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    2250 results match your criteria Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology[Journal]

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    Longitudinal analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-specific antibody in SARS patients.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1455-7
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    The serum antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus of 18 SARS patients were checked at 1 month and every 3 months after disease onset. All of them except one, who missed blood sampling at 1 month, tested positive for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody at 1 month. Fifteen out of 17 tested positive for the IgM antibody at 1 month. Read More

    Immunoglobulin E binding reactivity of a recombinant allergen homologous to alpha-Tubulin from Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1451-4
    Department of Parasitology and Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea.
    Storage mites may cause allergic respiratory diseases in urban areas as well as pose an occupational hazard in rural areas. Characterization of storage mite allergens is important for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents against mite-associated allergic disorders. Here we report on the cloning and expression of alpha-tubulin from the storage mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae). Read More

    Unidirectional suppression of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes in infected lambs.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1448-50
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Sandnes, Norway.
    Five-month-old lambs were simultaneously infected with different doses of two 16S rRNA genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and thereafter followed for clinical observation and blood sampling. The result of the study indicates a unidirectional suppression of genotypes in infected lambs, at least during a certain period of an A. phagocytophilum infection. Read More

    Long-term follow-up of Hepatitis B Surface antibody levels in subjects receiving universal Hepatitis B vaccination in infancy in an area of hyperendemicity: correlation between radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1442-7
    Department of Pediatrics, Hepatitus Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan.
    The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the long-term immunogenicity and the decay rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antibody (anti-HBs) from universal hepatitis B vaccination at infancy for a healthy population in an area of hyperendemicity and (ii) whether the anti-HBs levels measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were closely correlated with those assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods during long-term monitoring. A total of 1,337 apparently healthy children (696 boys and 641 girls) who were vaccinated against HBV at infancy and monitored for anti-HBs annually from 7 to 16 years of age entered the study. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-HBs by RIA at 7 to 15 years of age and were also analyzed by EIA at 13 to 16 years of age. Read More

    Gamma interferon is dispensable for neopterin production in vivo.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1437-41
    Laboratory of Microbiology-Immunology, Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse 4000, Tunisia.
    Previous studies have indicated that neopterin is synthesized in vitro by human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Neopterin production under specific conditions in vitro has also been obtained upon stimulation with IFN-alpha and/or IFN-beta. However, it is unknown if any IFN-gamma-independent neopterin synthesis is possible in vivo. Read More

    Induction of antigen-specific Th1-type immune responses by gamma-irradiated recombinant Brucella abortus RB51.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1429-36
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Read More

    Evaluation and diagnostic usefulness of domestic and imported enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody in India.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1425-8
    VHS-YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Voluntary Health Services Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India.
    Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important for patient management and prevention of new infections. The number of test kits available for the detection of HIV antibodies is unprecedented. In order to identify appropriate test kits, we evaluated a variety of commercial kits manufactured abroad as well as in India. Read More

    Evaluation of a new single-parameter volumetric flow cytometer (CyFlow(green)) for enumeration of absolute CD4+ T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Thai patients.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1416-24
    Center of Excellence for Flow Cytometry, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.
    Use of the standard dual-platform flow cytometric method for determination of CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts, which needs both a flow cytometer (FCM) and hematological analyzer, would inevitably lead to increased variability. The development of new single-platform (SP) FCMs that provide direct CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts for improved assay precision and accuracy have recently attracted attention. This study evaluated one of those systems, CyFlow(green) (Partec), a single-parameter SP volumetric FCM. Read More

    Application of an improved method for the recombinant k 39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect visceral leishmaniasis disease and infection in Bangladesh.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1410-5
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Mailstop F-13, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
    Several serology-based immunoassays are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a chronic protozoan parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. These tests are primarily designed to diagnose the most severe clinical form of VL, known as kala-azar. However, leishmanial infection is frequently asymptomatic and may manifest only as a positive serologic response or positive leishmanin skin test. Read More

    Immunoglobulin G1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Johne's Disease in red deer (Cervus elaphus).
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1401-9
    Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    This study was designed to develop a customized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of Johne's disease (JD) in farmed deer. Two antigens were selected on the basis of their superior diagnostic readouts: denatured purified protein derivative (PPDj) and undenatured protoplasmic antigen (PpAg). ELISA development was based on the antigen reactivity of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, which is a highly specific marker for mycobacterial disease seroreactivity in deer. Read More

