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    989 results match your criteria Clinical and Developmental Immunology [Journal]

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    Cell-mediated immune responses in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 30;2013:630602. Epub 2013 Dec 30.
    Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropathology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego Street 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland ; Neuroimmunological Unit, Polish Academy of Sciences, Przybyszewskiego Street 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland.
    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are disorders of the nervous system that are associated with remote effects of malignancy. PNS are considered to have an autoimmune pathology. It has been suggested that immune antitumor responses are the origin of improved outcome in PNS. Read More

    Contrasting effects of systemic monocyte/macrophage and CD4+ T cell depletion in a reversible ureteral obstruction mouse model of chronic kidney disease.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 31;2013:836989. Epub 2013 Dec 31.
    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Using a reversible UUO model (rUUO), we have demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to development of CKD after obstruction-mediated kidney injury while BALB/c mice are resistant. We hypothesized that selective systemic depletion of subpopulations of inflammatory cells during injury or repair might alter the development of CKD. To investigate the impact of modification of Th-lymphocytes or macrophage responses on development of CKD after rUUO, we used an anti-CD4 antibody (GK1. Read More

    Hepatic expression of metallothionein I/II, glycoprotein 96, IL-6, and TGF- β in rat strains with different susceptibilities to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 4;2013:750406. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
    Department of Physiology and Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, B. Branchetta 22, 51 000 Rijeka, Croatia.
    In a search of peripheral factors that could be responsible for the discrepancy in susceptibility to EAE in Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats, we estimated the expression of metallothioneins I/II (MT), heat shock protein-gp96, interleukin (IL)-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)- β in the livers of these animals. Rats were immunized with bovine brain homogenate (BBH) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) or only with CFA. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were done on day 12 after the immunization, as well as in intact rats. Read More

    The role of cytokines in the functional activity of phagocytes in blood and colostrum of diabetic mothers.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 17;2013:590190. Epub 2013 Dec 17.
    Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rodovia BR070, Km 5 s/n, 78600-000 Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil.
    Immune response changes induced by diabetes are a risk factor for infections during pregnancy and may modify the development of the newborn's immune system. The present study analyzed colostrum and maternal and cord blood of diabetic women to determine (1) the levels of the cytokines IFN- γ and TGF- β and (2) phagocytic activity after incubation with cytokines. Methods. Read More

    Persistence of Th17/Tc17 cell expression upon smoking cessation in mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 29;2013:350727. Epub 2013 Dec 29.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.
    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. Read More

    Immunomodulatory effect of bisphosphonate risedronate sodium on CD163+ arginase 1+ M2 macrophages: the development of a possible supportive therapy for angiosarcoma.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 9;2013:325412. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi 1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.
    An imbalance of immunosuppressive cells and cytotoxic cells plays an important role in inhibiting the antitumor immune response of the tumor-bearing host. We previously reported the profiles of tumor infiltrating leukocytes in cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS) and suggested that a combination of docetaxel (DTX) with bisphosphonate risedronate sodium (RS) might be effective for MMP9-expressing AS by targeting immunosuppressive cells such as M2 macrophages. To further confirm the effect of this combination therapy, in this report we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of DTX and RS on CD163(+) arginase 1 (Arg1)(+) M2 macrophages in vitro. Read More

    Prediction of IL4 inducing peptides.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 30;2013:263952. Epub 2013 Dec 30.
    Bioinformatics Centre, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh 160036, India.
    The secretion of Interleukin-4 (IL4) is the characteristic of T-helper 2 responses. IL4 is a cytokine produced by CD4+ T cells in response to helminthes and other extracellular parasites. It has a critical role in guiding antibody class switching, hematopoiesis and inflammation, and the development of appropriate effector T-cell responses. Read More

    Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 26;2013:986789. Epub 2013 Dec 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110700, Museum Road Building 981, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
    Th17 and IL-17 play important roles in the clearance of extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. However, strong evidence also implicates the Th17 lineage in several autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and asthma. The Th17 subset has also been connected with type I diabetes, although whether it plays a role in the pathogenicity of or protection from the disease remains a controversial issue. Read More

