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    4640 results match your criteria Clinical Immunology[Journal]

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    Radiographic progression in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 24:1-9. Epub 2018 May 24.
    a Department of Gastroenterology , Infectiology and Rheumatology, Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin , Berlin , Germany.
    Introduction: Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) represents a subtype of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) with no significant structural damage in sacroiliac joints and spine. In addition, patients with nr-axSpA demonstrate a substantial burden of illness, and a considerable share of them might progress to radiographic axSpA (r-axSpA) over time. The amount and quality of published data allows crude estimation of progression rate and factors related to a higher risk of progression. Read More

    An anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis mimicking an HIV encephalitis.
    Clin Immunol 2018 May 14;193:10-11. Epub 2018 May 14.
    AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 47-83 boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France,; UPMC Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France; INSERM U1135 'HIV Pathogenesis and Immune Aging', Immunity and Infectious Diseases Research Center, 31, boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    The incidence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) were reduced with the use of antiretroviral therapy. In case of neuropsychiatric symptoms, after elimination of all infections, auto-immune encephalitis could be evocated as a differential diagnosis. We describe a case of anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor encephalitis in an HIV-1 infected woman. Read More

    Important considerations in pregnant patients with lupus nephritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 24:1-10. Epub 2018 May 24.
    a Nephrology Unit , Fondazione Ca' Granda IRCCS Ospdale Maggiore Policlinico Milano , Milano , Italy.
    Introduction: In the last few decades, identification of predictors of pregnancy outcome and appropriate pregnancy planning have significantly reduced the maternal and fetal risks in pregnant women with lupus nephritis. Areas covered: Successful pregnancies have been reported even in women with chronic renal disease and renal insufficiency. However, refractory hypertension and severe renal or cardiac chronic dysfunction are still considered contraindications to pregnancy. Read More

    Anti-infective chemoprophylaxis after solid-organ transplantation.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    a Division of Infectious Diseases, The William J von Liebig Center for Transplantation and Clinical Regeneration , Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic , Rochester , Minnesota 55905 , USA.
    Introduction: Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Read More

    Advagraf® with or without an induction therapy for de novo kidney-transplant recipients.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 21:1-7. Epub 2018 May 21.
    a Service de Néphrologie, Hémodialyse , Aphérèses et Transplantation , Grenoble-Alpes , France.
    Introduction: Cornerstone immunosuppressive therapy currently relies on immediate-release tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) that is potentially nephrotoxic and is more diabetogenic than cyclosporine A. Two new formulations of tacrolimus have been launched: an extended-release formulation (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®, Astellas company) and a long-lasting formulation (Envarsus®, Veloxis company). Area covered: Herein, we assess the efficacy of an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®) used in conjunction with or without an induction therapy (i. Read More

    Icatibant for the treatment of hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency in adolescents and in children aged over 2 years.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 24:1-14. Epub 2018 May 24.
    a Hungarian Angioedema Reference Center, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine , Semmelweis University , Budapest , Hungary.
    Introduction: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disorder with life-threatening complications if untreated. It begins during childhood, and reduces the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the availability of an easily administered agent to relieve unpredictable HAE episodes is indispensable for this age group. Read More

    The role of imaging in early diagnosis and prevention of joint damage in inflammatory arthritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 24:1-13. Epub 2018 May 24.
    a Department of Medicine & Therapeutics , The Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shatin , Hong Kong.
    Introduction: Inflammatory arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation in the synovium, associated with degradation of cartilage and erosion of juxta-articular bone. The bone loss and joint destruction mediated by aberrant immunological responses resulting in proinflammatory cytokine release and various immune cell activation are known as osteoimmunology. Areas covered: A structured literature search including Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses and abstracts of international congresses was performed to review joint damage in inflammatory arthritis in terms of pathogenesis, novel imaging assessment, and prevention. Read More

    23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine elicits hierarchical antibody and cellular responses in healthy and tuberculosis-cured elderly, and HIV-1-infected subjects.
    Clin Immunol 2018 May 9;193:1-9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Primate Biomedical Research, University of Illinois College Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, United States.
    The PPV23 immunizes healthy elderly and other high-risk populations against pneumococcal disease. Immune mechanisms whereby these populations differently mount antibody(Ab) and cellular responses to PPV23 vaccination remain unknown. Here, healthy elderly, those elderly with prior tuberculosis-cured history (TB-cured), and HIV-infected humans were vaccinated with PPV23, and assessed for opsonophagocytic Ab responses and potential cellular mechanisms. Read More