    Local and systemic immune and inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori strains.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1393-400
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
    Colonization with Helicobacter pylori eventuates in varied clinical outcomes, which relate to both bacterial and host factors. Here we examine the relationships between cagA status, serum and gastric juice antibody responses, and gastric inflammation in dyspeptic patients. Serum, gastric juice, and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from 89 patients undergoing endoscopy. Read More

    Modulation of antibody-mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1387-92
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, have been shown to enhance antibody responses in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic product containing the above bacteria in addition to Streptococcus faecalis on the induction of the chicken antibody response to various antigens, both systemically and in the gut. The birds received probiotics via oral gavage and subsequently were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to evaluate antibody responses in serum or with tetanus toxoid (TT) to measure the mucosal antibody response in gut contents. Read More

    Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 attenuates Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and reduces levels of proinflammatory chemokines in C57BL/6 mice.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1378-86
    Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Institut Pasteur Hellenique, 127 Vas. Sofias Avenue, 115 21 Athens, Greece.
    In clinical settings, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 administration has been reported to have a favorable effect on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, although the mechanism remains unclear. We administered, continuously through the water supply, live La1 to H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and followed colonization, the development of H. Read More

    Mycoplasma alligatoris infection promotes CD95 (FasR) expression and apoptosis of primary cardiac fibroblasts.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1370-7
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0880, USA.
    Mycoplasma alligatoris causes acute lethal primary infection of susceptible hosts. A genome survey implicated sialidase and hyaluronidase, potential promoters of CD95-mediated eukaryotic cell death, as virulence factors of M. alligatoris. Read More

    Boosting immune response to hepatitis B DNA vaccine by coadministration of Prothymosin alpha-expressing plasmid.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1364-9
    P.O. Box 130(8), 27 Taiping Rd., Beijing 100850, China.
    DNA vaccines induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in several animal models. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. In this study, we report that coadministration of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine with prothymosin alpha as an adjuvant improves antibody responses to HBV S antigen. Read More

    Expression of interleukin-8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) in premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1358-63
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, Edificio Helios, 1S planta. C/ Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
    The migration of neutrophils through infected tissues is mediated by the CXC chemokines and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2). It has been proposed that a CXCR1 deficiency could confer susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis in children. The objective of the study is to assess the surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and the existence of polymorphisms in the CXCR1 gene in premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. Read More

    Computer-assisted pattern recognition of autoantibody results.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Dec;12(12):1353-7
    Bio-Rad Laboratories, 4000 Alfred Nobel Drive, Hercules, CA 94547, USA.
    Immunoassay-based anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screens are increasingly used in the initial evaluation of autoimmune disorders, but these tests offer no "pattern information" comparable to the information from indirect fluorescence assay-based screens. Thus, there is no indication of "next steps" when a positive result is obtained. To improve the utility of immunoassay-based ANA screening, we evaluated a new method that combines a multiplex immunoassay with a k nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm for computer-assisted pattern recognition. Read More

    Effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on experimental infection of piglets with PCV2.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1347-51
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1410 Price's Fork Road, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0342, USA.
    To determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on and response to experimental PCV2 infection, 24 piglets were divided into four groups on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of PCV2 maternal antibodies: group A (n = 6; sample/positive [S/P] ratio, <0.2), group B (n = 5; S/P ratio, >0.2 to <0. Read More

    Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern Sudan by using a screening PCR and sequencing methodologies.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1343-6
    Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Japan
    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Read More

    Immunogenicity of fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza virus H5 gene (TROVAC AIV-H5) in cats.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1340-2
    Merial Ltd., 115 Transtech Drive, Athens, Georgia 30601, USA.
    Vaccination of cats with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza (AI) virus H5 hemagglutinin gene (TROVAC AI) resulted in detectable hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to the homologous A/Turkey/Ireland/1378/83 (H5N8) (A/tky/Ire/83) AI virus antigen. The HI antibody responses to heterologous A/Chicken/Indonesia/7/03 (H5N1) (A/ck/Indonesia/03) AI virus antigen were also detected in all vaccinated cats, but only after booster vaccinations. The vaccine described in this study and other poxvirus-vectored vaccines may be of value for the prophylaxis of AI virus-associated morbidity and mortality in mammals. Read More

