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    60 results match your criteria Clinical Lipidology [Journal]

    1 OF 2

    Effects of Armolipid Plus on small dense LDL particles in a sample of patients affected by familial combined hyperlipidemia.
    Clin Lipidol 2015 Dec 23;10(6):475-480. Epub 2015 Nov 23.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli, Italy.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to test small dense LDL changes with Armolipid Plus treatment in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL).

    Methods: After 4 weeks, 30 patients with FCHL were included in an 8-week, randomized, double-blind study and were taking, in addition to the standard diet, either placebo or Armolipid Plus.

    Results: The placebo group showed no statistically significant differences in the studied parameters; instead, in the Armolipid Plus group, statistically significant reduction differences were detected in BMI (p = 0. Read More

    Management of lipoprotein X and its complications in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
    Clin Lipidol 2015 Aug;10(4):305-312
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637,USA ; Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA ; Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637,USA.
    Lipoprotein X (LpX) is an abnormal lipoprotein found in conditions such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and cholestatic states (e.g., primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis). Read More

    An update on testosterone, HDL and cardiovascular risk in men.
    Clin Lipidol 2015;10(3):251-258
    University of Washington, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357138, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    Testosterone prescriptions have risen steadily and sharply in the USA despite a lack of clear understanding of the relationship between androgens and cardiovascular disease. In men with increasing age, testosterone levels decline and cardiovascular disease risk goes up. Ties between hypogonadism and cardiovascular disease are suggested by observational data, yet therapy with testosterone replacement has not been shown to mitigate that risk. Read More

    Lipoprotein effects of incretin analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors.
    Clin Lipidol 2015;10(1):103-112
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
    Elevated post-prandial lipoprotein levels are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Post-prandial lipoprotein alterations in type 2 diabetics are widely believed to drive inflammation and are considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The incretins glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) modulate post-prandial lipoproteins through a multitude of pathways that are independent of insulin and weight loss. Read More

    Novel method for reducing plasma cholesterol: a ligand replacement therapy.
    Clin Lipidol 2015 Jan;10(1):83-90
    LipimetiX Development, LLC, Natick, MA 01760, USA.
    Despite wide use of statins, significant cardiovascular disease risk persists. High-density lipoprotein based therapy has not yielded any positive results in combating this disease. Newer methods to rapidly decrease plasma cholesterol are much needed. Read More

    Harnessing the power of yeast to elucidate the role of sphingolipids in metabolic and signaling processes pertinent to psychiatric disorders.
    Clin Lipidol 2014 Nov;9(5):533-551
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.
    The development of therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders is hampered by the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying their pathologies. While aberrant sphingolipid metabolism is associated with psychiatric illness, the role of sphingolipids in these disorders is not understood. The genetically tractable yeast model can be exploited in order to elucidate the cellular consequences of sphingolipid perturbation. Read More

    The mutual interplay of lipid metabolism and the cells of the immune system in relation to atherosclerosis.
    Clin Lipidol 2014;9(6):657-671
    Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Box MC 1089, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation in the arterial wall involving cells of the innate and adaptive immune system that is promoted by hyperlipidemia. In addition, the immune system can influence lipids and lipoprotein levels and cellular lipid homeostasis can influence the level and function of the immune cells. We will review the effects of manipulation of adaptive immune cells and immune cell products on lipids and lipoproteins, focusing mainly on studies performed in murine models of atherosclerosis. Read More

    The interaction between metabolism, cancer and cardiovascular disease, connected by 27-hydroxycholesterol.
    Clin Lipidol 2014;9(6):617-624
    Division of Pulmonary & Vascular Biology, Departments of Pediatrics & Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
    Oxysterols are metabolites of cholesterol that are produced in liver and other peripheral tissues as a means to eliminate cholesterol to bile acid. Recent studies have revealed that the most abundant circulating oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is the first identified endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator. 27HC levels correlate well with that of cholesterol, and also rise progressively with age. Read More

    Monogenic causes of elevated HDL cholesterol and implications for development of new therapeutics.
    Clin Lipidol 2013 Dec;8(6):635-648
    Division of Translational Medicine & Human Genetics, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA ; 11-125 Smilow Center for Translational Research, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Building 421, PA 19104-5158, USA.
    Identification of the (encoding endothelial lipase) and genes, and ana lysis of rare genetic variants in them, have allowed researchers to increase understanding of HDL metabolism significantly. However, development of cardiovascular risk-reducing therapeutics targeting the proteins encoded by these genes has been less straightforward. The failure of two CETP inhibitors is complex but illustrates a possible over-reliance on HDL cholesterol as a marker of therapeutic efficacy. Read More

