*Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI), and Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; †Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; ‡International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre, Pretoria, South Africa; §Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council; ¶Statistics and Population Studies Department, University of the Western Cape; and ‖Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Background: Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a significant medical complication in distance runners, yet factors associated with EAMC are poorly documented.
Objective: To document risk factors associated with EAMC in runners.
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and accelerate rehabilitation after injury. It is generally considered a procedure with few side effects, but there are no large studies that have established its safety profile. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed an abdominal aortic dissection after receiving 15 sessions of WBC. Read More
*Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, RWTH Aachen University Medical Center, Aachen, Germany;†Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia;‡Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Private University of Witten/Herdecke, Cologne, Germany; and§Department of Orthopaedics, Health Science Center, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas.
Objective: We hypothesize that the majority of polytraumatised patients are unable to maintain their preinjury level of sporting activity, and that musculoskeletal injuries are a major contributing factor. We assessed the impact of such injuries on sporting prowess, with a focus on isolating, particularly debilitating musculoskeletal trauma.
Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 637 patients at a level 1 trauma centre, to assess the long-term outcome of severe trauma on return to sporting activities (RTS). Read More
*Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Lille, EA7369, URePSSS Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport, Santé, Société, Lille, France;†LOSC Lille, Research Department, Lille, France; and‡CHU Lille, Service de Pneumologie et immuno-allergologie, Hôpital Calmette et Université de Lille 2, France.
Objectives: A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players.
*Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; †Department of Sports Medicine, Sports Health and Performance Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Departments of ‡Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; and §Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and ¶School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
General And Critical Review Format: The evolution of clinical practice and medical technology has yielded an increasing number of clinical measures and tests to assess a patient's progression and return to sport readiness after injury. The plethora of available tests may be burdensome to clinicians in the absence of evidence that demonstrates the utility of a given measurement.
Objective: Thus, there is a critical need to identify a discrete number of metrics to capture during clinical assessment to effectively and concisely guide patient care. Read More
*Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; †Italian Sports Medicine Federation (FMSI), Rome, Italy; ‡Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University, Victoria, Australia; §Cagliari CalcioSpa, Cagliari, Italy; and ¶Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
Objective: The ACTN3 R577X gene variant results in the absence of the α-actinin-3 protein in ∼18% of humans worldwide and has been associated with athletic performance and increased susceptibility to eccentric muscle damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACTN3 R577X variant and indirect muscle disorders/injuries in professional football players.
Design: A case-control, genotype-phenotype association study. Read More
*Department of Physiological and Medical Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland; †Department of Medical Sciences, The Wojciech Korfanty School of Economics, Katowice, Poland; ‡Department of Sports Theory, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland; and §Department of Physiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
Objective: Physical methods are reported to be important for accelerating skeletal muscle regeneration, decreasing muscle soreness, and shortening of the recovery time. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the physical methods of lymphatic drainage (PMLD) such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), the Bodyflow (BF) therapy, and lymphatic drainage by deep oscillation (DO) on postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes.
Design And Methods: Eighty MMA athletes aged 27. Read More
*Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; †Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA; ‡Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA; §Biostatistics and Design Program, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; and ¶Department of Sports Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Background: Growing evidence suggests that concussion increases the risk of lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury. However, it is unclear to how the effect of concussion on LE injury risk may be influenced by previous injuries. This study sought to examine the association between concussion, previous LE injuries, and the risk LE injury to the same previously injured limb (ipsilateral) or the opposite limb (contralateral). Read More
*Department of Physical Therapy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York; †Sports Medicine, Cayuga Medical Center, Ithaca, New York; ‡Department of Physical Therapy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York; and §Musculoskeletal Radiology, Radiology Associates of Ithaca, Cayuga Medical Center, Ithaca, New York.
*Orthopedic Surgery Department, Pediatric Upper Extremity Surgery and Microsurgery, Hospital Sant Joan De Deu, Barcelona, Spain; †Hand and Upper Extremity Unit, ICATME-Institut Català de Traumatologia i Medicina de l'Esport. Institut Universitari Dexeus, Barcelona, Spain; ‡Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and §Orthopaedic and Trauma Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
Objectives: To measure the accuracy of currently used intracompartmental pressure (ICP) diagnostic variables for forearm chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) and a new ICP diagnostic variable, TRest, the recovery time between the maximum ICP and return to resting pressure.
Design: Retrospective cohort. Level evidence IV. Read More
Departments of *Orthopedic Surgery; and †Pathology, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
Here, we present a rare case of a preadolescent boy with a prominent bony bump on the femoral neck. The main histological feature was concordant with a reactive osteochondromatous lesion possibly induced by repetitive microtrauma, probably because of overtraining as a soccer goalkeeper. The nature of this pathological change is consistent with the growth of a cam deformity. Read More
*Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; †The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts; and ‡Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Context: Hip injury among young athletes is increasing, especially hip labral tears. Some tears may require surgical intervention, especially if they are associated with boney pathology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A protocol for nonoperative treatment of the hip labral tears is not well established. Read More
Objective: To determine the effects of marijuana on athletic performance.
