoprotein GP2 (aGP2) in a large, well-defined Chinese cohort with a special focus on their role in discriminating CD from intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) and intestinal tubercolosis (ITB).

    Methods: A total of 577 subjects were prospectively enrolled, including 171 patients with CD, 208 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 71 with BD, 57 with ITB and 70 healthy controls (HC). Read More

    Genetic risk, dysbiosis, and treatment stratification using host genome and gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 Jan 18;9(1):e132. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are characterized by a complex pathophysiology that is thought to result from an aberrant immune response to a dysbiotic luminal microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. New technologies support the joint assessment of host-microbiome interaction.

    Methods: Using whole genome sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, we studied the clinical features, host genome, and stool microbial metagenome of 85 IBD patients, and compared the results to 146 control individuals. Read More

    Endoscopic Resection for Early-Stage Esophageal Cancer, Are We There for Squamous As Well?
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Dec 14;8(12):e130. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Superficial esophageal squamous cell cancer (SESCC) is often managed with esophagectomy with or without chemoradiotherapy. Esophagectomy has a significant complication rate and is not an option for many patients. In the current issue, a retrospective single center study evaluated 66 patients with SESCC. Read More

    Which Patients with Mild Acute Pancreatitis Require Prolonged Hospitalization?
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Dec 7;8(12):e129. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Presbyterian University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Objectives: In our experience, a subset of mild acute pancreatitis (AP) patients, as defined by the Revised Atlanta Classification, has longer than expected hospitalization. Our aims are to report the prevalence of patients with mild AP who have a prolonged length of stay (LOS), evaluate the etiology, thoroughly phenotype, and finally compare this subset to those with expected LOS.

    Methods: Patients admitted with AP from 2003 to 2015 were prospectively enrolled into this cohort study. Read More

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Adversely Impacts Colorectal Cancer Surgery Short-term Outcomes and Health-Care Resource Utilization.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Nov 30;8(11):e127. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to patients without IBD. There is a lack of population-based data evaluating the in-patient surgical outcomes of CRC in IBD patients. We sought to compare the hospital outcomes of CRC surgery between patients with and without IBD. Read More

    Blood-Based Protein Signatures for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Nov 30;8(11):e128. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Objectives: Blood-based proteins might be an attractive option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but individually they are unlikely to achieve the diagnostic performance required for population based screening. We aimed at summarizing current evidence of diagnostic performance of signatures based on multiple proteins for early detection of CRC.

    Methods: A systematic literature review adhering to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guidelines was performed. Read More

    Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Nov 2;8(11):e126. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Division of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Objectives: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. Read More

    Comparison of Impedance and Pepsin Detection in the Laryngeal Mucosa to Determine Impedance Values that Indicate Pathological Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 26;8(10):e123. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Objective: Recently, a 24-h impedance was used to detect laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). However, not every case of LPR is pathological. Thus, pathological pharyngeal impedance values need to be clearly established to diagnose pathological LPR. Read More

    Seven-Year Treatment Outcome of Entecavir in a Real-World Cohort: Effects on Clinical Parameters, HBsAg and HBcrAg Levels.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 26;8(10):e125. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Objectives: We aimed to determine the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA), HBsAg, and a novel viral marker (hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg)); hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and drug resistance rates after 7 years of entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.

    Methods: Two hundred and twenty-two Chinese CHB patients on continuous entecavir treatment were recruited. Serologic, virologic, biochemical outcomes, and the occurrence of entecavir signature mutations were determined. Read More

    Increased Frequency of KRAS Mutations in African Americans Compared with Caucasians in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 19;8(10):e124. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Objectives: The basis for over-representation of colorectal cancer (CRC) in African-American (AA) populations compared with Caucasians are multifactorial and complex. Understanding the mechanisms for this racial disparity is critical for delivery of better care. Several studies have investigated sporadic CRC for differences in somatic mutations between AAs and Caucasians, but owing to small study sizes and conflicting results to date, no definitive conclusions have been reached. Read More

    A New Preoperative Prognostic System Combining CRP and CA199 For Patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 5;8(10):e118. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Objectives: In this study, we aimed at investigating the preoperatively available prognostic factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) patients and proposing a new preoperative prognostic scoring system for ICC.

    Methods: A total of 246 consecutive ICC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy were enrolled retrospectively and were randomly divided into training (n=164) and validation cohorts (n=82) at a ratio of 2:1. The prognostic factors were investigated in both cohorts using multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression model. Read More

    Influence of GABA-B Agonist Baclofen on Capsaicin-Induced Excitation of Secondary Peristalsis in Humans.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 5;8(10):e120. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Medicine, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Objectives: Esophageal instillation of capsaicin enhances secondary peristalsis, but the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA-B) agonist baclofen inhibits secondary peristalsis. This study aimed to investigate whether baclofen could influence heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis subsequent to capsaicin infusion in healthy adults.

