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    6195 results match your criteria Clinical and Experimental Allergy[Journal]

    1 OF 124

    Eosinophil-derived exosomes contribute to asthma remodelling by activating structural lung cells.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Immunology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Eosinophils, a central factor in asthma pathogenesis, have the ability to secrete exosomes. However, the precise role played by exosomes in the biological processes leading up to asthma has not been fully defined.

    Objective: We hypothesised that exosomes released by eosinophils contribute to asthma pathogenesis by activating structural lung cells. Read More

    Is yoghurt an acceptable alternative to raw milk for reducing eczema and allergy in infancy?
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.
    We have recently completed a randomised controlled trial of maternal supplementation of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001), exploring effects on maternal and infant health. The methodology(1) and the maternal outcomes, gestational diabetes and symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety have recently been published(2) (3). Briefly, mothers were randomised at 14-16 weeks gestation to receive HN001 (6x 10cfu) or placebo daily during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum while breast feeding. Read More

    Alum-adjuvanted allergoids induce functional IgE-blocking antibodies.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna.
    The only therapy that is able to modulate the cause of IgE-mediated allergy and to attain a long-term effect is allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). In conventional subcutaneous AIT, the vaccine consists of an extract from an allergen source that contains major and minor allergens as well as non-allergenic proteins. To reduce IgE-mediated side effects caused by the injection of intact allergens, chemically modified extracts with less IgE-binding activity, named allergoids, have been used for AIT since the 1980's. Read More

    Important and specific role for basophils in acute allergic reactions.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Section of Paediatrics and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    IgE-mediated allergic reactions involve the activation of effector cells, predominantly through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils. Although the mast cell is considered the major effector cell during acute allergic reactions, more recent studies indicate a potentially important and specific role for basophils and their migration which occurs rapidly upon allergen challenge in humans undergoing anaphylaxis. We review the evidence for a role of basophils in contributing to clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis, and discuss the possibility that basophil trafficking during anaphylaxis might be a pathogenic (to target organs) or protective (preventing degranulation in circulation) response. Read More

    Short chain fatty acids induce tissue plasminogen activator in airway epithelial cells via GPR41&43.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease generally divided based on presence or absence of nasal polyps (NPs). One of the features of NPs is excessive fibrin deposition, which is associated with down regulation of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in NPs. As t-PA is expressed in epithelial cells, and epithelium is readily accessible to topical therapies, identifying compounds that can mediate the induction of t-PA would be a potential new strategy for the treatment of NPs. Read More

    The Effects of a CCR3 Inhibitor, AXP1275, on Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Adults with Mild-to-Moderate Atopic Asthma.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    McMaster University - Hamilton, ON/CA.
    Background: CCR3 is the cognate receptor for major human eosinophil chemoattractants from the eotaxin family of proteins that are elevated in asthma and correlate with disease severity.

    Objective: This proof-of-mechanism study examined the effect of AXP1275, an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of CCR3, on airway responses to inhaled allergen challenge.

    Methods: Twenty-one subjects with mild atopic asthma and documented early and late asthmatic responses to an inhaled aeroallergen completed a randomized double-blind crossover study to compare early and late allergen-induced asthmatic responses, methacholine PC, blood and sputum eosinophils, and exhaled nitric oxide after 2 weeks of treatment with once-daily doses of AXP1275 (50 mg) or placebo. Read More

    Influence of peanut matrix on stability of allergens in gastric-simulated digesta: 2S albumins are main contributors to the IgE-reactivity of short digestion resistant peptides.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    University of Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, Centre of Excellence for Molecular Food Sciences, Serbia.
    Background: Most food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are stable proteins that are resistant to pepsin digestion, in particular major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Survival of their large fragments is essential for sensitizing capacity. However, the immunoreactive proteins/peptides to which the immune system of the gastrointestinal tract is exposed during digestion of peanut proteins is unknown. Read More

    Advancing the management of Obstructive Airways Diseases through Translational Research.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Hospital, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments. Read More

    Environmental peanut exposure increases the risk of peanut sensitization in high risk children.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Paediatric Allergy Department of Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Science Division of Asthma Allergy and Lung Biology, MRC& Asthma UK Centre for the Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, Guys' Hospital, London, SE1 9RT, UK.
    Background: High household peanut consumption is associated with the development of peanut allergy, especially when peanut allergic cases are compared against atopic controls; thus environmental peanut exposure (EPE) may be a risk factor for peanut sensitization and allergy. In this study we explored the relationship between EPE and school-age peanut sensitization in a population based cohort.

