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    197 results match your criteria Clinical and Molecular Allergy [Journal]

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    Regulation of IgE activity in inhalational tolerance via formation of IgG anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 18;16:13. Epub 2018 May 18.
    1Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 USA.
    Background: Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways that results from inappropriate production of IgE against harmless, environmental antigens. Sequestration of free IgE using humanized IgG anti-IgE is an effective therapy for asthma and other atopic disorders. However, the status of free IgE in subjects who have naturally developed immune tolerance to inhaled antigens has not been well studied. Read More

    Low incidence of pneumonia in COPD patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 16;16:12. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Rehabilitation and Functional Recovery, ASST Pini/CTO, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Based on meta-analyses results, it is currently acknowledged that there is an increased risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment. However, this is not found to be true in those with asthma. No data on this risk are available for COPD patients involved in pulmonary rehabilitation program (PR). Read More

    How to fit allergen immunotherapy in the elderly.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 6;15:17. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Allergy and Respiratory Diseases Clinic, DIMI, University of Genoa, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
    Asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis are very common in young people, but in the latest decades it was increasingly recognized that also individuals of higher ages, including the population over 65 years, are concerned. Actually, it is now acknowledged the aging does not considerably alter the immune response to allergens. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy, but elderly people are commonly excluded from AIT, except the cases of insect sting allergy. Read More

    Involvement of miR-126 in autoimmune disorders.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 2;16:11. Epub 2018 May 2.
    1School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Messina University Hospital, 98125 Messina, Italy.
    Background: Micro-RNA represent a great family of small non-condign ribonucleic acid molecules; in particular microRNA-126 is an important member of this family and is expressed in many human cells such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial and lung cells. Some studies have shown the implication of miR-126 in cancer, but recently significant progresses have also been made in determining the role of miR-126 regulating immune-related diseases; probably, in a near future, they could potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of miR-126 in autoimmune diseases, so as to offer innovative therapies. Read More

    Hymenoptera sting reactions in southern Italy forestry workers: our experience compared to reported data.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 17;16. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Hymenoptera sting reactions are among life-threatening causes of allergy. Several epidemiology studies have assessed the risk of these kind of reactions, among the general population, around 3% of adults. This incidence increases among highly at risk populations such as outdoor workers. Read More

    A case of atopic dermatitis caused by infection.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 10;16:10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    3School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Parasite infections stimulate total and specific IgE production that, in the case of infection, corresponds to chronic allergic symptoms. There may also be other infections which have similar symptoms, such as infection. is a large nematode that causes abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, anorexia and intermittent diarrhoea. Read More

    Role of genetic variations of - in bronchial asthmatic patients.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 2;16. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka, 0208505 Japan.
    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in - () are associated with bronchial severity and pulmonary function. CHI3L1 proteins are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses; however, to date, the correlation of these SNPs and their age of onset of bronchial asthma has not been demonstrated.

    Methods: To address the role of these genetic variations, 390 patients with well-controlled bronchial asthma and living in Japan were recruited, genotyped, and had a pulmonary function test performed on them in this study. Read More

    Importance of hypersensitivity in adverse reactions to drugs in the elderly.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 2;16. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    4Medicine and Surgery Department, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy.
    Background: The use of drugs in the elderly is very extensive because of the frequent occurrence of chronic diseases. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) commonly occur in geriatric patients receiving multiple therapeutic regimens. In the literature, little attention has been given to ADRs in the elderly, and particularly to allergic reactions. Read More

    Bench to bedside review of myositis autoantibodies.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 7;16. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Experimental and Clinical Medicine Department, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy.
    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases with systemic involvement. Even though numerous specific autoantibodies have been recognized, they have not been included, with the only exception of anti-Jo-1, into the 2017 Classification Criteria, thus perpetuating a clinical-serologic gap. The lack of homogeneous grouping based on the antibody profile deeply impacts the diagnostic approach, therapeutic choices and prognostic stratification of these patients. Read More

    A critical appraisal on AIT in childhood asthma.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 6;16. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    2Personalized Medicine, Asthma and Allergy Clinic, Humanitas University and Research Hospital, Via Alessandro Manzoni 113, Rozzano, MI Italy.
    Abstract: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment approved for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma and represents a suitable therapeutic option, especially in childhood, to modify the progression of respiratory allergic diseases. Starting from the previous "generic class effect" evaluation, as testified by the numerous meta analyses, AIT is now considered a product-specific pathogenic-oriented treatment.