    Methods: Secondary peristalsis was performed by slow and rapid mid-esophagus air injections in 15 healthy subjects. Read More

    Improvement in Esophageal Distensibility in Response to Medical and Diet Therapy in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Oct 5;8(10):e119. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of medical and diet therapies on esophageal distensibility assessed using the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) and the association of changes in esophageal distensibility with clinical outcomes in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

    Methods: Patients with EoE were evaluated with FLIP during endoscopy at baseline and following therapy without interval dilatation. Evaluation also included a validated patient-reported outcome (PRO; a positive PRO was considered at a 30% score improvement), mucosal biopsies, and scoring of endoscopic features of EoE. Read More

    Transmembrane TNF-α Density, but not Soluble TNF-α Level, is Associated with Primary Response to Infliximab in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Sep 14;8(9):e117. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Objectives: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents like Infliximab (IFX) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and are widely used. However, a considerable number of patients do not respond or lose response to this therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests that transmembrane TNF-α (tmTNF-α) might be linked to response to IFX by promoting reverse signaling-induced apoptosis in inflammatory cells. Read More

    Endoscopic Drainage of >50% of Liver in Malignant Hilar Biliary Obstruction Using Metallic or Fenestrated Plastic Stents.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 31;8(8):e115. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Objectives: Endoscopic drainage of complex hilar tumors has generally resulted in poor outcomes. Drainage of >50% of liver volume has been proposed as optimal, but not evaluated using long multifenestrated plastic stents (MFPS) or self-expanding metal stents (SEMS). We evaluated outcomes of endoscopic drainage of malignant hilar strictures using optimal strategy and stents, and determined factors associated with stent patency, survival, and complications. Read More

    Epidemiology and Natural History of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in the Chinese: A Territory-Based Study in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2015.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 31;8(8):e116. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Objectives: Studies on the epidemiology of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in the Chinese population are lacking. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of PBC in Hong Kong (HK) with a population of 7.3 million. Read More

    Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 17;8(8):e114. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. Read More

    Impact of Fecal Hb Levels on Advanced Neoplasia Detection and the Diagnostic Miss Rate For Colorectal Cancer Screening in High-Risk vs. Average-Risk Subjects: a Multi-Center Study.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 10;8(8):e113. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, The Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Objectives: The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) scoring system was developed to identify high-risk subjects for advanced neoplasia. However, the appropriate fecal immunochemical test (FIT) cutoff for high-risk population may be different from that of average-risk population. We aimed to evaluate the FIT performance at different cutoffs in high-risk subjects undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Read More

    Pancreatic and Intestinal Function Post Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 3;8(8):e112. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectives: Despite the fact that the most effective treatment for morbid obesity today is gastric bypass surgery, some patients develop life-threatening nutritional complications associated with their weight loss.

    Methods: Here we examine the influence of the altered anatomy and digestive physiology on pancreatic secretion and fat absorption. Thirteen post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients who had lost >100 lbs in the first year following surgery and who gave variable histories of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, were selected for study. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Resection Followed by Chemoradiotherapy for Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 3;8(8):e110. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.
    Objectives: The reported 1- and 3-year overall survival rates after esophagectomy for stage I superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) are 95-97% and 86%, and those after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are 98% and 89%, respectively. This study was performed to elucidate the efficacy and safety of another treatment option for SESCC: endoscopic resection (ER) followed by CRT.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the overall survival, recurrence, and grade ≥3 adverse events of consecutive patients who refused esophagectomy and underwent ER followed by CRT for SESCC from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. Read More

    Selecting a Cut-off for Colorectal Cancer Screening With a Fecal Immunochemical Test.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Aug 3;8(8):e111. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Objectives: Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin (Hb) are increasingly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, cut-offs for defining test positivity are varying widely. We aimed to evaluate the impact of cut-off selection on key indicators of diagnostic performance in a true screening setting. Read More

    Primary Biliary Cholangitis Alters Functional Connections of the Brain's Deep Gray Matter.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jul 27;8(7):e107. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Seaman Family MR Research Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Objectives: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. Read More

    The Association of Low-Penetrance Variants in DNA Repair Genes with Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jul 27;8(7):e109. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Objectives: Approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is attributable to heritable factors known hereditary syndromes, accounting for 6%. The remainder may be due to lower penetrance polymorphisms particularly of DNA repair genes. DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), direct reversal repair (DRR), and double-strand break repair are complex, evolutionarily conserved, and critical in carcinogenesis. Read More

