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    mTOR inhibitor rapamycin induce polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells mobilization and function in protecting against acute graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Institute of Hematology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) has been shown to be an effective immunosuppressor in the management of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after bone marrow transplantation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) also have a protective effect in aGVHD regulation. However, the relationship between RAPA and MDSCs in aGVHD models is unclear. Read More

    Treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria: Immunomodulatory approaches.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Saint-Luc University Hospital, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Pole of Pneumology, ENT and Dermatology, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    This paper summarizes and reviews the mechanisms of action and data concerning efficacy of recommended treatments as well as other treatments that have been tested, independently of the outcomes, in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Due to the central role of mast cells and histamine in the pathophysiology of this disease, H1-antihistamines remain the first-line treatment. However, current knowledge about this complex disease, also recognizes an important role for T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and autoantibodies. Read More

    Enhanced activation of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and experimental smoking-induced emphysema.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China. Electronic address:
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key cells bridging the innate with adaptive immunity. However, the phenotypic characteristics of circulating pDCs and its role in smoking related-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was analyzed the phenotype of circulating pDCs and the expression of IFN-γ producing CD8(+)T cells and IL-17-producing CD8(+)T cells in patients with COPD by using multi-colour flow cytometry. Read More

    Downregulation of BDH2 modulates iron homeostasis and promotes DNA demethylation in CD4(+) T cells of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Dermatology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:
    DNA hypomethylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we investigated whether 3-hydroxy butyrate dehydrogenase 2 (BDH2), a modulator of intracellular iron homeostasis, was involved in regulating DNA hypomethylation and hyper-hydroxymethylation in lupus CD4(+) T cells. Our results showed that BDH2 expression was decreased, intracellular iron was increased, global DNA hydroxymethylation level was elevated, while methylation level was reduced in lupus CD4(+) T cells compared with healthy controls. Read More

    Reprint of "Dual blockade of the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 and the homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 is as effective as high dose cyclophosphamide in murine proliferative lupus nephritis".
    Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 28;185:119-127. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Medizinische Klinik and Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Induction therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis still requires the use of unselective immunosuppressive drugs with significant toxicities. In search of more specific drugs with equal efficacy but fewer side effects we considered blocking pro-inflammatory chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and homeostatic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), which both contribute to the onset and progression of proliferative lupus nephritis yet through different mechanisms. We hypothesized that dual antagonism could be as potent on lupus nephritis as the unselective immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CYC). Read More

    The impact of biologic agents on health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with psoriasis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    a Baylor University Medical Center - Division of Dermatology , 3900 Junius Street, Suite 145, Dallas , TX , 75246 , USA.
    Introduction: Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated skin disease often associated with significant physical and psychosocial impairment. Antipsoriatic biologic agents offer patients unparalleled treatment potential in regard to greater skin clearance and overall improved quality of life. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of biologic agents on the full psoriasis disease burden must account for their impact on both physical symptoms, as well as patient-reported, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurements. Read More

    Allergen immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 10:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    c ASST Pini/CTO , Cardiac/Pulmonary Rehabilitation , Milan , Italy.
    Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease, characterized by flare-up due to the exposure to allergens in patients sensitized to them. Currently, therapy of AD is mainly based on symptomatic treatment and avoidance of irritating/allergenic factors, house dust mites being particularly important. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is suggested to be the only etiologic treatment, to modify the natural history of the disease. Read More

    HIV patients, healthy aging and transplant recipients can reveal the hidden footprints of CMV.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia and Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Electronic address:
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus. Latent infections are common in all populations. However age-associated increases in levels of CMV-reactive antibody are testament to a repeated reactivations and periods of viral replication. Read More

    SOCS-1 ameliorates smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of ASK-1 activity and DISC formation.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China. Electronic address:
    Smoke inhalation leads to acute lung injury (ALI), a devastating clinical problem associated with high mortality. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) is a negative regulator of apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling, two major contributors to the pathogenesis of ALI. We have found that SOCS-1 protects lung epithelial cells from smoke-induced apoptosis through two mechanisms. Read More

    Recurrent allograft C3 glomerulonephritis and unsuccessful eculizumab treatment.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Immunobiology Research Program, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland; HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    There is a great lack of efficient treatments for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and recently emerged complement therapies have been proposed to be useful. We report a patient with a complement-mediated MPGN having recurrencies in kidney allografts and an unsuccessful treatment with complement inhibitor, eculizumab (anti-C5 monoclonal antibody). Nephritic factor (C3Nef), an autoantibody against C3bBb, in the patient serum activated C3 but not C5 showing that major damage was mediated by C3 activation with clearly less involvement of C5 explaining unresponsiveness to eculizumab. Read More