    Background: AIT was empirically proposed more than one century ago in the subcutaneous form (SCIT), but the IgE-mediated mechanism of allergy was elucidated only after 50 years of clinical use of the treatment. Read More

    The control of allergic rhinitis in real life: a multicenter cross-sectional Italian study.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 2;16. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    8Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS San Martino-IST University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a high-prevalence disease. In Europe about 25% of the general population is affected, and in Italy the prevalence is estimated to be 19.8%. Read More

    Allergic sensitization to common pets (cats/dogs) according to different possible modalities of exposure: an Italian Multicenter Study.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 2;16. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    34Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Policlinico San Martino, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Background: The query "are there animals at home?" is usually administered for collecting information on anamnesis. This modality to consider exposure to pet allergens constitutes a potential bias in epidemiological studies and in clinical practice. The aim of our study was to evaluate/quantify different modalities of exposure to cat/dog in inducing allergic sensitization. Read More

    A 13-year real-life study on efficacy, safety and biological effects of venom immunotherapy.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 18;16. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    1School and Chair of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari-Aldo Moro, Piazza Giulio Cesare 13, Policlinico, 70124 Bari, Italy.
    Background: venom immunotherapy (VIT) is a clinically effective treatment. However, little is known about its long-term clinical efficacy and biological effects. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for VIT efficacy, including reduction of specific IgE and induction of allergen-specific IgG, but the overall picture remains elusive. Read More

    Biological clocks: their relevance to immune-allergic diseases.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2018 10;16. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    1Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze dell'invecchiamento, Università "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 5, 66013 Chieti, Italy.
    The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm. This regulates several activities, including sleep, feeding times, energy metabolism, endocrine and immune functions. Read More

    Amelioration of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in treatment with vitamin D supplement.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 22;15:22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Allergy Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Square, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Spontaneous urticaria is a common allergic skin condition affecting 0.5-1% of individuals and may burden on health care expenditure or may be associated with remarkable morbidity.

    Aim: In this study, we measured the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with a diagnosis of CSU. Read More

    Immunosenescence in aging: between immune cells depletion and cytokines up-regulation.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 14;15:21. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Dermatological Clinic, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Policlinico, Italy.
    Background: The immunosenescence is a relatively recent chapter, correlated with the linear extension of the average life began in the nineteenth century and still in progress. The most important feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation in the "immunological space" of memory and effector cells as a result of the stimulation caused by repeated clinical and subclinical infections and by continuous exposure to antigens (inhalant allergens, food, etc.). Read More

    Tiotropium in asthma: back to the future of anticholinergic treatment.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 4;15:20. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Biomedicine and Internal and Specialistic Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide; however, despite progresses in the understanding of the patho-physiological mechanisms and advances in the development of new therapeutic options and strategies, the disease remains uncontrolled in a not trivial proportion of subjects. Thus, the need of new molecules to treat the underlying biological and functional abnormalities and to control symptoms is strongly advocated by clinicians. In this scenario, the most recent GINA guidelines have included the use of tiotropium bromide in the most severe and uncontrolled forms of the disease, in addition to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid plus long acting beta adrenergic agents. Read More

    Selecting optimal second-generation antihistamines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria in Asia.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 1;15:19. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Personalised Medicine Asthma & Allergy Clinic, Humanitas University, Clinical & Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Allergic diseases are on the rise in many parts of the world, including the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. Second-generation antihistamines are the first-line treatment option in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. International guidelines describe the management of these conditions; however, clinicians perceive the additional need to tailor treatment according to patient profiles. Read More