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Therapy Improves Patient and Caregiver-Reported Outcomes in Cirrhosis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jul 27;8(7):e108. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Objectives: Patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are impaired in cirrhosis due to under-treated mood and sleep disorders, which can adversely impact their caregivers. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can improve patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in non-cirrhotic patients but their impact in cirrhosis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of MBSR and supportive group therapy on mood, sleep and HRQOL in cirrhotic patients and their caregivers. Read More

    Fistulizing Crohn's Disease.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jul 13;8(7):e106. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fistulas still represent one of the most important complications in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). At least one third of CD patients suffer from fistulas during their disease course and amongst them longstanding remission of complex fistulas occurs only in about one third. So far, fistula pathogenesis is only partially understood. Read More

    A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glycyrrhizin Plus Tenofovir vs. Tenofovir in Chronic Hepatitis B with Severe Acute Exacerbation.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 29;8(6):e104. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Objectives: Severe acute exacerbation (SAE) of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may progress to liver failure with high potential mortality despite the prompt treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of CHB with SAE.

    Methods: Sixty patients with SAE of CHB were randomly treated with tenofovir plus intravenous glycyrrhizin (group A, n=30) or with tenofovir alone (group B, n=30). Read More

    Impaired Esophageal Motility and Clearance Post-Lung Transplant: Risk For Chronic Allograft Failure.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 29;8(6):e102. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
    Objectives: Gastroesophageal reflux is common in patients post-lung transplantation (LTx) and thus considered a risk factor for aspiration and consequently allograft rejection and the development of chronic allograft failure. However, evidence supporting this remains unclear and often contradictory. Our aim was to examine the role played by esophageal motility on gastroesophageal reflux exposure, along with its clearance and that of boluses swallowed, and the relationship to development of obstructive chronic lung allograft dysfunction (o-CLAD). Read More

    Prognostic Factors for Transplant-Free Survival and Validation of Prognostic Models in Chinese Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis Receiving Ursodeoxycholic Acid.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 22;8(6):e100. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Objectives: We aimed to validate the prognostic models for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in Chinese patients receiving ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA), and to compare their performances in predicting the long-term survival.

    Methods: Chinese patients with PBC from a tertiary center were identified via electronic search of hospital medical registry. Risk factors associated with adverse events (liver transplantation or death from liver-related causes including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver decompensation) were determined. Read More

    Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Score-Stratified Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening in Patients with Cirrhosis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 22;8(6):e101. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance with biannual ultrasound is currently recommended for all patients with cirrhosis. However, clinical implementation of this "one-size-fits-all" approach is challenging as evidenced by its low application rate. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of risk-stratified HCC surveillance strategies in patients with cirrhosis. Read More

    Diminishing Effectiveness of Long-Term Maintenance Topical Steroid Therapy in PPI Non-Responsive Eosinophilic Esophagitis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 15;8(6):e97. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Objectives: While topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), the data regarding long-term effectiveness are lacking. We aimed to determine long-term histologic and endoscopic outcomes of maintenance therapy in EoE steroid responders.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective study of adults with EoE at UNC Hospitals who had initial histologic response (<15 eos/hpf) after 8 weeks of topical steroids, and maintained on therapy. Read More

    Targeting the vasculature in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: Starving versus normalizing blood supply.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 15;8(6):e98. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Centenary Institute and AW Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Traditional treatments for intermediate or advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and anti-angiogenesis therapies were developed to starve tumor blood supply. A new approach of normalizing structurally and functionally abnormal tumor vasculature is emerging. While TACE improves survival in selected patients, the resulting tumor hypoxia stimulates proliferation, angiogenesis, treatment resistance and metastasis, which limits its overall efficacy. Read More

    Cathepsin L and B as Potential Markers for Liver Fibrosis: Insights From Patients and Experimental Models.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 15;8(6):e99. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Objectives: Cathepsin L (CTSL) and B (CTSB) have a crucial role in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and tissue remodeling, which is a prominent feature of fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role and clinical significance of these cathepsins in liver fibrosis.

    Methods: Hepatic histological CTSL and CTSB expression were assessed in experimental models of liver fibrosis, patients with liver cirrhosis, chronic viral hepatitis, and controls by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Establishment of a Quick and Highly Accurate Breath Test for ALDH2 Genotyping.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 8;8(6):e96. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Therapeutic Oncology, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Objectives: Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is a definite carcinogen for the esophagus, head, and neck; and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The ALDH2 genotype exists as ALDH2*1/*1 (active ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*2 (heterozygous inactive ALDH2), and ALDH2*2/*2 (homozygous inactive ALDH2). Many epidemiological studies have reported that ALDH2*2 carriers are at high risk for esophageal or head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by habitual drinking. Read More

    Endoscopic-Guided Measurement of Mucosal Admittance can Discriminate Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease from Functional Heartburn.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 1;8(6):e94. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Objectives: A novel catheter that can measure mucosal admittance (MA), the inverse of impedance, was developed recently. In this pilot study, we aimed to clarify the usefulness of measuring MA for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    Methods: We conducted two prospective studies. Read More