    The role of blood and CSF biomarkers in the evaluation of new treatments against multiple sclerosis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 9;13(12):1143-1153. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    b Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at Sahlgrenska Academy , University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Therapeutic interventions with immunomodulatory agents reduce disease activity and disability development, which are monitored clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these measures largely lack information on the impact from these therapies on inflammation, demyelination and axonal injury, the essential pathophysiological features of MS. Read More

    Fingolimod induces BAFF and expands circulating transitional B cells without activating memory B cells and plasma cells in multiple sclerosis.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido Medical Center, 1-1 Yamanote 5-jo 7-chome, Nishi-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 063-0005, Japan.
    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are treated with fingolimod have an increased proportion of transitional B cells in the circulation, but the underlying mechanism is not known. We hypothesized that B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) is involved in the process. Compared with healthy controls and untreated MS patients, fingolimod-treated MS patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of BAFF, which positively correlated with the proportions and the absolute numbers of transitional B cells in blood. Read More

    Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets provide long-term relief of grass pollen-associated allergic rhinitis and reduce the risk of asthma: findings from a retrospective, real-world database subanalysis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 6;13(12):1199-1206. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    d Institute of Epidemiology , Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health GmbH , Neuherberg , Germany.
    Background: We assessed real-world, long-term effectiveness of two marketed sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets for allergic rhinitis (AR), and their impact on allergic asthma (AA) onset/progression.

    Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal German prescription database subanalysis of AR patients receiving 5- or 1-grass pollen SLIT tablets (n = 1,466/1,385), versus patients not using allergy immunotherapy (AIT) (n = 71,275). Primary endpoint: change over time in AR symptomatic medication prescriptions after treatment cessation; secondary endpoints: new asthma onset, and change over time in asthma medication prescriptions during treatment/follow-up periods. Read More

    Increased proportion of a CD38(high)IgD(+) B cell subset in peripheral blood is associated with clinical and immunological features in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    We investigated the correlation between the increased proportion of peripheral B cell subsets and clinical and immunological features in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We found that the proportion of CD19(+) B cells was significantly increased in pSS as compared with HC and was correlated with serum IgG levels. Moreover, in vitro IgG production by CD19(+) B cells was significantly increased in pSS and was positively and significantly correlated with serum IgG levels. Read More

    Amelioration of NK cell function driven by Vα24(+) invariant NKT cell activation in multiple myeloma.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Laboratory for Immunotherapy, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science (IMS), Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:
    NK cells represent a first line of immune defense, but are progressively dysregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. To restore and facilitate their antitumor effect, NK cells are required in sufficient quantities and must be stimulated. We initially assessed the proportions of NKT and NK cells in 34 MM patients. Read More

    DNA recombination defects in Kuwait: Clinical, immunologic and genetic profile.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Division of Immunology, Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Defects in DNA Recombination due to mutations in RAG1/2 or DCLRE1C result in combined immunodeficiency (CID) with a range of disease severity. We present the clinical, immunologic and molecular characteristics of 21 patients with defects in RAG1, RAG2 or DCLRE1C, who accounted for 24% of combined immune deficiency cases in the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry. The distribution of the patients was as follow: 8 with RAG1 deficiency, 6 with RAG2 deficiency and 7 with DCLRE1C deficiency. Read More

    Overexpression of Notch ligand Delta-like-1 by dendritic cells enhances their immunoregulatory capacity and exerts antiallergic effects on Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, and Notch ligand Delta-like-1 (DLL1) on DCs was implicated in type 1T helper (Th1) differentiation. In this study, we produced genetically engineered bone marrow-derived DCs that expressed DLL1 (DLL1-DCs) by adenoviral transduction. DLL1-DCs exerted a fully mature phenotype, and had positive effects on expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and costimulatory molecules. Read More

    RI-002, an intravenous immunoglobulin containing high titer neutralizing antibody to RSV and other respiratory viruses for use in primary immunodeficiency disease and other immune compromised populations.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 16;13(12):1107-1119. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    c Chief Medical and Scientific Officer- ADMA Biologics Inc ., Ramsey , NJ , USA.
    Introduction: Novel immune globulin (IG) products (RI-002, RI-001) have been designed to provide protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediated respiratory illness while at the same time meeting the manufacturing requirements established by FDA for antibody supplementation in immunocompromised subjects. Areas covered: This review covers the manufacture and development of both RI-001 and RI-002, including the selection of plasma donors for IG preparation with high-titers of anti-RSV antibody, in vitro, and preclinical data in the cotton rat model S. hispidus, and clinical trials including Phase II and compassionate use studies of RI-001 and a multi-center, pivotal Phase III study of RI-002 in PIDD patients. Read More