    Setting the course for apoAII: a port in sight?
    Clin Lipidol 2013 Oct;8(5):551-560
    Houston Methodist Research Institute, 6670 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    ApoAII, the second most abundant protein of the human plasma HDLs, was discovered nearly 50 years ago. Over the subsequent years, nearly 2000 studies - epidemiological, cell-based, biochemical, mouse and human - have attempted to unravel its role in human lipid metabolism. On the basis of these studies, apoAII has been described as an activator and inhibitor of various plasma activities, and as both pro- and anti-atherogenic. Read More

    Lipid signals and insulin resistance.
    Clin Lipidol 2013 Dec;8(6):659-667
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic derangements that include obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance has been proposed to be the common feature that links obesity to the metabolic syndrome, but the mechanism remains obscure. Although the excess content of triacylglycerol in muscle and liver is highly associated with insulin resistance in these tissues, triacylglycerol itself is not causal but merely a marker. Read More

    Regulating intestinal function to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins.
    Clin Lipidol 2013 Aug;8(4)
    Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11797, USA ; Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11797, USA.
    Significant knowledge regarding different molecules involved in the transport of dietary fat into the circulation has been garnered. Studies point to the possibility that accumulation of intestine-derived lipoproteins in the plasma could contribute to atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview of dietary lipid metabolism and studies in mice supporting the hypothesis that intestinal lipoproteins contribute to atherosclerosis. Read More

    Sphingolipid regulators of cellular dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systems overview.
    Clin Lipidol 2014 18;9(5):553-569. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425,USA.
    Climbing obesity rates have contributed to worldwide increases in obesity-associated diseases, including the metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sphingolipids, an important class of structural and signaling lipids, have emerged as key players in the development and pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. More specifically, sphingolipids have been demonstrated to play integral roles in lipotoxicity and other aspects of pathogenesis in T2DM, although the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs and by which sphingolipid metabolism is dysregulated in T2DM remain under investigation. Read More

    Oxidized metabolites of linoleic acid as biomarkers of liver injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
    Clin Lipidol 2013 Aug;8(4):411-418
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    The rising prevalence of obesity in the last few decades has been accompanied by an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of liver pathology from isolated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis. Dietary habits characterized by consumption of high-caloric, lipid-rich diets play a major role in the development of NAFLD. Read More

    Examining the role of lipid mediators in diabetic retinopathy.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Dec;7(6):661-675
    Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Diabetic retinopathy is the most disabling complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Current treatment options for diabetic retinopathy are highly invasive and fall short of complete amelioration of the disease. Understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is critical to the development of more effective treatment options. Read More

    Mechanisms of oxysterol-induced disease: insights from the biliary system.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Oct;7(5):537-548
    Division of Gastroenterology, Box 356424, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Tel.: +1 206 543 1305, ,
    Oxysterols are oxidized species of cholesterol that are derived from exogenous (e.g. dietary) and endogenous () sources. Read More

    Could plasma sphingolipids be diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease?
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Oct;7(5):525-536
    Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
    Understanding the etiopathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the preclinical and early clinical stages will be important in developing new therapeutic targets and biomarkers. There is growing consensus that nonamyloid targets will be necessary to reverse or slow AD progression. Lipidomic, metabolomic and targeted approaches have identified pathways and products of sphingolipid metabolism that are altered early in the course of AD and contribute to the neuropathological alterations associated with AD, including amyloid-β production, tau formation and neurodegeneration. Read More

    Utilizing imaging tools in lipidology: examining the potential of MRI for monitoring cholesterol therapy.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Jun;7(3):329-343
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.
    Lipid abnormalities play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipid therapies result in alterations in atherosclerotic plaques including halting of progression of the plaque, lipid transport out of the plaque and reducing inflammatory activity, which lead to plaque morphologies that are less prone to disruption, the main cause of clinical events. In order to investigate and monitor plaque morphological changes during lipid therapy in vivo we need an imaging method that can provide accurate assessment of plaque tissue components and activity. Read More

    Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Aug;7(4):397-407
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a LDL-like particle consisting of an ApoA moiety linked to one molecule of ApoB(100). Recent data from large-scale prospective studies and genetic association studies provide highly suggestive evidence for a potentially causal role of Lp(a) in affecting risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations. Patients with Type 2 diabetes display clustered metabolic abnormalities and elevated risk of CVD. Read More