    The tolerogenic peptide hCDR1 immunomodulates cytokine and regulatory molecule gene expression in blood mononuclear cells of primary Sjogren's syndrome patients.
    Clin Immunol 2018 May 4;192:85-91. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:
    Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands. We investigated whether the tolerogenic peptide, hCDR1, that ameliorates lupus manifestations would have beneficial effects on pSS as well. The in vitro effects of hCDR1 on gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulatory molecules were tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 16 pSS patients. Read More

    Cigarette smoking and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 11:1-7. Epub 2018 May 11.
    a Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy , Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston , MA , USA.
    Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. It is thought that environmental exposures 'trigger' or accelerate the disease in genetically-predisposed individuals. Areas covered: Substantial epidemiological evidence exists to support the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of incident SLE. Read More

    CD14 monocytes contribute to inflammation in chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) through increased NLRP3 inflammasome expression.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:
    The pathophysiology of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) remains incompletely understood. Increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release in monocytes from CNO patients was suggested to contribute to bone inflammation. Here, we dissect immune cell infiltrates and demonstrate the involvement of monocytes across disease stages. Read More

    Alpha-lactose reverses liver injury via blockade of Tim-3-mediated CD8 apoptosis in sepsis.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 22;192:78-84. Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Department of Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:
    In sepsis, the liver plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and is also a target organ for immune-related injury. Despite the critical function of CD8 T cells against opportunistic viral infections, the CD8 immune response in the liver during sepsis remains elusive. Here we found that Tim-3 is highly up-regulated in liver CD8 T cells in a mouse cecal ligation and puncture model and in peripheral blood CD8 T cells of human patients with sepsis. Read More

    Immunogenicity of biologic therapies: causes and consequences.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 25:1-11. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    a Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine , University of Geneva , Geneva , Switzerland.
    Introduction: Antibodies or fusion proteins termed biologics allow the targeted therapy of diseases. Many of these agents have proven superior efficacy and safety to conventional therapies, and subsequently revolutionized the management of numerous chronic diseases. Repetitive administration of these protein-based therapeutics to immunocompetent patients elicit immune responses in the form of Anti Drug Antibodies (ADAs), which in turn impact their pharmacological properties and may trigger adverse events. Read More

    Quality of life in psoriatic arthritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 30;14(5):405-417. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    b Department of Rheumatology , Sorbonne Université, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique; AP-HP, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital , Paris , France.
    Introduction: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a multi-organ chronic inflammatory disease which impacts patients both physically and psychologically. The highest priority for patients goes to pain relief, but also to ability to function and participate in social life, fatigue, and psychological distress. Areas covered: In the present article, we will review current knowledge on impairments of health-related quality of life related to PsA, as well as patient priorities and patient-reported outcome measures such as the PsA Impact of Disease or the PsA Quality of Life questionnaires. Read More

    Role of dendritic cells in peanut allergy.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 25;14(5):367-378. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    b Translational Allergy and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology , School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile , Santiago , Chile.
    Introduction: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) has increased, affecting approximately 1.1% of children in Western countries. PA causes life-threatening anaphylaxis and frequently persists for life. Read More

    Unique glandular ex-vivo Th1 and Th17 receptor motifs in Sjögren's syndrome patients using single-cell analysis.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 19;192:58-67. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; Department of Oral Biology, USA; Center of Orphaned Autoimmune Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Electronic address:
    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease in which the underlying cause has yet to be elucidated. The main objective of this study was to determine the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of individual infiltrating T helper (Th)-1 and 17 cells of pSS patients using single-cell analysis. Single-cell analysis of ex-vivo infiltrating T cells demonstrated that pSS patients had higher frequencies of activated Th17 cells. Read More

    Caffeine inhibits STAT1 signaling and downregulates inflammatory pathways involved in autoimmunity.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 18;192:68-77. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:
    Caffeine is a widely consumed pharmacologically active product. We focused on characterizing immunomodulatory effects of caffeine on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Caffeine at high doses showed a robust downregulatory effect on cytokine activity and genes related to several autoimmune diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Read More

    Tocilizumab for the treatment of giant cell arteritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 9;14(5):339-349. Epub 2018 May 9.
    b Rheumatology Unit , Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, and Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia , Modena , Italy.
    Introduction: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most frequent type of vasculitis, occurring in people older than 50 years. So far, treatment has been limited to corticosteroids and methotrexate only. Areas covered: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the pathophysiology of GCA. Read More

    Prognosis and monitoring of giant cell arteritis and associated complications.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 26;14(5):379-388. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    b Division of Rheumatology , Mayo Clinic College of Medicine , Rochester , MN , USA.
    Introduction: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in people over the age of 50 years. Prospective imaging studies in GCA highlight the systemic nature of this vasculitis. Areas covered: This review summarizes literature using PubMed on complications of GCA and its treatment. Read More