    Ataxia telangiectasia syndrome: moonlighting ATM.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 20;13(12):1155-1172. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    b Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center , Tehran University of Medical Science , Tehran , Iran.
    Introduction: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) a multisystem disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. Identification of the gene defective in this syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM), and further characterization of the disorder together with a greater insight into the function of the ATM protein have expanded our knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. Area covered: In this review, we have attempted to summarize the different roles of ATM signaling that have provided new insights into the diverse clinical phenotypes exhibited by A-T patients. Read More

    Gain-of-function variants in NLRP1 protect against the development of diabetic kidney disease: NLRP1 inflammasome role in metabolic stress sensing?
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratório de Imunogenética, Departamento of Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Although inflammasome plays a well-known role in animal models of renal injury, limited studies in humans are available, and its participation in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains unknown. Aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of inflammasome genetics in the development of DKD in type-1 diabetes (T1D). The association of functional variants in inflammasome genes with DKD was assessed by multivariate analysis in a retrospective and in a prospective cohort. Read More

    Non-progressing cancer patients have persistent B cell responses expressing shared antibody paratopes that target public tumor antigens.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University, 269 Campus Dr., Stanford, CA 94063, USA. Electronic address:
    There is significant debate regarding whether B cells and their antibodies contribute to effective anti-cancer immune responses. Here we show that patients with metastatic but non-progressing melanoma, lung adenocarcinoma, or renal cell carcinoma exhibited increased levels of blood plasmablasts. We used a cell-barcoding technology to sequence their plasmablast antibody repertoires, revealing clonal families of affinity matured B cells that exhibit progressive class switching and persistence over time. Read More

    CD4(+) CD52(lo) T-cell expression contributes to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.
    The cell-surface glycoprotein CD52 is widely expressed in lymphocytes. CD4(+)CD52(hi) T cells are functioning suppressor CD4(+)T cells. We investigated the role of the immune regulation of CD4(+)CD52 T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read More

    Type I interferon pathway activation in COPA syndrome.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Clinica Pediatrica e Reumatologia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy. Electronic address:
    Mutations of the COPA gene cause an immune dysregulatory disease characterised by polyarticular arthritis and progressive interstitial lung disease with pulmonary haemorrhages. We report the case of a young girl that presented at age 3 with polyarticular arthritis, chronic cough and high titer rheumatoid factor. Radiologic imaging showed interstitial lung disease with tree-in-a-bud nodules and air-filled cysts. Read More

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: potential novel treatment strategies.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 20;13(12):1189-1197. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    a Department of Clinical & Translational Science , Creighton University School of Medicine , Omaha , NE , USA.
    Introduction: Periodontal diseases are polymicrobial inflammatory disorders of the tissue, ligament, and bone structures supporting teeth. Periodontitis (inflammation with corresponding loss of attachment) affects 40-50% of adults. Recently, members of the Triggering Receptor on Myeloid Cell (TREM) family have been studied to determine their relationship to these diseases. Read More

    Cell-bound complement activation products as lupus biomarkers: diagnosis, monitoring and stratification.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 6;13(12):1133-1142. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    a Lupus Center of Excellence , Autoimmunity Institute, Allegheny Health Network , Pittsburgh , PA , USA.
    Introduction: Cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) were first reported in 2004, since which time multiple laboratories have demonstrated their value as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Areas covered: This review summarizes the highlights of these 14 years of CB-CAPs discovery and validation, concluding with a view toward their future potential for precision medicine. Expert commentary: The practice of medicine is both art and science and each physician can be considered both artist and scientist with a variable blend of the two skill sets. Read More

    Autoimmunity in a cohort of 471 patients with primary antibody deficiencies.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 11;13(11):1099-1106. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    c Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of autoimmunity in primary antibody deficiency (PAD).