    Sleep, sleep-disordered breathing and lipid homeostasis: translational evidence from murine models and children.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Apr;7(2):203-214
    Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Comer Children's Hospital, University of Chicago, 5721 S Maryland Avenue, MC 8000, Suite K-160, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    Impaired sleep, particularly in the context of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), is associated with a vast array of comorbidities, including obesity. It is well known that the etiology of obesity is both complex and multifactorial. Recent trends have shown that obesity rates have risen at an alarming rate in children, and this has likely contributed to an increased prevalence of SDB in children. Read More

    Hepatobiliary transport in health and disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Apr;7(2):189-202
    Southwest National Primate Research Center & Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, PO Box 760549, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Bile salts, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine are secreted across the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes into bile by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Secretion of bile salts by ABCB11 is essential for bile flow and for absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. ABCG5 and ABCG8 eliminate excess cholesterol and sterols from the body by secreting them into bile. Read More

    Testosterone, HDL and cardiovascular risk in men: the jury is still out.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Aug;7(4):363-365
    Center for Research in Reproduction & Contraception, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.
    "Even when reductions in HDL-cholesterol are observed as a consequence of androgen therapy, the implications for cardiovascular risk modification remain highly uncertain." Read More

    LDL lowering in peripheral arterial disease: are there benefits beyond reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Apr;7(2):141-149
    Department of Medicine & the Cardiovascular Imaging Center, University of Virginia Health System, University of Virginia, Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
    Peripheral arterial disease affecting the lower extremities is associated with increased mortality due to cardiovascular events and reduced functional capacity due to claudication. There is abundant evidence to support the role of lipid lowering with statins in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Over the last 10 years, multiple studies have been designed to test the theory that LDL C lowering with statins could result in improved exercise performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Read More

    Therapeutic potential of cyclodextrins in the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Jun;7(3):289-301
    The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-9151, USA, Tel.: +1 214 648 3447, ,
    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid and storage disorder characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment of all cells in the body. This disease primarily affects children and is characterized by hepatic and pulmonary dysfunction, neurodegeneration and death at an early age. Currently, there is no effective treatment for NPC disease. Read More

    The juvenile Batten disease protein, CLN3, and its role in regulating anterograde and retrograde post-Golgi trafficking.
    Clin Lipidol 2012 Feb;7(1):79-91
    Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Loss-of-function mutations in CLN3 are responsible for juvenile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), or Batten disease, which is an incurable lysosomal disease that manifests with vision loss, followed by seizures and progressive neurodegeneration, robbing children of motor skills, speech and cognition, and eventually leading to death in the second or third decade of life. Emerging clinical evidence points to JNCL pathology outside of the CNS, including the cardiovascular system. The CLN3 gene encodes an unusual transmembrane protein, CLN3 or battenin, whose elusive function has been the subject of intense study for more than 10 years. Read More

    Management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Aug;6(4):447-462
    Division of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, NY, USA.
    Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically increased survival for HIV-infected individuals. As this population lives longer, coronary heart disease has become an important comorbid condition. Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals is a complex condition, with multiple contributing factors including the HIV virus itself, individual genetic characteristics and antiretroviral therapy-induced metabolic changes. Read More

    Lysophosphatidic acid effects on atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Aug;6(4):413-426
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.
    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been found to accumulate in high concentrations in atherosclerotic lesions. LPA is a bioactive phospholipid produced by activated platelets and formed during the oxidation of LDL. Accumulating evidence suggests that this lipid mediator may serve as an important risk factor for development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Read More

    Clinical applications of advanced lipoprotein testing in diabetes mellitus.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Aug;6(4):371-387
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Traditional lipid profiles often fail to fully explain the elevated cardiovascular risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Advanced lipoprotein testing offers a novel means to evaluate dyslipidemia and refine risk estimation. Numerous observational studies have demonstrated a characteristic pattern of elevated levels of small, dense LDL particles, out of proportion to traditional lipid levels, in patients with both diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Jun;6(3):305-314
    Pediatric Gastroenterology, Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic College of Medicine of CWRU, OH, USA.
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now regarded as the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children. The close association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the metabolic syndrome has been extensively described. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggest that NAFLD by itself confers a substantial cardiovascular risk independent of the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Associations of BMI and its fat-free and fat components with blood lipids in children: Project HeartBeat!
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Apr;6(2):235-244
    Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    AIM: This study aimed to distinguish between the roles of the two components of BMI, the fat mass (FM) index and the fat-free mass (FFM) index, in BMI's association with blood lipids in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 678 children (49.1% female, 79. Read More

    Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Jun;6(3):293-303
    Departments of Cell Biology and Pediatrics, The State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) facilitates the transport of dietary and endogenous fat by the intestine and liver by assisting in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Higher concentrations of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins predispose individuals to various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. These can potentially be avoided by reducing MTP activity. Read More

    Modulation of dendritic cell function by PGE2 and DHA: a framework for understanding the role of dendritic cells in neuroinflammation.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Jun;6:277-291
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Sreet, PA 19140, USA.
    Neuroinflammation characterizes various neurological disorders. Peripheral immune cells and CNS-resident glia contribute to neuroinflammation and impact CNS degeneration, recovery and regeneration. Recently, the role of dendritic cells in neuroinflammation received special attention. Read More

    Variations in lipid levels according to menstrual cycle phase: clinical implications.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Apr;6(2):225-234
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics & Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd, 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
    Understanding variations in lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle is important because there may be clinical implications regarding the appropriate timing of measurement and implications on the design and interpretation of studies in women of reproductive age. Our objective was to review the evidence comparing lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle among premenopausal women. Overall, lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed to vary in response to changing estrogen levels. Read More

    Perivascular adipose tissue and vascular disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Feb;6(1):79-91
    National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.
    Perivascular adipose tissue is a local deposit of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature. Perivascular adipose tissue is present throughout the body and has been shown to have a local effect on blood vessels. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on the vasculature changes with increasing adiposity. Read More

    Lysosomes, cholesterol and atherosclerosis.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Dec;5(6):853-865
    Department of Pathology, U-2206 Medical Center North Vanderbilt University School of Medicine 1161 21st Avenue, South Nashville, TN 37232-32561, USA, Tel.: +1 615 322 5530.
    Cholesterol-engorged macrophage foam cells are a critical component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Reducing the sterol deposits in lesions reduces clinical events. Sterol accumulations within lysosomes have proven to be particularly hard to mobilize out of foam cells. Read More

    Caveolae and lipid trafficking in adipocytes.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 ;6(1):49-58
    Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany St, Boston, MA 2118, USA.
    The abundance of caveolae in adipocytes suggests a possible cell-specific role for these structures, and because these cells take up and release fatty acids as their quantitatively most robust activity, modulation of fatty acid movement is one such role that is supported by substantial in vitro and in vivo data. In addition, caveolae are particularly rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, and indeed, fat cells harbor more cholesterol than any other tissue. In this article, we review the role of adipocyte caveolae with regard to these important lipid classes. Read More

    Mammalian diseases of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins and their homologs.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Dec;5(6):867-897
    Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-27090, USA.
    Inositol and phosphoinositide signaling pathways represent major regulatory systems in eukaryotes. The physiological importance of these pathways is amply demonstrated by the variety of diseases that involve derangements in individual steps in inositide and phosphoinositide production and degradation. These diseases include numerous cancers, lipodystrophies and neurological syndromes. Read More

    The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides: pathological importance in multiple sclerosis.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 Apr;6(2):159-179
    Institute of Molecular Medicine & Genetics, Department of Neurology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 1120 15th Street, Building CB2803, Augusta, GA 30912-2620, USA.
    A family of neutral glycosphingolipids containing a 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine galactosylceramide (3-SAG) has been characterized. Seven new derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer), designated as fast-migrating cerebrosides (FMCs) by TLC retention factor, have been identified. The simplest compounds - FMC-1 and FMC-2 - of this series have been characterized as the 3-SAG containing nonhydroxy and hydroxy fatty acyl, respectively. Read More

    Apolipoproteins in the brain: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Aug;51(4):555-573
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia.
    The brain is the most lipid-rich organ in the body and, owing to the impermeable nature of the blood-brain barrier, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism within this organ is distinct from the rest of the body. Apolipoproteins play a well-established role in the transport and metabolism of lipids within the CNS; however, evidence is emerging that they also fulfill a number of functions that extend beyond lipid transport and are critical for healthy brain function. The importance of apolipoproteins in brain physiology is highlighted by genetic studies, where apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms have been identified as risk factors for several neurological diseases. Read More