Design: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, and SPORTDiscus from their beginning to September 2016. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias and the Cochrane GRADE scale. Read More
Objective: To identify (1) the predominant level of evidence of the clinical studies regarding the hip pathology, risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes in artistic athletes (dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts) (2) the most commonly reported hip pathology, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes in dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts.
Methods: To conduct this systematic review PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were collected from the eligible articles. Included were studies which reported hip injuries in artistic athletes, the risk factors, treatment, and/or the clinical outcomes. Read More
*Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut; †Division of Cardiology, Henry Low Heart Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut; ‡Department of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio; §Cardiovascular Performance Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and ¶Boston Athletic Association, Boston, Massachusetts.
Objective: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use and compression socks on hemostatic activation in women flying cross-country to and from a marathon.
*UGA Concussion Research Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; ‡Athletic Association, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; and §University Health Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
*Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH; †Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH; and ‡Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: Correlational studies have linked short sleep to adolescents' report of postconcussion symptoms and cognitive performance during concussion assessments. This study tested whether those are cause-effect relationships.
Design: Three-week randomly counterbalanced, within-subjects, crossover experiment. Read More
A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) is a relatively rare condition that is caused by a traumatic shearing force. This force leads to a closed degloving injury of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia that creates a potential space that can fill with lymph, blood, and necrotic fat. The MLLs are traditionally seen after high impact trauma and typically located at the greater trochanter and pelvis, although recent reports have found them to be located at the knee, thigh, and lower leg. Read More
*The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts; †Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; ‡Brain Injury Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; §Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; ¶Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and Departments of ‖Ophthalmology; and **Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
*Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, PRC China; †Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; ‡National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; §Physical Activity and Human Performance Group, SMI, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; and ¶Performance Health, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
*The SPORT Center, Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; †Division of Health Sciences, Department of Athletic Training, Mount St. Joseph University, Cincinnati, Ohio; ‡Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, Utah; §SportsPlus, Pleasanton, California; ¶Towson Orthopaedic Associates, Towson, Maryland; ‖MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland; **Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Ohio; ††The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts; and ‡‡The Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Objective: By the end of 2013, the United States had an estimated 278 000 female lacrosse players, with half of those participating at the youth level. The effects of the sport's rapid growth on injury rates have yet to be determined. The purpose of this clinical review is to synthesize the available published data on injuries that have occurred in the sport of women's lacrosse. Read More
Objective: Pitching injuries are getting increased attention in the mass media. Many references are made to pitch counts and the role they play in injury prevention. The original purpose of regulating the pitch count in youth baseball was to reduce injury and fatigue to pitchers. Read More
*Department of Family Medicine, OhioHealth Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; †Department of Family Medicine, OhioHealth Grant Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio; and ‡Summa Health System, Orthopedic Institute, Akron, Ohio.
*Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; and †School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
*Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA; †Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; ‡Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Seattle, WA; and §Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Objective: First, to assess whether teams at schools with an athletic trainer (AT) on staff had a higher number of diagnosed concussions than teams without medical personnel present. Second, to assess whether the variability in employment of a certified AT by Washington state high schools is patterned by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
*Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana, Pisa, Italy; †Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy; ‡Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II; and §University of Nebraska Medical Center, Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.
Objective: Benefits of physical activity has been shown in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). In several forms of CHD, the risk of sudden death remains a major concern both for parents and clinicians, who in turn will have to consider the risk-benefit ratio of sport participation versus restriction.
Data Source: A literature search was performed within the National Library of Medicine using the keywords: Sport, CHD, and Eligibility. Read More
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other academically-relevant diagnoses have been suggested as modifiers of neurocognitive testing in sport-related concussion, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). These preexisting conditions may suppress ImPACT scores to the extent that they are indistinguishable from low scores because of poor effort. The present study hypothesized that student athletes with history of ADHD or academic difficulties produce lower ImPACT composite scores and are more likely to produce invalid protocols than those without such conditions. Read More
From the *Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; and †Division of Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Objective: To determine whether a posterior shoulder stretch was effective in increasing internal rotation (IR) and horizontal adduction (HAd) range of motion (ROM) in overhead athletes identified as having reduced mobility.
From the Departments of *Sports Medicine; and†Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey;‡Department of Periodontology, Hacettepe University School of Dentistry, Ankara, Turkey;§Medifit Sports Clinic, Ankara, Turkey; and¶Departments of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
Objectives: To establish the incidence and patterns of football injuries and associated consequences in daily life and labor loss, among public employees.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Football tournament between public employees in Turkey. Read More
From the *NeuroTrauma Research Laboratory, University of Michigan Injury Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI;†NeuroTrauma Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI;‡Michigan NeuroSport, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI;§Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Michigan NeuroSport, University of Michigan; and¶Human Sensorimotor Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Objective: To evaluate neuroelectric and cognitive function relative to a season of football participation. Cognitive and neuroelectric function declines are hypothesized to be present in football athletes.