    Methods: A total of 471 patients with PADs enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. For all patients' demographic information, clinical records and laboratory data were collected to investigate autoimmune complications. Read More

    From pathogenesis to novel therapies in the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 9;13(12):1121-1131. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    b Program for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, International Center for Digestive Health, Department of Medicine and Surgery , University of Milano-Bicocca , Milan , Italy.
    Introduction: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an immune-mediated liver disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the intrahepatic bile ducts, causing progressive ductopenia, cholestasis and fibrosis, and leading to liver failure. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first-line therapy for the treatment of PBC patients. This is effective in majority of patients; however, up to 20 percent of patients have an incomplete response to UDCA therapy and have a reduced prognosis as compared to healthy individuals. Read More

    Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 23;13(12):1173-1188. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    a Chemical Injuries Research Center , Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Read More

    Immune function? A missing link in the gender disparity in preterm neonatal outcomes.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov;13(11):1061-1071
    a Neonatology , National Maternity Hospital , Dublin , Ireland.
    Introduction: In neonatology, males exhibit a more severe disease course and poorer prognosis in many pathological states when compared to females. Perinatal brain injury, respiratory morbidity, and sepsis, among other complications, preferentially affect males. Preterm neonates (born <37 weeks gestation) display a particularly marked sexual disparity in pathology, especially at the borders of viability. Read More

    Vaccination with a recombinant OprL fragment induces a Th17 response and confers serotype-independent protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 29;183:354-363. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China. Electronic address:
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the major causative agent of nosocomial infection. Despite of adequate use of antibiotics, it still represents a major challenge in controlling PA infection. The local pulmonary Th17 response plays an important protective role against PA infection. Read More

    The inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) modulates the inflammatory response and improves cutaneous wound healing.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    To analyze the participation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in skin repair, WT wounds were compared to those in 5-LO deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)), which presented faster closure and reduced inflammatory infiltrate in the skin, together with increased CD4 regulatory T cells markers in the draining lymph nodes. The 5-LO(-/-) wounds also had diminished TNF-α, CCL11, CCL7, CCL2, CXCL9, CCR1 and CXCR2 mRNA expression in the lesions, besides differential extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, when cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) and leukotriene (LTB4) receptors were antagonized in WT mice, there was a remarkable reduction in TNF-α expression and faster skin healing, similarly to the findings in 5-LO(-/-) animals. Read More

    Alterations of CCR5 and CCR7 expression on donor peripheral blood T cell subsets after mobilization with rhG-CSF correlate with acute graft-versus-host disease.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    To investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on chemokine receptors and explore the potential mechanism of rhG-CSF inducing immune tolerance, ninety-seven donor and recipient pairs undergoing family-donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were studied. The results indicated that different donors showed great disparities in expression changes after mobilization. Multivariate analysis revealed that both HLA mismatching and CCR7 downregulation on donors' CD4+ T cells after mobilization were independent risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Read More

    Chemokines as adjuvants for immunotherapy: implications for immune activation with CCL3.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 5;13(11):1049-1060. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    a Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery , Duke University Medical Center , Durham , NC , USA.
    Introduction: Immunotherapy embodies any approach that manipulates the immune system for therapeutic benefit. In this regard, various clinical trials have employed direct vaccination with patient-specific dendritic cells or adoptive T cell therapy to target highly aggressive tumors. Both modalities have demonstrated great specificity, an advantage that is unmatched by other treatment strategies. Read More

    Autoantibodies of IgM and IgG classes show differences in recognition of multiple autoantigens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 23;183:344-353. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    School of Life Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:
    Autoimmunity occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We describe an antigen microarray for detecting serum autoantibodies (AAbs) to determine how IgM, as well as IgG, AAbs distinguish patients with COPD from controls with a history of smoking without COPD. All COPD patients' sera contained elevated levels of AAbs to some of 30 autoantigens. Read More

    Circulating B cells in type 1 diabetics exhibit fewer maturation-associated phenotypes.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 23;183:336-343. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Although autoantibodies have been used for decades as diagnostic and prognostic markers in type 1 diabetes (T1D), further analysis of developmental abnormalities in B cells could reveal tolerance checkpoint defects that could improve individualized therapy. To evaluate B cell developmental progression in T1D, immunophenotyping was used to classify circulating B cells into transitional, mature naïve, mature activated, and resting memory subsets. Then each subset was analyzed for the expression of additional maturation-associated markers. Read More

    Standardized whole blood stimulation improves immunomonitoring of induced immune responses in multi-center study.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 22;183:325-335. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Center for Translational Research, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; INSERM U1223, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; Department of Cancer Immunology, Genentech Inc., San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:
    Functional immune responses are increasingly important for clinical studies, providing in depth biomarker information to assess immunotherapy or vaccination. Incorporating functional immune assays into routine clinical practice has remained limited due to challenges in standardizing sample preparation. We recently described the use of a whole blood syringe-based system, TruCulture®, which permits point-of-care standardized immune stimulation. Read More