    High frequency of IgE sensitization towards kiwi seed storage proteins among peanut allergic individuals also reporting allergy to kiwi.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 1;15:18. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    R&D, ImmunoDiagnostic Division, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Background: IgE sensitization to storage proteins from nuts and seed is often related to severe allergic symptoms. There is a risk of immunological IgE cross-reactivity between storage proteins from different species. The potential clinical implication of such cross-reactivity is that allergens other than the known sensitizer can cause allergic symptoms. Read More

    Tolerated drugs in subjects with severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) induced by anticonvulsants and review of the literature.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 4;15:16. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Allergology and Immunology, Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda Ca' Granda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore, 3, 20162 Milan, Italy.
    Background: Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome represents a rare but potentially fatal kind of adverse drug reaction. This clinical picture often hampers the flexibility with which alternative anticonvulsants or even other classes of drugs are prescribed in these patients, negatively affecting the efficacy of treatment and the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse a group of six patients with severe cutaneous drug reactions induced by anticonvulsants and to report which alternative antiepileptic drugs and which drugs of other classes were tolerated. Read More

    A survey on the perception of allergy specialists about the reimbursed grass pollen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis in Italy.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 15;15:15. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Allergy and Pneumology Departmental Unit, Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a feasible option to classical subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat respiratory allergy and is increasingly prescribed in Europe. However, the lack of reimbursement may limit its prescription. In 2015, the 5-grass pollen tablets was authorized by the European Medicine Agency to treat grass-pollen induced rhinitis and was approved in Italy for full reimbursement. Read More

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome after phenytoin administration in an adolescent patient: a case report and review of literature.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 15;15:14. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    AN-Najah National University Teaching Hospital, Asira, Nablus, West bank Palestine.
    Background: Hypersensitivity is a rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with anti-epileptic medications. Phenytoin is one of the commonly used drugs for treatment of epilepsy that encounters a hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction can be ranged from mild cutaneous rash to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) that includes fever, rash, eosinophilia and involvement of multiple internal organs. Read More

    Preventive actions of allergen immunotherapy: the facts and the effects in search of evidence.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 15;15:13. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Medicine and Surgery Department, University of Parma, via Gramsci n.14, 43126 Parma, Italy.
    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy. Available AIT nowadays are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis and asthma, while for allergy to venom only subcutaneous route is recommended. A bulk of trials and meta-analyses demonstrated that efficacy and safety of AIT in decreasing allergic clinical symptoms and use of rescue medications, while its preventive capacity is yet under investigation. Read More

    Association between HMGB1 and asthma: a literature review.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 14;15:12. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Recently, some studies demonstrated that HMGB1, as proinflammatory mediator belonging to the alarmin family, has a key role in different acute and chronic immune disorders. Asthma is a complex disease characterised by recurrent and reversible airflow obstruction associated to airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation.

    Objective: This literature review aims to analyse advances on HMGB1 role, employment and potential diagnostic application in asthma. Read More

    The soft computing-based approach to investigate allergic diseases: a systematic review.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 13;15:10. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital "G. Martino", Messina, Italy.
    Background: Early recognition of inflammatory markers and their relation to asthma, adverse drug reactions, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases is an important goal in allergy. The vast majority of studies in the literature are based on classic statistical methods; however, developments in computational techniques such as soft computing-based approaches hold new promise in this field.