    The multifaceted role of Th17 lymphocytes and their associated cytokines in cancer.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 28;2013:957878. Epub 2013 Dec 28.
    Cancer Biology Graduate Interdisciplinary Program and Department of Pediatrics, Steele Children's Research Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, P.O. Box 245073, Tucson, AZ 85724-5073, USA ; Department of Immunobiology, BIO5 Institute and Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
    While the role of T helper 17 lymphocytes (Th17) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and in infectious immunity has been relatively well defined, the impact of these cells and their associated cytokines on cancer development is still under debate. Although multiple reports have indicated that Th17 can promote anticancer immunity, others have argued that these cells may exhibit tumor-promoting properties. This dichotomy in the function of Th17 lymphocytes in cancer may be related to the versatile nature of these cells, being capable of differentiating into either proinflammatory Th1 or suppressive FoxP3-expressing Treg cells or hybrid T cell subsets depending on the underlying environmental conditions. Read More

    Immune response following liver transplantation compared to kidney transplantation: usefulness of monitoring peripheral blood CD4+ adenosine triphosphate activity and cytochrome P450 3A5 genotype assay.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 25;2013:936063. Epub 2013 Dec 25.
    Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic and Transplant Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-0001, Japan.
    Seventy living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and 39 kidney transplantation (KT) patients were randomly screened by using the peripheral blood CD4+ adenosine triphosphate activity (ATP) assay (IMK assay). The patients were divided into 2 groups in each organ transplantation with low IMK ATP level (<225 ng/mL) or high (>225) (LT-L: n = 23, KT-L: n = 19, LT-H: n = 47, and KT-H: n = 20, resp.). Read More

    Th17-associated cytokines as a therapeutic target for steroid-insensitive asthma.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 23;2013:609395. Epub 2013 Dec 23.
    Division of Clinical Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.
    Steroid-insensitive asthma is an infrequent but problematic airway disease that presents with persistent symptoms, airflow limitation, or recurrent exacerbations even when treated with steroid-based therapies. Because of unsatisfactory results obtained from currently available therapies for steroid-insensitive asthma, a better understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of new targeted molecular therapies are warranted. Recent studies indicated that levels of interleukin (IL)-17 are increased and both eosinophils and neutrophils infiltrate the airways of severe asthmatics. Read More

    Tregitope peptides: the active pharmaceutical ingredient of IVIG?
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 25;2013:493138. Epub 2013 Dec 25.
    EpiVax, Inc., 146 Clifford Street, Providence, RI, USA.
    Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes) that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008). When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs), increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4(+) T cells. Read More

    B epitope multiplicity and B/T epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 3;2013:475960. Epub 2013 Dec 3.
    Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain ; Centro de Biología Molecular, "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154) linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35) of FMD virus (FMDV) elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T) or four (B4T) copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype) were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFN γ . Read More

    Induction of antinuclear antibodies by de novo autoimmune hepatitis regulates alloimmune responses in rat liver transplantation.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 23;2013:413928. Epub 2013 Dec 23.
    Liver Transplantation Program, Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan ; Division of Transplant Immunology, Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.
    Concanavalin A (Con A) is a lectin originating from the jack-bean and well known for its ability to stimulate T cells and induce autoimmune hepatitis. We previously demonstrated the induction of immunosuppressive antinuclear autoantibody in the course of Con A-induced transient autoimmune hepatitis. This study aimed to clarify the effects of Con A-induced hepatitis on liver allograft rejection and acceptance. Read More

    PADI4 haplotypes in association with RA Mexican patients, a new prospect for antigen modulation.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 22;2013:383681. Epub 2013 Dec 22.
    División de Investigación en Salud, UMAE, Hospital de Especialidades, CMNO, IMSS and Departamento de Fisiología, CUCS, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. Read More