    Multiple sclerosis treatment effects on plasma cytokine receptor levels.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Centrum for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Genetic variants within some cytokine receptor genes have been associated with MS susceptibility, including IL7RA and IL2RA. As these genes are expressed by cells targeted by immune-modulatory drugs, we explored the potential role of their gene products as biomarkers in monitoring MS treatment. We assessed the impact of natalizumab followed by fingolimod on the intra-individual changes of plasma protein levels of sIL-7Rα, sIL-2Rα and also sIL-6R and sgp130 in MS patients. Read More

    Natural and induced immunization against CCL20 ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalitis and may confer protection against multiple sclerosis.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 20;183:316-324. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Goldyne Savad Institute of Gene Therapy, Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel; Biokine Therapeutics Ltd, Ness Ziona, Israel.
    Th-17 type immune response that occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) is linked to CCR6-CCL20 interaction. We confirmed the dependency on CCR6 in EAE development. Vaccination of mice with hCCL20, but not mCCL20, produced anti-murine CCL20 and ameliorated EAE. Read More

    CAR T cell immunotherapy in hematology and beyond.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    University Children's Hospital Muenster, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:
    Chimeric T cell receptors (CARs) combine extracellular antigen recognition domains and T cell activation components in single molecules. CAR gene transfer thereby allows to generate T cells with engineered specificities. The translational development of CAR-based T cell therapies is most advanced in B cell cancers where CAR-engineered T cells against the B lineage antigen CD19 have generated impressive results in early clinical trials. Read More

    Interstitial lung disease in the connective tissue diseases; a paradigm shift in diagnosis and treatment.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States. Electronic address:
    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the connective tissue diseases (CTD) is amongst the most challenging aspect of care of patients with rheumatic diseases and is the source of significant morbidity and mortality. While there has been progress in our understanding of the natural history of these complications, we still suffer from a limited reservoir of data to confidently determine which patients are at highest risk for disease and those who are at highest risk for disease progression. Treatment options until recently have been limited to anti-inflammatory therapies but with the emerging availability of anti-fibrotic therapies, a shift in strategy is emerging to target therapies based on the specific radiographic, histopathologic features and biomarker profiles that are unique to patients with rheumatic diseases and ILD. Read More

    Peripheral blood monocytes reveal an activated phenotype in pediatric uveitis.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Muenster, Germany.
    Objective: To characterize peripheral blood monocytes in uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIAU).

    Methods: Peripheral blood monocytes from children with JIA (either with (n=18) or without uveitis (n=11)), idiopathic anterior uveitis (IAU; n=12) and healthy controls (n=11) were analyzed by flow cytometry.

    Results: Percentage of CD14+CD86+ monocytes and CD86 expression on single cell level were significantly higher in all patient groups than in controls, whereas no major differences existed between patient groups. Read More

    Antibodies against citrullinated alpha enolase peptides in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 14;183:300-303. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Citrullinated alpha enolase (CEP-1) has been designated as a major antigenic target of antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim is to determine the prevalence of anti-CEP-1 in a cohort of ACPA positive (ACPA+) primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) patients. Anti-CEP1 titers were determined by ELISA in sera from 15 ACPA+ and 45 ACPA- age/sex matched pSS; 12 ACPA+ RA patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Read More

    Depressed serum IgM levels in SLE are restricted to defined subgroups.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 15;183:304-315. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Natural IgM autoantibodies have been proposed to convey protection from autoimmune pathogenesis. Herein, we investigated the IgM responses in 396 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, divided into subgroups based on distinct autoantibody profiles. Depressed IgM levels were more common in SLE than in matched population controls. Read More

    Severe Toxoplasma gondii infection in a member of a NFKB2-deficient family with T and B cell dysfunction.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 14;183:273-277. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    University Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Childrens' Hospital Bambino Gesù, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

    Long term outcomes of severe combined immunodeficiency: therapy implications.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 23;13(11):1029-1040. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    b Allergy Immunology and Blood and Marrow Transplant Division , University of California San Francisco, Benioff Children's Hospital , San Francisco , CA , USA.
    Introduction: Newborn screening has led to a better understanding of the prevalence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) overall and in terms of specific genotypes. Survival has improved following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) with the best outcomes seen following use of a matched sibling donor. However, questions remain regarding the optimal alternative donor source, appropriate use of conditioning and the impact of these decisions on immune reconstitution and other late morbidities. Read More

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