    Objective: The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review the main soft computing-based techniques such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines, bayesian networks and fuzzy logic to investigate their performances in the field of allergic diseases. Read More

    SANI-Severe Asthma Network in Italy: a way forward to monitor severe asthma.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 10;15. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Allergy & Respiratory Disease, DIMI-University of Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova, Italy.
    Even if severe asthma (SA) accounts for 5-10% of all cases of the disease, it is currently a crucial unmet need, owing its difficult clinical management and its high social costs. For this reason several networks, focused on SA have been organized in some countries, in order to select these patients, to recognize their clinical features, to evaluate their adherence, to classify their biological/clinical phenotypes, to identify their eligibility to the new biologic therapies and to quantify the costs of the disease. Aim of the present paper is to describe the ongoing Italian Severe Asthma Network (SANI). Read More

    Hypersensitivity reactions due to black henna tattoos and their components: are the clinical pictures related to the immune pathomechanism?
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 10;15. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy.
    Hypersensitivity to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and related compounds induced by temporary black henna tattoos has become a serious health problem worldwide. Different patterns of sensitization with various clinical aspects are described in literature due to PPD associated to henna tattoo and these manifestations are likely correlated with the immunological and dermatological pathomechanisms involved. Henna is the Persian name of the plant Fam. Read More

    Effects of specific allergen immunotherapy on biological markers and clinical parameters in asthmatic children: a controlled-real life study.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 3;15. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Children's Hospital for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical Center "Dr. Dragiša Mišović", Belgrade, Pilota Mihajla Tepica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment able to change the natural course of allergic diseases. We aimed at investigating the clinical efficacy of SLITOR (Serbian registered vaccine for sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy).

    Methods: 7-18 years old children with allergic asthma and rhinitis were enrolled and addressed to the active (AIT plus pharmacological treatment) or control (standard pharmacological treatment only) group. Read More

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a complex lung disease.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 7;15. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Division of Sub Acute Care, Sesto San Giovanni Hospital, ASST Nord Milano, Sesto San Giovanni, Italy.
    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. The prevalence of HP is difficult to evaluate because of uncertainties in detection and misdiagnosis and lacking of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, and varies considerably depending on disease definition, diagnostic methods, exposure modalities, geographical conditions, agricultural and industrial practices, and host risk factors. Read More

    Pharmacoeconomics of sublingual immunotherapy with the 5-grass pollen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 7;15. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, Parma, Italy.
    Allergic rhinitis has a very high burden regarding both direct and indirect costs. This makes essential in the management of AR to reduce the clinical severity of the disease and thus to lessen its costs. This particularly concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT), that, based on its immunological action on the causes of allergy, extends its benefit also after discontinuation of the treatment. Read More

    Sensitization to secretoglobin and lipocalins in a group of young children with risk of developing respiratory allergy.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 3;15. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Allergy Center and Department of Clinical Research, Mie National Hospital, IDD, Tsu, Mie Japan.
    Background: Multiple sensitizations in early age have been reported to be a risk for development of asthma. This study evaluates the emergence and evolution of IgE to aeroallergens among a cohort of children with physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis and/or showing food allergy symptoms and to examine the relation to asthma development.

    Methods: Three-hundred and four children (median age 13. Read More

    Avoiding misdiagnosis in patients with dyspnea and wheezing: a case report illustrating the clinical implications of fixation error.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 8;15. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Dipartimento Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous respiratory condition which can be mimicked by a wide range of pathologies including upper airways stenosis. The accurate diagnosis of asthma, as with other conditions, may be influenced by fixation errors, which are common in medicine and occur when a physician concentrates on only one element of a clinical case without considering other relevant aspects. Here we report a challenging case characterized by the contemporaneous presence of a common disease, asthma, together with a rare respiratory disease, idiopathic tracheal stenosis. Read More

    Allergic diseases in the elderly: biological characteristics and main immunological and non-immunological mechanisms.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 3;15. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS San Martino-IST-University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    Life expectancy and the number of elderly people are progressively increasing around the world. Together with other pathologies, allergic diseases also show an increasing incidence in geriatric age. This is partly due to the growing emphasis on a more accurate and careful diagnosis of the molecular mechanisms that do not allow to ignore the real pathogenesis of many symptoms until now unknown, and partly to the fact that the allergic people from 20 years ago represent the elderly population now. Read More