    La/SSB chimeric autoantibody receptor modified NK92MI cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 16;192:40-49. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    The Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; PersonGen BioTherapeutics (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., PR China; State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:
    It has been long sought to specifically eliminate B-cell clones that generate autoreactive antibodies, while sparing the immune system when combating autoimmune disease. Although it was impossible to achieve this goal before, newly developed techniques have made it feasible today. Autoantibodies against La/SSB were involved in several autoimmune diseases. Read More

    The role of Syk in peripheral T cells.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 16;192:50-57. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, United States. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to understand how Syk affects peripheral T cell function. T cells from Syk chimeric mice and DR1 Syk CD4 conditional mice gave strong CD3-induced Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine responses. However, an altered peptide ligand (APL) of human CII (256-276) with two substitutions (F263N, E266D), also called A12, elicited only Th2 cytokine responses from Syk T cells but not SykCD4 T cells. Read More

    Prediction of response to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 26;14(5):419-429. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    c Professor of Rheumatology, Arthritis Research UK Centre for Genetics and Genomics, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research , The University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is the first-line disease-modifying drug of choice in controlling active inflammation of the synovium that characterises rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition. However, many patients do not respond to treatment with MTX or cannot tolerate the medication. Pre-treatment characteristics that predict response to MTX are, therefore, of particular interest and potential clinical utility. Read More

    Complications of adult-onset Still's disease and their management.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 26;14(5):351-365. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    a Department of Rheumatology , Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP , Paris , France.
    Introduction: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic auto-inflammatory disorder in which management and treatment have considerably progressed over the past decade. Despite wide use of interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors, serious complications remain possible. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE via Pubmed was performed to review AOSD's severe and sometimes life-threatening complications: reactive hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis, coagulation disorders, fulminant hepatitis, cardiac or pulmonary complications and amyloid A amyloidosis. Read More

    Immune senescence, epigenetics and autoimmunity.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Division of Geriatric and Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:
    Aging of the immune system in humans and animals is characterized by a decline in both adaptive and innate immune responses. Paradoxically, aging is also associated with a state of chronic inflammation ("inflammaging") and an increased likelihood of developing autoimmune diseases. Epigenetic changes in non-dividing and dividing cells, including immune cells, due to environmental factors contribute to the inflammation and autoimmunity that characterize both the state and diseases of aging. Read More

    Oxidative stress and dietary micronutrient deficiencies contribute to overexpression of epigenetically regulated genes by lupus T cells.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:
    Patients with active lupus have altered T cells characterized by low DNA methyltransferase levels. We hypothesized that low DNA methyltransferase levels synergize with low methionine levels to cause greater overexpression of genes normally suppressed by DNA methylation. CD4+ T cells from lupus patients and controls were stimulated with PHA then cultured in custom media with normal or low methionine levels. Read More

    Epigenetic alterations in primary Sjögren's syndrome - an overview.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. In addition, pSS may affect multiple other organs resulting in systemic manifestations. Although the precise etiology of pSS remains elusive, pSS is considered to be a multi-factorial disease, where underlying genetic predisposition, environmental factors and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to disease development. Read More

    The interaction between environmental triggers and epigenetics in autoimmunity.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 9;192:1-5. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, SRB 3007, 109 Zina Pitcher Pl., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200, United States. Electronic address:
    Systemic lupus erythematosus flares when genetically predisposed people encounter environmental agents that cause oxidative stress, such as infections and sunlight. How these modify the immune system to initiate flares is unclear. Drug induced lupus models demonstrate that CD4+ T cells epigenetically altered with DNA methylation inhibitors cause lupus in animal models, and similar T cells are found in patients with active lupus. Read More

    The challenge of establishing treatment efficacy for cutaneous vascular manifestations of systemic sclerosis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 26;14(5):431-442. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    a Department of Rheumatology, Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases , Royal United Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Bath , UK.
    Introduction: The cutaneous vascular manifestations of systemic sclerosis (SSc) comprise Raynaud's phenomenon, cutaneous ulceration, telangiectasia formation and critical digital ischaemia; each of which are associated with significant disease-related morbidity. Despite the availability of multiple classes of vasodilator therapy, many of which have been the subject of RCTs, a limited number of pharmacological interventions are currently approved for the management of cutaneous vascular manifestations of SSc. Areas covered: A major challenge has been demonstrating treatment efficacy with examples of promising therapies yielding contrasting results in controlled trial settings. Read More