    Immunomorphologic manifestations in mice liver infected with influenza A/H5N1, A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 strain.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 23;2013:342686. Epub 2013 Dec 23.
    FSBI Research Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, SB RAMS, Timakova Street 2, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia.
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. Read More

    Prolactin levels correlate with abnormal B cell maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 10;2013:287469. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
    UIM en Inmunología, Hospital de Pediatría, CMN Siglo XXI, IMSS, 06720 Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. Read More

    Activation of dendritic cells by the novel Toll-like receptor 3 agonist RGC100.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 2;2013:283649. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
    Riboxx GmbH, Meissner Straße 191, 01445 Radebeul, Germany ; Institute of Virology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonists emerged as attractive candidates for vaccination strategies against tumors and pathogens. An important mechanism of action of such agonists is based on the activation of TLR3-expressing dendritic cells (DCs), which display a unique capacity to induce and stimulate T-cell responses. In this context, it has been demonstrated that targeting of TLR3 by double-stranded RNA such as poly(I:C) results in potent activation of DCs. Read More

    Original approach for automated quantification of antinuclear autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 18;2013:182172. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
    Aix-Marseille Université, Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital de la Conception, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 147 boulevard Baille, 13005 Marseille, France ; Aix-Marseille Université, INSERM UMR 1076, Laboratoire "Endothélium, Pathologies Vasculaires et Cibles Thérapeutiques," Faculté de Pharmacie, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, Marseille, France.
    Introduction: Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) which are essential markers for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. For the discrimination of positive and negative samples, we propose here an original approach named Immunofluorescence for Computed Antinuclear antibody Rational Evaluation (ICARE) based on the calculation of a fluorescence index (FI).

    Methods: We made comparison between FI and visual evaluations on 237 consecutive samples and on a cohort of 25 patients with SLE. Read More

    A new ELISA for dermatomyositis autoantibodies: rapid introduction of autoantigen cDNA to recombinant assays for autoantibody measurement.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 12;2013:856815. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
    Division of Connective Tissue Disease and Autoimmunity, Department of Dermatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.
    Advances in immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology have enabled the development of a number of assays for measuring autoantibodies. ELISA has been widely used, because it can deal with relatively large numbers of serum samples more quickly than other immunologic methods, such as immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Recombinant autoantigens, which are generally produced in E. Read More

    Expression and function of the homeostatic molecule Del-1 in endothelial cells and the periodontal tissue.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 12;2013:617809. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that limits the recruitment of neutrophils by antagonizing the interaction between the LFA-1 integrin on neutrophils and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on endothelial cells. Mice with genetic or age-associated Del-1 deficiency exhibit increased neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium resulting in inflammatory bone loss. Here we investigated additional novel mechanisms whereby Del-1 could interfere with neutrophil recruitment and inflammation. Read More

    Anti-IL-17 antibody improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing interleukin-17-related fatty acid synthesis and metabolism.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 17;2013:253046. Epub 2013 Dec 17.
    Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation of Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing 210029, China.
    To investigate the relationship between interleukin-17 and proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism with respect to alcoholic liver disease, male ICR mice were randomized into five groups: control, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks, and anti-IL-17 antibody treated ALD. A proteomic approach was adopted to investigate changes in liver proteins between control and ALD groups. The proteomic analysis was performed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cells in immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 10;2013:265608. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
    Department of Haematology, University of Crete School of Medicine, 70013 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
    Immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) are characterized by ineffective marrow haemopoiesis and subsequent peripheral cytopenias. Ineffective haemopoiesis is the result of a complex marrow deregulation including genetic, epigenetic, and immune-mediated alterations in haemopoietic stem/progenitor cells, as well as abnormal haemopoietic-to-stromal cell interactions, with abnormal release of haemopoietic growth factors, chemokines, and inhibitors. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their progeny (i. Read More

    Neuroendocrine immunoregulation in multiple sclerosis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 8;2013:705232. Epub 2013 Dec 8.
    Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute (Vaxinfectio), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), 2650 Edegem, Belgium.
    Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Read More