    Methods: Maternal bed-dust was collected postnatally and EPE was quantified using a polyclonal peanut ELISA. Read More

    Repeated vaccination with tetanus toxoid of plasma donors with pre-existing specific IgE transiently elevates tetanus-specific IgE but does not induce allergic symptoms.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Sanquin Research Dept Immunopathology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of AmsterdamAmsterdam, The Netherlands.
    IgE responses against allergens have acquired much attention due to their pathogenic nature as mediators of allergic reactions. In contrast, IgE responses against vaccines like Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP) and the potential persistence of IgE production have received relatively little attention, presumably because of the low prevalence of allergic symptoms. In general, common early sensitivity reactions against vaccines, including tetanus toxoid, consist of mild local reactions and are not contraindicative of future vaccinations (1, 2). Read More

    Neutrophilia, gelatinase release and microvascular leakage induced by human mast cell tryptase in a mouse model: Lack of a role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2).
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Clinical and Experimental Sciences Academic Unit Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Background: Tryptase, the most abundant protease of the human mast cell, has been implicated as a key mediator of allergic inflammation that acts through activation of PAR2.

    Objectives: To investigate the contribution of PAR2 in the pro-inflammatory actions mediated by tryptase in a mice model.

    Methods: We have injected recombinant human βII-tryptase into the peritoneum of PAR2-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Read More

    Step-down of inhaled corticosteroids in non-eosinophilic asthma: a prospective trial in real life.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, CIRM (Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines)University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.
    Background: While non-eosinophilic asthmatics are usually considered poorly responsive to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), studies assessing a step-down of ICS in this specific population are currently lacking.

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of non-eosinophilic asthmatics in whom ICS may be withdrawn without any clinical degradation and to determine the predictive markers of a failure to stop treatment with ICS.

    Methods: This prospective study was completed by 36 non-eosinophilic asthmatics, defined by sputum eosinophils <3% and blood eosinophils <400/μL. Read More

    Obese Asthmatics are Characterised by Altered Adipose Tissue Macrophage Activation.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs Hunter Medical Research Institute New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia.
    Adipose tissue-derived inflammation is linked to obesity-related co-morbidities. This study aimed to quantify and immuno-phenotype adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) from obese asthmatics and obese non-asthmatics, and to examine associations between adipose tissue, systemic and airway inflammation. Visceral (VAT) and sub-cutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue were collected from obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery and processed to obtain the stromovascular fraction. Read More

    Temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device in the treatment of children with severe atopic eczema: Open-label, proof-of-concept study.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Section of Paediatrics Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK.
    Background: Children with severe, persistent atopic eczema (AE) have limited treatment options, often requiring systemic immunosuppression.

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of the temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) treatment in children/adolescents with severe AE.

    Methods: We recruited 15 children aged 2-16 years with longstanding, severe AE and sensitization to ≥1 perennial inhalant allergen. Read More

    16S rRNA profiling of the Dermatophagoides farinae core microbiome: Enterococcus and Bartonella.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, and Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Characterization of the house dust mite (HDM; Dermatophagoides farinae) microbiome is important because it may exert immunomodulatory effects on the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, owing to its ability to generate microbe-associated molecules such as lipopolysaccharides and lipoteichoic acid.[1] In a recent study, whole-genome shotgun sequencing of D. farinae revealed that Enterobacter were the most abundant bacteria[2], while another study using 16S rRNA cloning reported that Bartonella was the most abundant bacterial taxon. Read More

    Component resolved diagnostics demonstrates that most peanut allergic individuals could potentially introduce tree nuts to their diet.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital; the Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Nut allergy varies from pollen cross-allergy, to primary severe allergy with life-threatening symptoms. The screening of IgE antibodies to a wide spectrum of allergens, including species-specific and cross-reactive allergens, is made possible via microarray analysis.