    Clinical management, expectations, and satisfaction of patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinoconjunctivitis treated with SQ-standardized grass-allergen tablet under routine clinical practice conditions in Spain.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2017 6;15. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    ALK-Abelló, S.A, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy has been proven as a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic rhinitis. Within this type of treatment, GRAZAX is the most documented product in terms of safety and efficacy. The objective of this study was to identify the patients' expectations and level of treatment satisfaction, as well as the clinical management of patients with moderate/severe allergic rhinoconjunctivitis treated with GRAZAX. Read More

    Different clinical allergological features of infestation.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 7;14:18. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital "G. Martino", Messina, Italy ; Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (ISASI), Messina Unit, Messina, Italy.
    The tapeworm () can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. Read More

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract: an update.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 1;14:17. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma, Italy.
    Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. Read More

    Chitinase 3-like-1 is produced by human Th17 cells and correlates with the level of inflammation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 8;14:16. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine and DENOTHE Center, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy.
    Background: CHI3L1 is a chitinase-like protein without enzymatic activity, produced by activated macrophages, chondrocytes, neutrophils. Recent studies on arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel diseases suggest that chitinases are important in inflammatory processes and tissue remodeling, but their production by human T cells, has never been reported.

    Methods: A microarray analysis of gene expression profile was performed on Th17 and classic Th1 cell clones and CHI3L1 was found among the up-regulated genes on Th17 cells. Read More

    HIV-1 Nef promotes migration and chemokine synthesis of human basophils and mast cells through the interaction with CXCR4.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 1;14:15. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Translational Medical Sciences and Center for Basic and Clinical Immunology Research (CISI), University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.
    Background: The Nef protein can be detected in plasma of HIV-1-infected patients and plays a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. Nef produced during the early stages of infection is fundamental in creating the ideal environment for viral replication, e.g. Read More

    Dose-dependence of protection from systemic reactions to venom immunotherapy by omalizumab.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 24;14:14. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Allergy Unit, Sant'Anna Hospital, ASST Lariana, Via Napoleona 60, 22100 Como, Italy.
    Background: Systemic reactions (SR) to venom immunotherapy (VIT) are rare but may occur, with a rate significantly higher for honeybee than for vespid VIT. In patients with repeated SRs to VIT it is difficult to reach the maintenance dose of venom and pre-treatment with omalizumab is indicated, as shown by some studies reporting its preventative capacity, when antihistamines and corticosteroids are ineffective.

    Case Presentation: We present the case of a 47 years old woman allergic to bee venom who experienced two severe SRs after bee stings and several SRs to VIT with bee venom. Read More

    Mastocytosis and systemic sclerosis: a clinical association.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 11;14:13. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    School and Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy ; Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (ISASI), Pozzuoli, NA Italy.
    Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by vascular alterations and autoimmune activation leading to widespread organ fibrosis. At the early stage of disease when organ involvement and extent of disease are emerging, mast cells may have some role, as implied by both symptoms and histologic evidence.

    Case Presentation: A female patient diagnosed with cutaneous mastocytosis experienced the onset of systemic sclerosis after 15 years followed by the switch of mastocytosis to the systemic phenotype. Read More

    Burden of allergic respiratory disease: a systematic review.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 28;14:12. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    MAPI, London, UK.
    This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA) caused by perennial house dust mite (HDM) versus AR and/or AA caused by seasonal pollen allergy. Following a systematic search, the identified studies used the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease-specific and generic HRQL instruments, and was reflected by an impact on both physical and mental health. Read More

    How pregnancy can affect autoimmune diseases progression?
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 15;14:11. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Center of Excellence for Research, Transfer and High Education DENOTHE of the University of Florence, Florence, Italy ; Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy.
    Autoimmune disorders are characterized by tissue damage, caused by self-reactivity of different effectors mechanisms of the immune system, namely antibodies and T cells. Their occurrence may be associated with genetic and/or environmental predisposition and to some extent, have implications for fertility and obstetrics. The relationship between autoimmunity and reproduction is bidirectional. Read More