    Effects of muscarinic acetylcholine 3 receptor(208-227) peptide immunization on autoimmune response in nonobese diabetic mice.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 9;2013:485213. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
    Key Autoimmunity Lab of Inner Mongolia, Institution of Immunology and Rheumatism, Baotou Medical College, No. 41 Lin yin Road, Baotou 014010, China.
    The second extracellular loop (LFWQYFVGKRTVPPGECFIQFLSEPTITFGTAI, aa 205-237) of muscarinic acetylcholine 3 receptor (M3R) has been reported to be an epitope for autoantibodies generated during certain autoimmune disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Autoantibodies against M3R(228-237) have been shown to interfere with the function of M3R. However, few studies have been performed on the M3R(205-227) peptide of the second extracellular loop. Read More

    Interleukin-17: a promoter in colorectal cancer progression.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 7;2013:436307. Epub 2013 Dec 7.
    Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences, China National Ministry of Education), Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China.
    It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays an active role in cancer. Inflammatory immunocytes and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment are supposed to be a "double-edged sword" in colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, can promote cancer-elicited inflammation and prevent cancer cells from immune surveillance. Read More

    Chemokines in chronic liver allograft dysfunction pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 8;2013:325318. Epub 2013 Dec 8.
    Department of General Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.
    Despite advances in immunosuppressive drugs, long-term success of liver transplantation is still limited by the development of chronic liver allograft dysfunction. Although the exact pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction remains to be established, there is strong evidence that chemokines are involved in organ damage induced by inflammatory and immune responses after liver surgery. Chemokines are a group of low-molecular-weight molecules whose function includes angiogenesis, haematopoiesis, mitogenesis, organ fibrogenesis, tumour growth and metastasis, and participating in the development of the immune system and in inflammatory and immune responses. Read More

    Autologous CIK cell immunotherapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 9;2013:195691. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
    Biotherapeutic Department, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Methods: 20 patients diagnosed with TNM stage I or II RCC were randomly divided into two groups, a CIK cell treatment group and a control group. The endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Read More

    Highlights on novel technologies for the detection of antibodies to Ro60, Ro52, and SS-B.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 27;2013:978202. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
    Department of Research, INOVA Diagnostics Inc., 9900 Old Grove Road, San Diego, CA 92131-1638, USA.
    Objective: We aimed to compare a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA, QUANTA Flash) on BIO-FLASH with a multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI) on BioPlex 2200 for the detection of antibodies to Ro60, Ro52, and SS-B.

    Methods: The study included 241 samples, from patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 108) as well as disease controls (n = 133). All samples were tested for anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, and anti-SS-B (La) antibodies on QUANTA Flash (INOVA Diagnostics, San Diego, USA) and BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. Read More

    Viruses and immunity in transplant patients.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 27;2013:492352. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
    University of Basel, Transplantation and Clinical Virology, Division Infection Diagnostics, Department Biomedicine (Haus Petersplatz), Petersplatz 10, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland ; Infectious Disease and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    Immune response to mycobacterial infection: lessons from flow cytometry.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 27;2013:464039. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
    Intensive Care Unit, 1st Department of Respiratory Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and "Sotiria" Chest Disease Hospital, 152 Mesogeion Avenue, 11527 Athens, Greece.
    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date. Read More

    Elevated 1- α hydroxylase activity in monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 25;2013:928138. Epub 2013 Nov 25.
    School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.
    A uremic patient developed hypercalcemia after tuberculosis infection, and his ionized calcium levels correlated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) levels. We performed further studies to determine whether monocytes are alternative sites of 1,25(OH)2D3 conversion beyond renal tubular cells. Using an ex vivo bioassay, in this study, we found that 1- α hydroxylase (CYP27B1) activity in monocytes is significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) than in those with frequent TB contact. Read More