    Objective: We sought to study the association of variable IgE sensitization profiles to clinical response in peanut-challenged children and adolescents in a birch-endemic region. Read More

    Absence of serum IgE antibodies indicates non-type 2 disease in young asthmatics.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Uppsala University, Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Background: Atopic asthma is associated with elevated type-2 biomarkers such as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count. However, increased type-2 markers have also been reported in traditionally-defined non-atopic asthma.

    Objective: To determine a clinically useful level of IgE sensitisation for ruling out type-2 asthma. Read More

    Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients - Role of Api g 1.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Dpt. of Dermatology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed worldwide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. Read More

    Development and Validation of the Cholinergic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire: CholU-QoL.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Urticaria Center of Reference and Excellence (UCARE), Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Germany.
    Background: Cholinergic urticaria (CholU), a common form of chronic inducible urticaria, is characterized by itchy wheals that occur in response to physical exercise or passive warming. CholU patients frequently exhibit a high burden of disease. As of yet, no specific instrument is available to assess their disease-related quality of life (QoL) impairment. Read More

    Birth Order and Pediatric Allergic Disease: A Nationwide Longitudinal Survey.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
    Background: Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects postnatal environment. Read More

    The Blomia tropicalis allergen Blo t 7 stimulates innate immune signalling pathways through TLR2.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Chula Vaccine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Although the house dust mite species Blomia tropicalis is a leading cause of allergic diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, the identification and characterization of the allergenic proteins remain incomplete.

    Objective: We aimed to characterize a recombinant form of Blo t 7 (rBlo t 7) in terms of IgE reactivity, lipid-binding activity and ability to stimulate innate immunity.

    Methods: The mature Blo t 7 cDNA was cloned by PCR methods for the expression of a secreted form of the allergen in P. Read More

    Effects of human rhinovirus on epithelial barrier integrity and function in children with asthma.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
    Background: Bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJ) have been extensively assessed in healthy airway epithelium. However, no studies have yet assessed the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on the expression and resultant barrier function in epithelial tight junctions (TJ) in childhood asthma.

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of HRV infection on airway epithelial TJ expression and barrier function in airway epithelial cells (AECs) of children with and without asthma. Read More

    Acquisition, Remission, and Persistence of Eczema, Asthma, and Rhinitis in Children.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Allergic sensitization is associated with eczema, asthma, and rhinitis. However, it is unknown whether and how allergic sensitization is associated over time with acquisition, remission, and persistence of these diseases and their comorbidity.

    Objective: To gain a better understanding of factors including allergic sensitization transitions that influence the temporal pattern of asthma, eczema, and rhinitis and their comorbidity during childhood. Read More

    Interleukin-17A and vascular remodelling in severe asthma; lack of evidence for a direct role.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Background: Bronchial vascular remodelling may contribute to the severity of airway narrowing through mucosal congestion. Interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with the most severe asthmatic phenotype but whether it might contribute to vascular remodelling is uncertain.

    Objective: To assess vascular remodelling in severe asthma and whether IL-17A directly or indirectly may cause endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis. Read More

    Uncontrolled asthmatics have increased FceRIand TGF-β-positive MCmast cells and collagen VI in the alveolar parenchyma.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Background: Asthma has been associated with increased collagen deposition in both conducting airways and alveolar parenchyma. Mast cells (MCs) are key effector cells in asthma and have the ability to affect collagen synthesis. However, the link between clinical control and changes in bronchial and alveolar MC phenotypes and specific collagens in controlled and uncontrolled asthma remains unknown. Read More

    Component-resolved diagnostics to direct in venom immunotherapy: Important steps towards precision medicine.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Stings of Hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated systemic and even fatal allergic reactions. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the only disease-modifying and curative treatment of venom allergy. However, choosing the correct venom for VIT represents a necessary prerequisite for efficient protection against further anaphylactic sting reactions after VIT. Read More

    Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and offspring's asthma and allergic disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: Prenatal maternal stress may influence offspring's atopic risk through sustained cortisol secretion resulting from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), leading to Th2-biased cell differentiation in the foetus. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring.