*Department of Kinesiology, College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and†Health and Exercise Science Lab, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program with an elastic band on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and cognitive function in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. Read More
*Division of Orthopedic Rheumatology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; Departments of †Radiology, ‡Orthopedic Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; §Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany; and ¶Department of Internal Medicine 1, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Objective: To emphasize the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries with different degrees of severity by comparing findings to established imaging modalities such as conventional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
*Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, the University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee; †School of Health Studies, the University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee; ‡College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee; §Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; and ¶Tranquility Behavioral Health, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.
Objective: To examine differences in bone mass between children and adolescents swimming competitively at nonelite levels (locally and regionally) and nonathletes and to assess changes in bone mass in these 2 groups over 24 months after taking into consideration several known confounders of bone mass.
Design: Observational prospective study.
Participants: White nonelite swimmers (n = 128) and nonathletes (n = 106) 8 to 18 years of age from Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Read More
*Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina; †Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; ‡Department of Physical Therapy, Duquense University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; §Department of Athletics, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina; and ¶Greensboro Orthopaedics, Greensboro, North Carolina.
Objective: This study investigates 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [Apolipoprotein E (APOE), APOE promoter, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and dopamine D2 receptor] that have been implicated in concussion susceptibility and/or cognitive ability in collegiate student-athletes.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Neuroscience laboratory at Elon University. Read More
*Department of Physical Therapy, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil; †Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI), Imperial College London & Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; ‡Institute of Physical Activity Sciences and Sports, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil; §Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil; and ¶Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (LIM-60), University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.
Objective: To assess the frequency of atopy (specific IgE levels), to evaluate the allergic symptoms using the Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA), and to determine whether atopy is associated with allergic symptoms in elite endurance athletes.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Assessments were performed at Hospital das Clinicas-São Paulo University Medical School. Read More
*Division of Pediatric Neurology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; †Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and ‡Division of Sports Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.
Objective: To characterize the presence and degree of postconcussion lightheadedness in relation to postconcussion vertigo and dizziness, and to determine whether lightheadedness influences overall symptom duration.
Design: Prospective, cohort design.
Setting: Nationwide Children's Hospital, Sports Concussion Clinic. Read More
*Steadman Hawkins Clinic of the Carolinas, Greenville, South Carolina; †Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; ‡Andrews Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama; and §Sports Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
From the *Sydney East Sports Medicine and Orthopaedics, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; †The Sports Clinic, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; ‡Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; §Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; and ¶Orthosports, Randwick, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Objective: To establish whether the use of ultrasound to direct shock waves to the area of greater calcification in calcaneal enthesopathies was more effective than the common procedure of directing shock waves to the point where the patient has the most tenderness.
Design: Two-armed nonblinded randomized control trial with allocation concealment.
Setting: The Sports Clinic at Sydney University. Read More
*James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom; †Manchester Arm Clinic, Wilmslow, United Kingdom; and ‡Upper Limb Department, Wrightington Hospital, Lancashire, United Kingdom.
Objective: We report the largest case series of shoulder injuries among paddlers so far to establish common mechanisms and patterns of injury. We also discuss how these injuries were managed and report the proportion of paddlers that return to paddlesport.
Background: Preparticipation physical examinations (PPEs) are required for children and adolescents before sports participation to identify at-risk athletes. These evaluations can be completed in a traditional office-based setting or in a station-based format. It is unclear if one format is superior to the other in identifying at-risk athletes. Read More
*GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; †Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2); ‡Division of Developmental Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, University of Glasgow Medical Faculty, Glasgow, Scotland; §Faculty of Health Science, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; ¶Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn); and ‖GALENO Research Group, Department of Physical Education, University of Cádiz, Puerto Real (Cádiz) Spain.
Objective: The present review sought to examine the evidence on the associations between pedometer-determined physical activity and adiposity.
Design: Of 304 potentially eligible articles, 36 were included. A search for observational studies was carried out using Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), the OVID (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO), EBSCOhost (Sportdiscus), and PEDro database from their commenced to July 2015. Read More
*CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland;Departments of †Sports Orthopedics and Traumatology, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany;‡Private Clinic Hochrum, Innsbruck, Austria;§Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; and¶Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Objective: Sport climbers strain passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to the maximum during training or competition. This study was designed to investigate bone marrow edema (BME) in rock climbing athletes.
Design: Systematic detection, treatment, and follow-up investigation of rock climbing athletes with BME of the hand. Read More
Objective: To evaluate whether an 8-week whole-body vibration training program may improve recovery of knee flexion/extension muscular strength in athletes after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Setting: Single outpatient rehabilitation center. Read More