    Isolation and characterization of the promoter and partial enhancer region of the porcine inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 gene.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1336-9
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection and Immunity, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    A porcine genomic library was screened for clones containing the promoter of the major acute-phase protein in pigs, inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chain 4 (ITIH4). Following isolation of the promoter, a functional analysis was performed with Hep3B cells. The promoter was induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not by IL-1beta. Read More

    Evaluation of the PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of human brucellosis.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1334-5
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6024, Beirut, Lebanon.
    PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were assessed against Brucella standard agglutination tube and Coombs tests. The sensitivities of ELISA IgG and IgM were 91% and 100%, respectively, while the specificity was 100% for both. These ELISAs are simple, rapid, and reliable for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Read More

    Immunoglobulin G kappa [IgG kappa] and IgG lambda paraproteinemia in a child with AIDS and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1331-3
    Section of Allergy & Immunology, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, 6621 Fannin Street (MC; FC330.01), Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
    We report an 8-year-old boy with AIDS, extremely elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and IgG kappa [IgG(kappa)] and IgG lambda [IgG(lambda)] paraproteinemia. This paraproteinemia partially responded to highly active antiretroviral therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of controlling B-cell activation. Read More

    Serological markers (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) in inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic utility and phenotypic correlation.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1328-30
    Department of Clinical Immunology, 1st Floor, 51-53 Barts Close, W. Smithfield, St. Bartholomew's, London EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom.
    We have evaluated the utility of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other diarrheal illnesses by evaluating sera from 396 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and phenotypic correlations were investigated. The implications of our findings for implementing these tests in routine clinical testing are discussed. Read More

    Comparison of galactomannan detection, PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time PCR for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in a neutropenic rat model and effect of caspofungin acetate.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1322-7
    Microbiology Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    The performance of different in vitro diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) was investigated in a transiently neutropenic rat model. Rats were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and then inoculated intravenously with 1.5 x 10(4) CFU Aspergillus fumigatus spores. Read More

    Serological responses in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection and cross-reactivity with human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, and NL63.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1317-21
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong and Queen Mary Hospital, University Pathology Building, Pokfulam Rd., Hong Kong, SAR, People's Republic of China.
    The serological response profile of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) infection was defined by neutralization tests and subclass-specific immunofluorescent (IF) tests using serial sera from 20 patients. SARS CoV total immunoglobulin (Ig) (IgG, IgA, and IgM [IgGAM]) was the first antibody to be detectable. There was no difference in time to seroconversion between the patients who survived (n = 14) and those who died (n = 6). Read More

    Selected RD1 peptides for active tuberculosis diagnosis: comparison of a gamma interferon whole-blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an enzyme-linked immunospot assay.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1311-6
    Laboratorio di collegamento tra ricerca di base e clinica, Padiglione Del Vecchio, Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani, I.R.C.C.S., Roma 00149, Italy.
    We recently set up a gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT), using selected early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) peptides, that appears specific for active tuberculosis (A-TB). However, ELISPOT is difficult to automate. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if the same selected peptides may be used in a technique more suitable for routine work in clinical laboratories, such as whole-blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WBE). Read More

    Immunological markers of the R4 protein of Streptococcus agalactiae.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1305-10
    Department of Laboratory of Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    This study focuses on immunological markers of R4, an important Streptococcus group B (GBS) protein. The results obtained by using rabbit antisera and purified proteins for antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based experiments provided evidence that R4 possesses two antigenic determinants. One of the determinants is shared with the alpha-like protein 3 (Alp3) of GBS, was named R4/Alp3 common, and was expressed by GBS, which possessed the Alp3-encoding gene alp3 or the R4-encoding gene rib. Read More

    Persistent replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 despite treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in dually infected subjects.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1298-304
    Case Western Reserve University, Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44106-4984, USA.
    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common life-threatening infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and frequently occurs before the onset of severe immunodeficiency. Development of TB is associated with increased HIV type 1 (HIV-1) viral load, a fall in CD4 lymphocyte counts, and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to examine how treatment of pulmonary TB affected HIV-1 activity in HIV-1/TB-coinfected subjects with CD4 cell counts of >100 cells/mul. Read More