    Methods: We searched 11 electronic databases from 1960 to 2016, searched the grey literature and contacted experts in the field. Read More

    New and emerging drug treatments for severe asthma.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Institute for Lung Health, Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the airways affecting over 300 million people world-wide. In 5%-10% of cases, it is severe, with disproportionate healthcare resource utilization including costs associated with frequent exacerbations and the long-term health effects of systemic steroids. Characterization of inflammatory pathways in severe asthma has led to the development of targeted biological and small molecule therapies which aim to achieve disease control while minimizing corticosteroid-associated morbidity. Read More

    A patient-specific approach to develop an exclusion diet to manage food allergy in infants and children.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb;48(2):121-137
    Department Paediatrics, Imperial College, London, UK.
    Food allergy is becoming increasingly common in infants and young children. This article set out to explain the different factors that should be taken into account during an individualized allergy consultation: Foods to avoid and degree of avoidance, suitable alternatives, self-management skills, co- and cross-reactive allergens and novel allergens alongside the role of the industry in allergen avoidance, importance of nutritional aspects of the diet and the future directions that nutritional guidance make take. Allergy management advice should be individualized to provide a patient-specific approach. Read More

    The use of omalizumab in allergen immunotherapy.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Although omalizumab (anti-IgE) is currently only approved for the treatment of asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria, it has also been studied as an off-label treatment for numerous allergic conditions, including use as an adjunct to allergen immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma, venom hypersensitivity and food allergy. We conducted a review of publications involving the use of omalizumab with allergen immunotherapy, by searching PubMed with key search terms of "omalizumab" and "immunotherapy." Omalizumab has been used in combination with inhalant allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and comorbid asthma. Read More

    Prevalence and longitudinal trends of food allergy during childhood and adolescence: Results of the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort study.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    University Hospitals Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.
    Background: The prevalence and time trends of food allergy change during childhood depending on the age of the child and the type of food.

    Objective: To study prevalence and longitudinal trends in food allergy from birth to 18 years in an unselected birth cohort in the Isle of Wight.

    Method: Information on food allergy was collected at ages 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18 years from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (n = 1456). Read More

    Respiratory impedance is correlated with airway narrowing in asthma using three-dimensional computed tomography.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    Background: Respiratory impedance comprises the resistance and reactance of the respiratory system and can provide detailed information on respiratory function. However, details of the relationship between impedance and morphological airway changes in asthma are unknown.

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the correlation between imaging-based airway changes and respiratory impedance in patients with asthma. Read More

    Priorities for future research into asthma diagnostic tools: A PAN-EU consensus exercise from the European asthma research innovation partnership (EARIP).
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb;48(2):104-120
    Asthma UK, London, UK.
    The diagnosis of asthma is currently based on clinical history, physical examination and lung function, and to date, there are no accurate objective tests either to confirm the diagnosis or to discriminate between different types of asthma. This consensus exercise reviews the state of the art in asthma diagnosis to identify opportunities for future investment based on the likelihood of their successful development, potential for widespread adoption and their perceived impact on asthma patients. Using a two-stage e-Delphi process and a summarizing workshop, a group of European asthma experts including health professionals, researchers, people with asthma and industry representatives ranked the potential impact of research investment in each technique or tool for asthma diagnosis and monitoring. Read More

    Sex-based differences in CD103dendritic cells promote female-predominant Th2 cytokine production during allergic asthma.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Center for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.
    Background: Gender disparities in adult patients with asthma regarding its prevalence and severity are mainly due to enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2) cytokine production in female patients compared to that in male patients. However, the pathways mediating this effect remain unclear.

    Objective: We aimed to determine the roles of two major subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) in females, specifically those displaying CD11b or CD103, during enhanced Th2 priming after allergen exposure, using an ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model. Read More

    Type III interferons are critical host factors that determine susceptibility to Influenza A viral infection in allergic nasal mucosa.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Allergic respiratory conditions have been associated with increased susceptibility to viral infection due to impaired interferon (IFN)-related immune responses, but the mechanisms for reinforcement of mucosal immunity against viral infection in allergic diseases are largely unknown.

    Objectives: To determine whether IFN induction would be impaired in allergic nasal mucosa and to identify whether higher loads of influenza A virus (IAV) in allergic nasal mucosa could be controlled with IFN treatment.

    Methods: Influenza A virus mRNA, viral titres and IFN expression were compared in IAV-infected normal human nasal epithelial (NHNE, N = 10) and allergic rhinitis nasal epithelial (ARNE, N = 10) cells. Read More

    Predicting reactivity threshold in children with anaphylaxis to peanut.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Division of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Peanut allergy necessitates dietary restrictions, preferably individualized by determining reactivity threshold through an oral food challenge (OFC). However, risk of systemic reactions often precludes OFC in children with severe peanut allergy.