    How to Conduct and Interpret Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 May 18;8(5):e93. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
    Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses serve a key purpose in critically and objectively synthesizing all available evidence regarding a focused clinical question and can inform clinical practice and clinical guidelines. Performing a rigorous systematic review is multi-step process, which includes (a) identifying a well-defined focused clinically relevant question, (b) developing a detailed review protocol with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, (c) systematic literature search of multiple databases and unpublished data, in consultation with a medical librarian, (d) meticulous study identification and (e) systematic data abstraction, by at least two sets of investigators independently, (f) risk of bias assessment, and (g) thoughtful quantitative synthesis through meta-analysis where relevant. Besides informing guidelines, credible systematic reviews and quality of evidence assessment can help identify key knowledge gaps for future studies. Read More

    Advantages and Some Remaining Challenges in Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Panel Testing.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 May 11;8(5):e92. Epub 2017 May 11.
    University of Illinois Cancer Genetics Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Colorectal cancer affects 1 in 20 men and women in their lifetime. About 30% of these cases have been shown to be familial while only about 5% are associated with a highly penetrant hereditary colon cancer syndrome. In many familial cases, however, no mutation in the commonly implicated CRC genes is found. Read More

    Evaluation of PTGS2 Expression, PIK3CA Mutation, Aspirin Use and Colon Cancer Survival in a Population-Based Cohort Study.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 27;8(4):e91. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Cancer Epidemiology and Health Services Research Group, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Objectives: The association between aspirin use and improved survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis may be more pronounced in tumors that have PIK3CA mutations or high PTGS2 expression. However, the evidence of a difference in association by biomarker status lacks consistency. In this population-based colon cancer cohort study the interaction between these biomarkers, aspirin use, and survival was assessed. Read More

    Azathioprine Maintenance Therapy to Prevent Relapses in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 27;8(4):e90. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Pancreas Center, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Objectives: Steroids are used to induce remission in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Low-dosage steroid therapy or immunosuppressant (IMs) has been proposed as maintenance therapy to prevent AIP relapse. Few and conflicting data have been published on the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) in preventing AIP relapse. Read More

    Laser Capture Microdissection of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Identify Proteomic Alterations in a Murine Model of Caerulein-Induced Pancreatitis.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 13;8(4):e89. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Objectives: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas, leading to pain, parenchymal damage, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function. There are currently no curative therapies; diagnosis remains difficult and aspects of pathogenesis remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to identify novel biomarkers to improve diagnosis and understand pathophysiology. Read More

    Genetic Characterization and Influence on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Expression in a Diverse Hispanic South Florida Cohort.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 13;8(4):e87. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Objectives: Hispanics represent an understudied inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) population. Prior studies examining genetic predisposition to IBD in Hispanics are limited. In this study, we examined whether European-derived IBD variants confer risk in Hispanics and their influence on IBD phenotype in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Read More

    Endoscopy-Guided Evaluation of Duodenal Mucosal Permeability in Functional Dyspepsia.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 6;8(4):e83. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba-City, Japan.
    Objectives: The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD) is not fully understood. Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity characterized by increased mucosal permeability and/or low-grade inflammation was reported as potentially important etiologies. We aimed to determine the utility of a recently developed simple catheterization method to measure mucosal admittance (MA), the inverse of mucosal impedance, for evaluation of duodenal mucosal permeability in patients with FD. Read More

    Adventures in Developing an App for Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 6;8(4):e85. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are critical to understand the spectrum of disease in chronic conditions but are often ignored in clinical practice. Cirrhosis, one of the leading causes of morbidity, is associated with severely impaired PROs likely due to covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE). The clinical relevance and logistic barriers to routine CHE testing led us to develop the "EncephalApp Stroop App", which is now being used to diagnose CHE. Read More

    Diversity of Precursor Lesions For Pancreatic Cancer: The Genetics and Biology of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 6;8(4):e86. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, is associated with two main types of morphologically distinct precursors-pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Although the progression of PanIN into invasive cancer has been well characterized, there remains an urgent need to understand the biology of IPMNs, which are larger radiographically detectable cystic tumors. IPMNs comprise a number of subtypes with heterogeneous histopathologic and clinical features. Read More

    Development of a Simple Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Combination of Ultrasound Elastography, Serum Biomarkers, and Individual Characteristics.
    Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 6;8(4):e84. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Shenzhen Institute of Hepatology, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.
    Objectives: The accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is clinically important in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Blood tests and elastography are now widely used for the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The aim of this study was to develop a new and more accurate predictive model, which combines elastography data, serum biomarkers, and individual characteristics, to discriminate between CHB patients with and without significant liver fibrosis. Read More

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