    Elevated expression of TSLP and IL-33 in Behçet's disease skin lesions: IL-37 alleviate inflammatory effect of TSLP.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 6;192:14-19. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, Tunisia; Unit Research "12SP15": "Homeostasis and Cell Dysfuncyion", Tunisia. Electronic address:
    The release of TSLP and IL-33 affect the skin integrity, which unsettled transcription factor regulators. We investigate TSLP and IL-33 in Behçet disease (BD) and we prove the effect of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-37 in BD skin lesions on TSLP production. TSLP, IL-33 and GATA-3/T-bet, were measured using PCR in BD skin lesions. Read More

    The search for drug-targetable diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 May 19;14(5):389-404. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Indiana University , Indianapolis , IN , USA.
    Introduction: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) continues to be the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which is an increasingly applied curative method for both benign and malignant hematologic disorders. Biomarker identification is crucial for the development of noninvasive and cost-effective cGVHD diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive test for use in clinic. Furthermore, biomarkers may help to gain a better insight on ongoing pathophysiological processes. Read More

    Comparison of efficacy of TNF inhibitors and abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; Adjusted with propensity score matching.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 31;191:67-74. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    The First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen in routine clinical practice treated with either TNF inhibitors or abatacept. To overcome potential bias, both propensity score matching and Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting were used for patient selection. The propensity score matching procedure selected 315 matched pairs of patients who were treated with TNF inhibitors or abatacept. Read More

    New biologics for allergic diseases.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 10;14(4):285-296. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    b The Cohen Family Asthma Institute, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine , National Jewish Health , Denver , CO , USA.
    Introduction: Allergic conditions such as asthma and atopic dermatitis have a high prevalence but represent a heterogeneous group of diseases despite similar clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology. A better understanding of the phenotypes and endotypes of these diseases has driven rapid development of biologic medications targeting many steps of the inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: There are 2 major inflammatory pathways that drive allergic diseases: Type-2 (Th-2) inflammation and non-type 2 inflammation. Read More

    More intensive CMV-infection in chronic heart failure patients contributes to higher T-lymphocyte differentiation degree.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 30;192:20-29. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Immunology Department, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address:
    Immunosenescence in chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by a high frequency of differentiated T-lymphocytes, contributing to an inflammatory status and a deficient ability to generate immunocompetent responses. CMV is the best known inducer of T-lymphocyte differentiation, and is associated with the phenomenon of immunosenescence. In this study, we included 58 elderly chronic heart failure patients (ECHF), 60 healthy elderly controls (HEC), 40 young chronic heart failure patients (YCHF) and 40 healthy young controls (HYC). Read More

    Characterization of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase as an immunomodulator for novel formulation of oral allergy immunotherapy.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 30;192:30-39. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    To improve current mucosal allergen immunotherapy Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NA) was evaluated as a novel epithelial targeting molecule for functionalization of allergen-loaded, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) and compared to the previously described epithelial targeting lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). All targeters revealed binding to Caco-2 cells, but only NA had high binding specificity to α-L fucose and monosialoganglioside-1. An increased transepithelial uptake was found for NA-MPs in a M-cell co-culture model. Read More

    Epigenome-wide association studies for systemic autoimmune diseases: The road behind and the road ahead.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Pfizer - University of Granada - Andalusian Government Center for Genomics and Oncological Research (GENYO), Granada, Spain; Unit of Inflammatory Chronic Diseases, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Epigenetics is known to be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Epigenetic variations can act as integrators of environmental and genetic exposures and propagate activated states in immune cells. Studying epigenetic alterations by means of genome-wide approaches promises to unravel novel molecular mechanisms related to disease etiology, disease progression, clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Read More

    Patients with core antibody positive and surface antigen negative Hepatitis B (anti-HBc+, HBsAg-) on anti-TNF therapy have a low rate of reactivation.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 28;191:59-62. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:
    Anti-TNF agents are widely used to treat immune-mediated disorders. Reactivation of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with immunosuppressive agents and biologics such as anti-TNF. There are limited data and differing guidelines for patients with negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-) but positive antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc+) on anti-TNF with regards to outcomes and need for anti-viral prophylaxis. Read More

    Characterization of a large UNC13D gene duplication in a patient with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 26;191:63-66. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) type 3 is a life-threatening immune dysregulation syndrome caused by mutations in the UNC13D gene, encoding the munc13-4 protein, which is important for function of cytotoxic lymphocytes. FHL3 accounts for 30-40% of FHL cases, and more than 100 mutations in the UNC13D gene have been described to date. We describe the first case of FHL3 carrying an intragenic duplication of UNC13D, apparently mediated by recombination of Alu elements. Read More

    Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and chronic periodontitis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 12;14(4):315-327. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    g Department of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
    Introduction: Current studies show that, even in the era of antiretroviral therapies, HIV-1 infection is associated with more severe and frequent refractory chronic periodontitis. Areas covered: This review, based on a systematic analysis of the literature, intends to provide an update on factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV-1-infected patients, including local immunosuppression, oral microbial factors, systemic inflammation, salivary markers, and the role of gingival tissue as a possible reservoir of HIV-1. Expert commentary: The therapeutic revolution of ART made HIV-1 infection a chronic controllable disease, reduced HIV-1 mortality rate, restored at least partially the immune response and dramatically increased life expectancy of HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Clinical considerations in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant management of primary immunodeficiencies.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 11;14(4):297-306. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    b Primary Immunodeficiency Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine , Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK.
    Introduction: Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic immune disorders causing increased predisposition to infections and autoimmunity. The only curative procedure is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), results from which have improved dramatically since 2000. Complications remain a serious issue, especially in HLA non-identical transplantation. Read More

    Epigenetics as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:
    Autoimmune diseases are immune system disorders in which immune cells cannot distinguish self-antigens from foreign ones. The current criteria for autoimmune disease diagnosis are based on clinical manifestations and laboratory tests. However, none of these markers shows both high sensitivity and specificity. Read More

    Phase Ib trial of folate binding protein (FBP)-derived peptide vaccines, E39 and an attenuated version, E39': An analysis of safety and immune response.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 21;192:6-13. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler St, Unit 1434, Houston, TX 77030, United States. Electronic address:
    In this randomized phase Ib trial, we tested combining the E39 peptide vaccine with a vaccine created from E39', an attenuated version of E39. Patients with breast or ovarian cancer, who were disease-free after standard of care therapy, were enrolled and randomized to one of three arms. Arm EE received six E39 inoculations; arm EE' received three E39 inoculations followed by three E39'; and arm E'E received three E39' inoculations, followed by three E39. Read More

    TNFAIP3 haploinsufficiency is the cause of autoinflammatory manifestations in a patient with a deletion of 13Mb on chromosome 6.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 20;191:44-51. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Jeffrey Modell Diagnostic and Research Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Barcelona, Spain; Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiencies Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Infection in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain; Medicine Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
    There is scarce literature about autoinflammation in syndromic patients. We describe a patient who, in addition to psychomotor and growth delay, presented with fevers, neutrophilic dermatosis, and recurrent orogenital ulcers. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array permitted to identify a 13. Read More

    Immunomodulating peptides derived from different human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) show dissimilar impact on pathogenesis of a multiple sclerosis animal disease model.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 19;191:37-43. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark; Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Department of Rheumatology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Retroviruses including Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), contain a conserved region with highly immunomodulatory functions in the transmembrane proteins in envelope gene (env) named immunosuppressive domain (ISU). In this report, we demonstrate that Env59-GP3 peptide holds therapeutic potential in a mouse model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The results show that this specific HERV-H derived ISU peptide, but not peptide derived from another env gene HERV-K, decreased the development of EAE in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by reduced demyelination and inhibition of inflammatory cells. Read More

    IPEX due to an exon 7 skipping FOXP3 mutation with autoimmune diabetes mellitus cured by selective T cell engraftment.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 19;191:52-58. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Immunology, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare inherited disorder leading to severe organ-specific autoimmunity. IPEX is caused by hemizygous mutations in FOXP3, which codes for a master transcription factor of regulatory T (T) cell development and function. We describe a four-year-old boy with typical but slightly delayed-onset of IPEX with autoimmune diabetes mellitus, enteropathy, hepatitis and skin disease. Read More

    Thrombomodulin (TM) in tumor cell differentiation and periphery blood immune microenvironment in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
    Clin Immunol 2018 Jun 18;191:27-33. Epub 2018 Mar 18.
    Guanghua School of Stomatology, Stomatological Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, SunYat-sen University, No. 56, Lingyuan West Road, Guangzhou 510055, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:
    Thrombomodulin (TM, also known as CD141), which functions as an anticoagulant, is widely expressed on cell surface of a variety of cell types, including human blood cells as well as certain immune cells. To determine whether TM could be a potential marker for OSCC diagnosis as well as a molecular target for OSCC therapy, we examined the expression of TM in an oral cancer tissue microarray with 153 oral cancer tissues. Further, we also analyzed the expression of TM on DCs of 36 OSCC patients and 36 healthy donors. Read More

    New therapies versus first-generation biologic drugs in psoriasis: a review of adverse events and their management.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 28;14(4):259-273. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    b Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona , Badalona , Spain.
    Introduction: Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. Read More

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