    Comparison of lipopolysaccharide-binding functions of CD14 and MD-2.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1292-7
    Department of Immunology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan.
    Prior to being recognized by the cell surface Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the bacterial outer membrane has to be processed by LPS-binding protein and CD14. CD14 forms a complex with monomeric LPS extracted by LPS-binding protein and transfers LPS to the cell surface signaling complex. In a previous study, we prepared a functional recombinant MD-2 using a bacterial expression system. Read More

    Xylitol inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression induced by lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1285-91
    Department of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea 602-739.
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the suspected periodontopathic bacteria. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. gingivalis is a key factor in the development of periodontitis. Read More

    A strain-specific antigen in Japanese Helicobacter pylori recognized in sera of Japanese children.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1280-4
    Department of Pediatrics, Wakayama Rosai Hospital, Koya 435, Wakayama, 640-8505, Japan.
    An enzyme immuno assay (EIA) test based on Japanese strain-derived high-molecular-weight cell-associated proteins (JHM-CAP) was evaluated by comparing with a previously developed EIA test based on a U.S. strain-derived high-molecular-weight cell-associated proteins (HM-CAP). Read More

    Alterations of natural killer cell and T-lymphocyte counts in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus through blood and plasma sold in the past in China and in whom infection has progressed slowly over a long period.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1275-9
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, N0.155, Nanjing North St., Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of China.
    Natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and T lymphocytes were analyzed by using a flow cytometer in 225 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals infected through the past sale of blood and plasma without receiving antiretroviral therapy in the People's Republic of China. According to CD4 T-cell counts these HIV-infected adults were stratified into three groups: long-term slow progressors, HIV-infected subjects, and AIDS patients. NK cell counts in long-term slow progressors were higher compared to HIV infection and AIDS patients (P < 0. Read More

    Evaluation of a western blot method for the detection of Yersinia antibodies: evidence of serological cross-reactivity between Yersinia outer membrane proteins and Borrelia burgdorferi.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1269-74
    Associated Regional and University Pathologists (ARUP) Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA.
    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis have been identified as causative organisms of reactive arthritis in humans. We evaluated a Western blot assay which uses Yersinia outer membrane proteins as antigens for the detection of Yersinia antibodies as a replacement for the complement fixation (CF) assay. Clinical agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were determined by testing 19 positive and 21 negative serum samples by the CF assay, Western blot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    Validation of a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Nov;12(11):1261-8
    Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, 3851 Fallowfield Rd., P.O. Box 11300 Stn. H, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9, Canada.
    A monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the routine culture methodology for the detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies from bovine and ovine field samples inoculated into Clark's transport enrichment medium (TEM). The work was a collaboration between two different diagnostic laboratories, one in Canada and the other in England. In both labs, TEM samples were incubated for 4 days at 35 degrees C and then tested by culture and ELISA. Read More

    Critical investigation of the CD14 promoter polymorphism: lack of a role for in vitro cytokine response and membrane CD14 expression.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1254-6
    Biochemical Pharmacology, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box M655, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.
    Blood of volunteers, genotyped for the CD14 C(-159)-->T polymorphism, showed no difference in cytokine release when stimulated with nine CD14-dependent immune stimuli. An analysis of the published data on the proposed association of CD14 genotype with membrane CD14 density revealed no significant correlation, questioning a functional impact of the CD14 polymorphism. Read More

    Immunogenicity of meningococcal ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine in Saudi children 5 to 9 years of age.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1251-3
    Medical Education and Research Center, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
    Meningococcal tetravalent polysaccharide vaccines were observed to be immunogenic in Saudi children 5 to 9 years of age, with >90% having serum bactericidal antibody titers of > or = 8 for serogroups A, Y, and W135; for serogroup C, 77% were putatively protected after vaccination. Read More

    Humoral and cellular immunity in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a 1-year prospective study.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1246-50
    M. Curie Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Allergy, 35 Parzeczewska Str., 95-100 Zgierz, Poland.
    To determine whether children have persistent abnormalities in cellular and humoral immunity development after acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, and IgE levels and lymphocyte phenotypes were determined. There were no changes in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, or CD4+ or CD19+ lymphocytes that were measured in M. pneumoniae-positive patients after 3 months or after 12 months, but there were increases in these in M. Read More

    Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1243-5
    Department of Animal Health and Well-Being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, S.p. per Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy.
    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. Read More