    Niemann-Pick type C pathogenesis and treatment: from statins to sugars.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Jun;5(3):387-395
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th St, NY 10032, USA.
    The isolation of the causative genes for Niemann-Pick type C disease, a panethnic lysosomal lipid storage disorder, has provided models of how sterols and other lipids such as glycosphingolipids traverse the membranes of eukaryotic cells. Unfortunately, these molecular advances have yet to reciprocate with a cure for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder where neuronal replenishment will most likely yield the greatest benefit. In the meantime, stabilizing treatment strategies based on the removal of presumably toxic metabolites are in place. Read More

    Lipid oxidation by hypochlorous acid: chlorinated lipids in atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Dec;5(6):835-852
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Room 325, Doisy Research Center, 1100 South Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63104, USA, Tel.: +1 314 977 9264.
    Leukocytes, containing myeloperoxidase (MPO), produce the reactive chlorinating species, HOCl, and they have important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Leukocyte-derived HOCl can target primary amines, alkenes and vinyl ethers of lipids, resulting in chlorinated products. Plasmalogens are vinyl ether-containing phospholipids that are abundant in tissues of the cardiovascular system. Read More

    The ACCORD-Lipid study: implications for treatment of dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Clin Lipidol 2011;6(1):9-20
    Department of Medicine, College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University, PH-10-305, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia, comprised mainly of hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-C, with either statin or fibrate monotherapy, is moderately effective at reversing the abnormal lipid levels, but does not completely reverse the risk of CVD. Combination therapy with a statin and fibrate more effectively treats diabetic dyslipidemia; however, neither the impact on CVD risk nor the safety profile of statin-fibrate combined treatment had been tested in a large randomized trial. Read More

    Role of long-chain and very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in macular degenerations and dystrophies.
    Clin Lipidol 2011 ;6(5):593-613
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.
    Macular degeneration is a progressive, bilateral eye disorder that damages the macula of the human eye. The most common form of macular degeneration is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in people older than 50 years in developed countries. Autosomal dominant Stargardt disease-3 (STGD3) is an inherited macular dystrophy that has clinical features similar to dry AMD, but occurs at a much earlier age. Read More

    GPIHBP1 and the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Aug;5(4):575-582
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.
    GPIHBP1 is a new addition to a group of proteins required for the lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GPIHBP1 contains an acidic domain and an Ly6 domain with ten cysteines. GPIHBP1 binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) avidly and likely tethers LPL to the luminal surface of capillaries. Read More

    Lipoproteins and lipoprotein metabolism in periodontal disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Jun;5(3):397-411
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Box 980614, Richmond, VA 23298-0614, USA.
    A growing body of evidence indicates that the incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with periodontitis - a chronic infection of the oral cavity. This article summarizes the evidence that suggests periodontitis shifts the lipoprotein profile to be more proatherogenic. LDL-C is elevated in periodontitis and most studies indicate that triglyceride levels are also increased. Read More

    Mechanisms of lipase maturation.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Feb;5(1):71-85
    VA Greater Los Angeles, Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Blvd, Bldg 113, Rm 312, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA, Tel.: +1 661 433 6349.
    Lipases are acyl hydrolases that represent a diverse group of enzymes present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. This article focuses on an evolutionarily related family of extracellular lipases that include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase. As newly synthesized proteins, these lipases undergo a series of co- and post-translational maturation steps occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum, including glycosylation and glycan processing, and protein folding and subunit assembly. Read More

    Thromboxane and the thromboxane receptor in cardiovascular disease.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Apr;5(2):209-219
    Institute for Translation Medicine & Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd, 808 BRB 2/3, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Tel.: +1 215 573 2323
    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), the primary product of COX-1-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid, mediates its biological actions through the TXA(2) receptor, termed the TP. Irreversible inhibition of platelet COX-1-derived TXA(2) with low-dose aspirin affords protection against primary and secondary vascular thrombotic events, underscoring the central role of TXA(2) as a platelet agonist in cardiovascular disease. The limitations associated with aspirin use include significant gastrointestinal toxicity, bleeding complications, potential interindividual response variability and poor efficacy in some disease states. Read More

    Gene therapy for dyslipidemia: a review of gene replacement and gene inhibition strategies.
    Clin Lipidol 2010 Jun;5(6):793-809
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Gene Therapy Program, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 125 South 31st Street (Suite 2000), PA 19104, USA.
    Despite numerous technological and pharmacological advances and more detailed knowledge of molecular etiologies, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide claiming over 17 million lives a year. Abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles can result in severe hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL-C. Although a plethora of antidyslipidemic pharmacological agents are available, these drugs are relatively ineffective in many patients with Mendelian lipid disorders, indicating the need for new and more effective interventions. Read More

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