    Unmet diagnostic needs in contact oral mucosal allergies.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 1;14(1):10. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Section of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy.
    The oral mucosa including the lips is constantly exposed to several noxious stimuli, irritants and allergens. However, oral contact pathologies are not frequently seen because of the relative resistance of the oral mucosa to irritant agents and allergens due to anatomical and physiological factors. The spectrum of signs and symptoms of oral contact allergies (OCA) is broad and a large number of condition can be the clinical expression of OCA such as allergic contact stomatitis, allergic contact cheilitis, geographic tongue, oral lichenoid reactions, burning mouth syndrome. Read More

    Drug induced exfoliative dermatitis: state of the art.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 22;14. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy ; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.
    Drug induced exfoliative dermatitis (ED) are a group of rare and severe drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) involving skin and usually occurring from days to several weeks after drug exposure. Erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are the main clinical presentations of drug induced ED. Overall, T cells are the central player of these immune-mediated drug reactions. Read More

    Pilot study: assessing the clinical diagnosis of allergy in atopic children using a microarray assay in addition to skin prick testing and serum specific IgE.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 19;14. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, SE1 7EH UK.
    Background: Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk of developing allergy. Alongside clinical history, testing modalities include skin prick tests (SPT), specific immunoglobulin-E (sp-IgE) and recently, microarray assays. The aim of this pilot study was to assess current tests and the ISAC sIgE-112 system in the diagnosis of food and aeroallergen allergy. Read More

    Vitamin D3 improves the effects of low dose Der p 2 allergoid treatment in Der p 2 sensitized BALB/c mice.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 5;14. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Unit of Allergy and Immunotoxicology, Center of Ageing Science, "Università G. d'Annunzio" Foundation, Chieti, Italy ; Department of Medicine and Ageing Science (DMSI), University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
    Background: Airborne allergens can induce an immunological chronic disease characterized by airway hyper responsiveness and inflammation, mediated by exaggerated Th2 immune response. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is effective for treating this condition because it is able to modify its natural course by opposing the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and determining immune suppression, immune deviation and tolerance. The rational for the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving allergoid-based IT in terms of efficacy and safety. Read More

    Thrombotic risk assessment in antiphospholipid syndrome: the role of new antibody specificities and thrombin generation assay.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 15;14. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Center of Research of Immunopathology and Rare Diseases- Coordinating Center of the Network for Rare Diseases of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, San Giovanni Hospital, University of Turin, piazza del donatore di Sangue 3, 10054 Turin, Italy.
    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in subjects presenting with thrombosis and/or pregnancy loss. The currently used classification criteria were updated in the international consensus held in Sidney in 2005. Vascular events seem to result of local procoagulative alterations upon triggers influence (the so called "second-hit theory"), while placental thrombosis and complement activation seem to lead to pregnancy morbidity. Read More

    Appropriateness in allergic respiratory diseases health care in Italy: definitions and organizational aspects.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 19;14. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
    Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS San Martino-IST-University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    In a historical period in which sustainability of the National Health Service is mandatory because of the international economical situation, the limited available resources at national level and the tendency of passing from a "population medicine" model towards the concept of "individualized medicine", the debate on appropriateness of medical and surgical procedures is of central importance. The choosing wisely campaign, started in United States in 2012 and then spread all over the world, tries to summarize which are the most inappropriate procedures for each medical and surgical speciality; as far as allergic respiratory diseases, the most relevant Italian societies and the American Academy defined the allergological procedures with the highest probability of inappropriateness. In Italy, a recent decree of the Ministry of Health defined a list of more than 200 procedures that will be considered as inappropriate in certain conditions; many of these procedures concern allergology, including allergic respiratory diseases. Read More

    Quality of life in patients with food allergy.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 17;14. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    Servicio de Enfermedades del Sistema Inmune-Alergia, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias. Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas, Universidad de Alcalá, Carretera de Alcalá-Meco s/n, 28085 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Read More

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