    Fluorescent multivalent opsonophagocytic assay for measurement of functional antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1238-42
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
    We developed fluorescent mono- and multivalent opsonophagocytic assays (fOPA and fmOPA, respectively) specific for seven Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). Bacterial survival was quantitated with alamar blue, a fluorescent metabolic indicator. Both fOPA and fmOPA allow for determination of viability endpoints for up to seven serotypes with high levels of agreement to the reference method. Read More

    Immunoglobulin A antibody responses in dengue patients: a useful marker for serodiagnosis of dengue virus infection.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1235-7
    Department of Microbiology, Saitama Medical School 38, Moroyama, Saitama 350-0495, Japan.
    We determined the usefulness of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of dengue virus infections. The results indicate that the presence of IgA and IgM in serum samples assures recent primary dengue virus infection even with a single serum sample. Read More

    Evaluation of LIAISON Treponema Screen, a novel recombinant antigen-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1231-4
    Microbiology Section, DMCSS, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of LIAISON Treponema Screen (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy), a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), in comparison with that of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and the following currently used treponemal tests: hemagglutination test (TPHA), immunoenzymatic assay (EIA), and Western blot (WB). First, a retrospective study was performed with a panel of 2,494 blood donor sera, a panel of 131 clinical and serologically characterized syphilitic sera, and 96 samples obtained from subjects with potentially interfering diseases or conditions. A prospective study was also performed by testing 1,800 unselected samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory of the St. Read More

    Lassa fever virus peptides predicted by computational analysis induce epitope-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1223-30
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, City University of New York Medical School, New York, New York 10031, USA.
    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa fever virus (LV). Although the precise host defense mechanism(s) that affords protection against LV is not completely understood, cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a pivotal role in controlling viral replication and LV infection. To date, there have been no reports mapping major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding CTL epitopes for LV. Read More

    Priming of immunological memory by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children unresponsive to 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1216-22
    Children's Hospital, Dept. of Paediatric Pneumology/Allergology, Frankfurt University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is of limited immunogenicity in infants and immunocompromised patients. Our prospective randomized controlled trial investigated whether priming with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) induced specific immunological memory in previously nonresponders to PPV. Of a total of 33 children (2 to 18 years) with polysaccharide-specific immunodeficiency (PSI), group A (n = 16) received two doses of 7-valent PCV in a 4- to 6-week interval, and a booster dose of 23-valent PPV after one year. Read More

    Feline coronavirus serotypes 1 and 2: seroprevalence and association with disease in Switzerland.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1209-15
    Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
    To determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) serotypes 1 and 2 in Switzerland and their association with different disease manifestations, a serological study based on immunofluorescence tests was conducted with Swiss field cats using transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), FCoV type 1 and FCoV type 2 as antigens. A total of 639 serum samples collected in the context of different studies from naturally infected cats were tested. The current study revealed that, with an apparent prevalence of 83%, FCoV serotype 1 is the most prevalent serotype in Switzerland. Read More

    Generation of feline dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes for in vivo use.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1202-8
    Retrovirus Center and Virology Section, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via Del Brennero 2, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that can prime T cells and polarize the cellular immune response. Because Th1-type immune responses have been connected to success in combating viral infection, a promising therapeutic application of DCs would be their differentiation in vitro and injection back into the host to boost an immune response in infected animals. This study was aimed both at developing a protocol to cultivate feline DCs in the absence of exogenous proteins for their use in vivo and at investigating what might be the most appropriate stimulus to induce their maturation in vitro and finding correlates of maturation. Read More

    Diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease among children in Kenya with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G antibodies to pneumococcal surface adhesin A.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1195-201
    Wellcome Trust/KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research--Coast, P. O. Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya.
    Diagnostic techniques for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children are insensitive and underestimate both the burden of disease and the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV). Consequently, there is little demand for the highly effective PCV outside the United States and Europe. In Kenya, diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults was achieved with a sensitivity of 0. Read More

    Potential of direct agglutination test based on promastigote and amastigote antigens for serodiagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005 Oct;12(10):1191-4
    Institute of Pathology (ICMR), New Delhi 110029, India.
    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermal complication, a sequel to kala-azar. Diagnosis of PKDL presents a challenge due to the low parasite burden in the lesions. The direct agglutination test (DAT) based on promastigote and amastigote antigens of Leishmania donovani of indigenous isolates was developed to diagnose PKDL, and the results were compared with those of the rk39 strip test. Read More

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