    Radioimmunotherapy combined with maintenance anti-CD20 antibody may trigger long-term protective T cell immunity in follicular lymphoma patients.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 26;2013:875343. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
    Ludwig Center, Department of Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Growing evidence suggests that the patient's immune response may play a major role in the long-term efficacy of antibody therapies of follicular lymphoma (FL). Particular long-lasting recurrence free survivals have been observed after first line, single agent rituximab or after radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Rituximab maintenance, furthermore, has a major efficacy in prolonging recurrence free survival after chemotherapy. Read More

    Antigen-specific gene therapy after immunisation reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 26;2013:345092. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammatory Research, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reestablishment of tolerance induction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) would be an optimal treatment with few, if any, side effects. However, to develop such a treatment further insights in the immunological mechanisms governing tolerance are needed. We have developed a model of antigen-specific tolerance in collagen type II (CII) induced arthritis (CIA) using lentivirus-based gene therapy. Read More

    Propofol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced, NADPH oxidase (NOX 2) mediated TNF- α and IL-6 production in macrophages.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 26;2013:325481. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong University, No. 107 Wen Hua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.
    During an infection, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is mediated, in large part, by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs); NOX2 is the major NOX isoform found in the macrophage cell membrane. While the immunomodulatory activity of propofol is highly documented, its effect on the LPS-induced NOX2/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages has not been addressed. In present study, we used murine macrophage cell line RAW264. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of iguratimod for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 26;2013:310628. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003, China.
    All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of iguratimod for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to assess its efficacy and safety are included in this paper. The Review Manager software was used for meta-analysis to assess risk bias of the studies included, and GRADE profiler software was used for the evidence quality of the studies included. Four RCTs involving 1407 patients with RA were included. Read More

    Combinations of TLR ligands: a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 25;2013:271246. Epub 2013 Nov 25.
    Department of General Surgery, Molecular Oncology and Immunotherapy, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 35, 18057 Rostock, Germany.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors recognizing molecules expressed by pathogens, are typically expressed by immune cells. However, several recent studies revealed functional TLR expression also on tumor cells. Their expression is a two-sided coin for tumor cells. Read More

    Anti-HLA and anti-MICA antibodies in liver transplant recipients: effect on long-term graft survival.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 24;2013:828201. Epub 2013 Nov 24.
    Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowogrodzka Street 59, 02-006 Warsaw, Poland.
    Objective: Presence of anti-HLA antibodies has a well-known impact on kidney grafts survival; however their role in liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. We conducted a 7-year prospective study to show correlation between presence of anti-HLA and anti-MICA antibodies and liver graft survival.

    Methods: Blood samples from 123 liver transplant recipients were collected during patients routine visits. Read More

    The expression of netrin-1 in the thymus and its effects on thymocyte adhesion and migration.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 28;2013:462152. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
    Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology (Ministry of Health), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, China.
    Netrin-1, a known axon guidance molecule, being a secreted laminin-related molecule, has been suggested to be involved in multiple physiological and pathological conditions, such as organogenesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and inflammation-mediated tissue injury. However, its function in thymocyte development is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Netrin-1 is expressed in mouse thymus tissue and is primarily expressed in thymic stromal cells, and the expression of Netrin-1 in thymocytes can be induced by anti-CD3 antibody or IL-7 treatment. Read More

    An imbalance between frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and CCR4+ and CCR9+ circulating helper T cells is associated with active perennial allergic conjunctivitis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 4;2013:919742. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
    Department of Immunology and Research Unit, Institute of Ophthalmology "Conde de Valenciana Foundation", 06800 Mexico, DF, Mexico ; Immunology Lab, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, P.O. Box 70159, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico.
    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is one of the most common eye disorders in ophthalmology. In mice models, it has been suggested that control of allergic conjunctivitis is a delicate balance between Tregs and inflammatory migrating effector cells. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of Tregs and the frequency of homing receptors expressing cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC). Read More

    Sleep loss as a factor to induce cellular and molecular inflammatory variations.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 3;2013:801341. Epub 2013 Dec 3.
    Area of Neurosciences, Department of Biology of Reproduction, CBS, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Colonia Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico.
    A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. Read More