    Objective: We aimed to determine whether clinical and/or immunological characteristics were associated with reactivity threshold in children with anaphylaxis to peanut and secondarily, to investigate whether these characteristics were associated with severity of the allergic reaction during OFC. Read More

    Filaggrin mutations increase allergic airway disease in childhood and adolescence through interactions with eczema and aeroallergen sensitization.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb;48(2):147-155
    Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG-LOF) mutations are an established genetic cause of eczema. These mutations have subsequently been reported to increase the risk of aeroallergen sensitization and allergic airway disease. However, it is unclear whether FLG variants require both eczema and aeroallergen sensitization to influence airway disease development long-term outcomes. Read More

    Sensitivity and specificity of the lymphocyte transformation test in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms causality assessment.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    PIELenRed Consortium, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The determination of drug causality is complex. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been reported positive in more than 50% of DRESS cases. Read More

    IgE promotes type 2 innate lymphoid cells in murine food allergy.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Mast cells serve an important sentinel function at mucosal barriers and have been implicated as key early inducers of type 2 immune responses in food allergy. The generation of Th2 and IgE following food allergen ingestion is inhibited in the absence of mast cells. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are also thought to play an important early role in nascent allergic responses. Read More

    Eating out with a food allergy in the UK: Change in the eating out practices of consumers with food allergy following introduction of allergen information legislation.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Clinical & Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Strict allergen avoidance is important in day-to-day management of food allergy and avoidance when eating outside the home can present particular difficulties. EU legislation (EU FIC) introduced in December 2014 aimed to improve food allergen information provision for customers by requiring retailers of non-prepacked foods to provide information related to the content of one or more of 14 specified food allergens within their foods.

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of EU FIC on the behaviours, experiences and attitudes of consumers with food allergy when eating out. Read More

    Allergens produce serine proteases-dependent distinct release of metabolite DAMPs in human bronchial epithelial cells.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 28;48(2):156-166. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Background: The respiratory epithelium is a major site for disease interaction with inhaled allergens. Additional to IgE-dependent effects, allergens contain proteases that may stimulate human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) through protease-activated receptors, causing the release of mediators important in driving Th2-mediated immune responses.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate whether different allergens induce metabolite DAMPs such as ATP and uric acid (UA) release in HBECs. Read More

    Characterization of Ras k 1 a novel major allergen in Indian mackerel and identification of parvalbumin as the major fish allergen in 33 Asia-Pacific fish species.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Molecular Allergy Research Laboratory, Division of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
    Background: Fish is a well-recognized cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis. The evolutionary and taxonomic diversity of the various consumed fish species pose a challenge in the identification and characterization of the major fish allergens critical for reliable diagnostics. Globally, fish is a rising cause of food allergy complicated by a large under-investigated variety of species as well as increasing global tourism and trade. Read More

    Concomitant sensitization to legumin, Fag e 2 and Fag e 5 predicts buckwheat allergy.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Feb 22;48(2):217-224. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Center, Odense Research Center for Anaphylaxis (ORCA), Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has become increasingly popular as a healthy food in Europe. However, for sensitized individuals, consumption can cause anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this study was to identify individual well-characterized buckwheat allergens for component-resolved diagnosis. Read More

    Coincidence of pollen season with the first fetal trimester together with early pet exposure is associated with sensitization to cat and dog allergens in early childhood: A Finnish population-based study.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Background: Children whose 11th fetal week falls in pollen season (spring) reportedly have an increased risk of sensitization to food allergens. No such finding has been reported for pet allergens.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the incidence of pet (dog and cat) sensitization according to the season of the 11th fetal week and (ii) whether the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization is modified by the coincidence of the 11th fetal week with pollen season. Read More

    The COL5A3 and MMP9 genes interact in eczema susceptibility.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Inserm, UMR-946, Genetic Variation and Human Diseases unit, Université Paris-Diderot, Paris, France.
    Background: Genetic studies of eczema have identified many genes, which explain only 14% of the heritability. Missing heritability may be partly due to ignored gene-gene (G-G) interactions.

    Objective: Our aim was to detect new interacting genes involved in eczema. Read More

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