    Evidence of stage- and age-related heterogeneity of non-HLA SNPs and risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes: the diabetes autoimmunity study in the young.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 4;2013:417657. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
    Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, 13001 E. 17th Place, Box B119, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    Previously, we examined 20 non-HLA SNPs for association with islet autoimmunity (IA) and/or progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our objective was to investigate fourteen additional non-HLA T1D candidate SNPs for stage- and age-related heterogeneity in the etiology of T1D. Of 1634 non-Hispanic white DAISY children genotyped, 132 developed IA (positive for GAD, insulin, or IA-2 autoantibodies at two or more consecutive visits); 50 IA positive children progressed to T1D. Read More

    T cell vaccination inhibits Th1/Th17/Tfh frequencies and production of autoantibodies in collagen-induced arthritis.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 2;2013:967301. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Shanghai 200025, China.
    The aim of this study is to determine whether the regulatory role of T cell vaccination (TCV) is through inhibition of Th1/Th17/Tfh and production of autoantibodies on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). First, CIA mice were treated with TCV. After disease onset, the incidence and severity of change in joint histopathology were evaluated. Read More

    Stimulation of TLR4 by LMW-HA induces metastasis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma through CXCR7.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 2;2013:712561. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People's Hospital, 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080, China ; Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Institutes of Medical Sciences, SJTUSM, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025, China ; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College and Anhui Clinical and Preclinical Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road, Bengbu 233004, China.
    In inflammatory sites, high molecular weight hyaluronan fragments are degraded into lower molecular weight hyaluronan fragments (LMW-HA) to regulate immune responses. However, the function of LMW-HA in PTC progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that receptor of LMW-HA, TLR4, was aberrantly overexpressed in PTC tissues and cell line W3. Read More

    Effects of rapamycin combined with low dose prednisone in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 2;2013:548085. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
    Key Lab of Thrombosis and Hemostasis of Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China.
    We conducted this randomized trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of rapamycin treatment in adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Eighty-eight patients were separated into the control (cyclosporine A plus prednisone) and experimental (rapamycin plus prednisone) groups. The CD4⁺CD25⁺CD127(low) regulatory T (Treg) cells level, Foxp3 mRNA expression, and the relevant cytokines levels were measured before and after treatment. Read More

    The effect of perioperative immunonutrition on the phagocytic activity of blood platelets in advanced gastric cancer patients.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 1;2013:435672. Epub 2013 Dec 1.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
    Background And Aims: Perioperative immunonutrition can influence the phagocytic activity of platelets in advanced gastric cancer.

    Methods: 51 patients with stage IV gastric cancer divided into four groups depending on the clinical status and 40 normal donors were analyzed. Patients of groups I and II underwent palliative gastrectomy. Read More

    Helicobacter pylori infection and light chain gammopathy.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 2;2013:348562. Epub 2013 Dec 2.
    Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03755, USA.
    Objective: Helicobacter pylori provokes a host of immune alterations upon colonizing the gastric mucosa.

    Design: We report 22 individuals with confirmed Helicobacter pylori infection who were also managed for the concurrent elevation of immunoglobulin free light chain (kappa and lambda) levels.

    Result: Of the 22 patients, 15 patients (68. Read More

    Potential survival benefit of anti-apoptosis protein: survivin-derived peptide vaccine with and without interferon alpha therapy for patients with advanced or recurrent urothelial cancer--results from phase I clinical trials.
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013 20;2013:262967. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
    Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8543, Japan.
    We previously identified a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24-restricted antigenic peptide, survivin-2B80-88, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, recognized by CD8+cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In a phase I clinical trial of survivin-2B80-88 vaccination for metastatic urothelial cancer (MUC), we achieved clinical and immunological responses with safety. Moreover, our previous study indicated that interferon alpha (IFN α ) enhanced the effects of the vaccine for colorectal cancer. Read More

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